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AREA OF STUDY 03:

TEXTURE AND
MELODY
MELODY
AQA GCSE Music
AREAS OF STUDY
AoS 01: Rhythm and Metre
AoS 02: Harmony and Tonality
A0S 03: Texture and Melody
AoS 04: Dynamics and Timbre
AoS 05: Structure and Form
MELODY
What is meant by Melody?

A melody is a rhythmically organised pattern of single notes
arranged in succession, one after the other. In melody the
notes are arranged horizontally (whereas in harmony that are
arranged vertically)
Or..THE TUNE
MELODY
Counter Melody A second, less important tune to support the
main melody
Pitch how high or low the note is
Scale a group of notes played in ascending or descending
order
MELODY CONTINUED
Interval The gap in pitch between two notes






Arpeggio Playing the notes of a chord one by one (bit like a
broken chord)

Perfect
Perfect

CONJUNCT, DISJUNCT,
TRIADIC AND SCALIC

These are all different kinds of melodic note patterns.
Conjunct notes in the melody move mainly by step (they are mostly
next to each other in pitch)
Disjunct moves mainly by leaps (big intervals between the notes)
Triadic the melody begins by using notes that belong to the triad (of
chord) e.g. C E G (C Chord)
Scalic melody that is made up of notes that follow the order of a
particular scale
DIFFERENT SCALES
Pentatonic scale a five note scale. Often used in Chinese,
African and Celtic Folk melodies
Whole Tone Scale a scale made up of only whole tones. E.g.
C, D, E, F#, G#, A#
Chromatic Scale scale made up of semitones
Passing notes are the notes in between the notes of the
accompanying chord.
Blue notes the flattened notes in a Blues Scale. Often slide up
or down to these notes. They make a piece sound bluesy.
e.g. - C, Bb, G, Gb, F, Eb, C
MELODY CONTINUED



Sequence when a tune is repeated a step higher (ascending
sequence) or a step lower (descending sequence).

Pitch bend bending the note on a guitar or any string instrument/voice
or keyboard/synthesizer.
REPETITION
3 Words for same meaning just use the correct word for the
style of music
Ostinato Classical

Riff Popular music

Loop Electronic/technology based music



ORNAMENTATION



This is about decorating parts of the melody
Trills 2 notes that are next to each other played rapidly
57 seconds
and beyond,
shows Trills
being used.
All
instruments
perform trills,
especially in
Baroque
Music
Video 02


CONTINUED

Double Stopping -
This is when 2 notes are played at the same time (Two strings at the same time). This is term only
applies to string instruments.
1 Min 20 Secs shows an
example of Double
Stopping
There is extensive use of
this throughout the piece
1 Min 8 Secs
Pizzicato, followed by
staccato bowed
Video 03



TREMOLO
Another string effect, means, trembling or quivering
Rapid up-and-down movements of the bow on the strings, creating
an agitated or shimmering effect
Listen and look at
the opening to
Bruckner
Symphony 9
The Strings open
the piece, using a
Tremolo effect. Very
short bowing, but
very fast to capture
that shimmering
effect.
Video 5
GLISSANDO
Glissando (instruments)/ Portamento (voice) sliding between 2
notes.
Rhapsody in
Blues
Listen to the
Slide at the
start by the
Clarinet just
after the trill
look at video of the
guitar playing a
melody. It focusses
mainly on using
Glissandos (slides)
ARTICULATION

Articulation how the notes are played:
Staccato short, detached notes (Spikey)



Legato notes are played attached, smoothly
Sometimes
indicated by a
slur
Staccato
Non-Staccato
(Legato)
Legato Played Staccato
ARTICULATION CONT.

Pizzicato Short, plucked notes on a stringed instrument

This example
shows extensive
use of Pizzicato
Video 01
Con Arco
Simply
means,
use of Bow
MELODY CONT.
Phrase a musical sentence (where youd naturally take a
breath). Often 2, 4 or 8 bars long. Indicated by a curved line
above the stave.
Improvisation when a player makes the music up on the spot.
In jazz/blues/pop players will often improvise a solo
commonly on a guitar/sax/trumpet/keyboard.