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How to Do a Science Investigatory

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Edited 10 weeks ago
Science Investigatory Project or SIP is a well know project on science. It is like Science
Fair. You will have to make an experiment and present it in Science Fair. Others say, it
is just making an experiment but actually there are a lot of procedures. This article will
tell you the steps in making a SIP.
Get an idea. All of the following steps will base on your idea. Make sure it doesn't break
any rule or else you might get disqualified. You can search for it if you don't have any
Form a title. Usually titles are in a form of a question. This are examples. The question
can start in how, does and many other.
Does temperature affect the growth of molds?
Does salt affect the density of water?
Research your idea. You have to know your idea more. You can do this by reading,
surfing the Internet or discussing it. Knowing your idea more will help you construct your
Form a hypothesis. Hypothesis will be your prediction in the idea that you choose. You
don't need to research for this. You just have to guess. Make sure it is accurate and
Plan your experiment. Your experiment will confirm your hypothesis. Make sure the
experiment will answers or really confirms the hypothesis.
Plan your materials. You will need on your experiment. Make sure they are easy to
buy and cheap. As much as possible, plan materials that is already in your house.
Test your experiment. Use the steps that you have planed. If all else fails try a
different step or a different material. If you really want to win the science fair, this will be
a big step for you.
Observe the result. Sometimes it is in a form of a graph but it depends on your work.
You can write it in a journal so you can review it.
Have a conclusion. Now that you have confirmed your hypothesis, it's time to write a
conclusion. You can answer the question in your title. You may also tell if your
hypothesis is correct or not. Again, make sure it is accurate and clear.



I. Content
Apply/demonstrate scientific principles or attempt to provide new knowledge;
Be a result of continuing or parallel scientific research and investigation & not a copy
of any previous research;
Have socio-economic significance and relevance to livelihood development; and
Contribute to the advancement of S&T and the development of the community.
II. Physical Set-up/Visual Display
The physical set-up must be attractive and informative. Interested spectators and judges
should easily asses the study and the results obtained. Use clear and concise displays. Make
headings stand-out, draw graphs and diagrams clearly and label them correctly. A one-page
project abstract must be posted in one corner of the booth. Be sure to adhere to the size
limitations and safety rules when preparing the display.
The maximum size of project display must be:
76 cm (30 inches) deep
122 cm (48 inches) wide
183 cm (40 inches) high excluding table
A Sample Diagram of a Science Fair Display

Fair organizers shall provide the participants with one (1) table & two (2) chairs to
participants during the division & regional science fair. At the national level, each finalist
shall be provided with a display booth with size not exceeding 1.5 m by 1.5 m including
backboard, 1 table & 2 chairs.

1. Living organisms, including plants
2. Human or animal food
3. Human/animal parts or body fluids (for example, blood, urine)
4. Preserved vertebrate or invertebrate animals
5. Plant materials (living, dead or preserved) which are in their raw, unprocessed or
non-manufactured state
6. Laboratory/household chemicals
7. Poisons, drugs, hazardous substances or devices
8. Dry ice or other sublimating solids
9. Sharp items (for example, syringes, needles, knives)
10. Flames or highly flammable materials
11. Batteries with open-top cells
12. Photographs depicting vertebrate animals in surgical techniques, dissections,
improper handling methods and improper housing conditions
13. Glasswares
14. Computer units & peripherals
Prototype or model for technology projects maybe displayed but within allotted space for
each project only.
III. Abstract
Should consist of short, concise descriptions of the problem & its solution. It must be
typewritten in the IPSF Official Abstract Form, one page only, single-spaced with a
maximum of 250 words, in Times Roman style, font
The abstract must state the following:
1. Purpose
2. Procedure Used
3. Results
4. Conclusion
IV. Research Paper
The research paper for an IPSF entry should contain the following:
a. Problem/s
b. Objectives
c. Methods & Procedures (described in detail)
d. Results
e. Conclusions and Recommendations
f. Bibliography (at least 3 major references)
Ethics Statement. Scientific fraud and misconduct are not condoned at any level of
research or competition. Plagiarism, use or presentation of other researcher's work as
one's own forgery of approval signature and fabrication or falsification of data will not be
tolerated. Fraudulent projects will fail to qualify for the competition.

III. Format of Research Paper
The project write-up must be typewritten double-spaced in short bond paper (8x11) and
follows the following format:
Title Page title of the project must be brief, simple and catchy.
Abstract - should consist of short, concise descriptions of the problem & its solution.
It must be one page only, single-spaced with a maximum of 250 words, typewritten
in Times Roman style; font 11. It must also state the following:
a. Purpose
b. Procedure used
c. Results
d. Conclusion

Acknowledgement contains the names of people & agencies that helped in the
conduct of the work described.
Table of Contents lists the different parts of the whole report with the
corresponding page number of each part. The wording & grammar of the chapter
titles, heading & title of tables & figures should be consistent.
Introduction informs the reader of the problem under study. It shows the nature
of scope and the problem, its historical & theoretical background & a review of
literature relevant to the problem.
a. Background of the Study- states the rationale of the study. It explains
briefly why the investigator chose this study to work on.
b. Statement of Problem/Objectives the nature & scope of the problem
should be presented with clarity. Two types of objectives maybe stated:

1. General Objective this is related to the problem as given in the
early part of the section.
2. Specific Objective this states the purpose of each experiment

c. Significance of the Study- the importance of the study is explained in this
d. Scope and Limitations states the coverage & extent of the study.
e. Review of Related Literature sufficient background information should be
presented for readers to understand & evaluate the results of the present
study. Only the most important studies and theories written on the topic
should be included.
Methodology provides enough details so that a competent worker can repeat the

a. Materials/Equipment the exact technical specifications, quantities and
source of method of preparation for all materials used should be given.
Specifically built equipment used in the study must be described and the
description accompanied
by a picture.
b. Treatment/General Procedure the manner & sequence by which each
experiment or set of observations were done & how measurements were
obtained should be described in detail. Avoid using the recipe style when
stating the step-by-step procedure. Use the narrative form in the past tense.

Results and Discussion this maybe divided into sub-sections describing each set
experiment or observations.

a. Findings the data maybe presented in full & discussed descriptively in the
text or these maybe summarized in tables, pictures & graphs. The statistical
test used to determine the possible significance of the finding should be
described. Tables, pictures & graphs should make the presentation of the data
more meaningful.
b. Analysis of Data the interpretation of the findings are discussed & the
significant features shown in the table, figures or graphs are pointed out.
Ethics Statement. Scientific fraud and misconduct is not condoned at any level of
research or competition. Plagiarism, use or presentation of other researcher's
work as one's own and fabrication or falsification of data will not be tolerated.
Fraudulent projects are disqualified for the competition.

Conclusions the general truth implied or illustrated by the results should be
clearly stated. The evidence based on the results should be summarized for each
Recommendations consists of suggestions on future actions such as a new
direction of research or further experiments to be performed, practices that might be
adapted or discarded in order to attain certain goals or objectives.
Bibliography a list of the references used in guiding the research work and
writing the paper.
Steps in Making an Investigatory Project
1. Select a Topic.
The first step in making an investigatory project is selecting a topic to research on. If you are making an
investigatory project in Chemistry, you may select the topic about a new substance in making soaps.

Using fruits as batteries - an example of an investigatory project. Photo by Flickr user hans.

After selecting the topic, narrow down your research into something that you are interested in. For
example, you might be interested in using different plants in making soaps. Papaya has been proven to
make skin look younger. Find something that interests you.

2. Make a Research Question and Title
Now that you have your topic, you should now create your Research Question. Your research question is
something that you want to test. Something that intrigues you and you want to find out the correct answer.

A sample research question might be, "Can I make an antibacterial soap using guava leaves?".

If this is your question, then the title for your Investigatory Project is Using Guava Leaves in Making an
Antibacterial Soap.

Explore other questions that also interest you. Remember that you must make a scientific inquiry. That
means the question or topic can be answered objectively and not through opinions only.

3. Design the Experiments and Procedures
Now that you want to find out if guava leaves can be made into an antibacterial soap, you have to design
experiments so that you can answer your research question.

One experiment might be making soap and adding guava leaves extract to it. You will then test the soap
and a standard commercial soap if it can kill bacteria found in a piece of cloth.

In designing the experiments, you have to make a list of the steps to be carried out. You have to make
the procedures by your self or with your group mates.

4. Write the Abstract of the Project
An abstract is a short explanation of what your investigatory project is all about. Here are some examples
of abstracts from Filipino students:

This study primary focuses in proving Papaya extract as substitute for meat tenderizer.
The researcher uses green papaya fruit (unripe) and meat. These primary materials are readily available
in the market.

Each meat is soaked for 10 minutes in water and papaya extract solution with a concentration of 1:6,
1:1:2, 1:1:8, 1:2:4, and 1:3 respectively. The meat boiled for another 10 minutes. The respondents rated
the meat to their score sheets (Hedonic Scale), they were satisfied of the right concentration of papaya
extracts and rated it as super good.

With the right and precise concentration of the papaya extract, the meat has been tenderized. This proves
the Papaya extract can be a substitute to meat tenderizer.

Source: Gian Paul Giron

5. Conduct the Experiments
Using the procedures you have made in step 3, conduct your experiments and record all data in your
observation. Include also those things that happened and you think are interesting.

6. Write a Research Paper
A research paper is the formal document of your investigatory project. It will be used when you present
your investigatory project to your teacher or a set of panelist. You can even present it to an international
group of scientists.

The Research Paper may contain the following:
1. Title of the Project
2. Statement of the Problem
3. General and Specific Objectives
4. Procedures or Methodology
5. List of Materials and Equipment
6. Results of the Experiments in the form of graphs and tables
7. Analysis of the Data
8. Conclusion
9. Recommendations

A guide in making a research paper will be published in this website soon. I will update this article as
soon as it is published.

7. Create a Visual Aid
Make a collection of pictures of the experiment, charts and graphs relevant to the Investigatory Project.

Those are the steps in making a scientific investigatory project.

Good luck and may you discover something new!
Source: http://www.pinoytechnoguide.com/2012/12/how-to-make-investigatory-project.html by Pinoy
Techno Guide

Parts of the Science Investigatory
Project Report

Science Investigatory Project
Doing an investigatory project considers as a major achievement of any students in
Science. Through scientific investigation, they learn how to apply the acquired knowledge, scientific
concepts, theories, principles and laws of nature. They can use their higher-order process or
thinking skills in conducting a research. Let us provide you a brief description of the parts of the
Science Investigatory Project Report below.
The Title should be clear and precise. It has an objective or purpose. It should not be written too
long or too short. By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all
The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only. It includes your research problems, the method
or procedure that you used and the findings or conclusion of the study.
Chapter I
1. Introduction and Its Background
The Introduction is about one page only wherein it includes the background of the study and its
rationale. It usually leads into the research problem.
2. Statement of the Problem
The Statement of the Problem has two categories namely: the general problem and specific
problems. Usually, one general problem and three specific problems which derived from the general
problem. The research problems should be specific, reliable,valid, measurable, objectively stated. It
can be a question form or in a declarative statement.
3. Formulation of the Hypothesis
The Formulation of the Hypothesis has two types namely: the null hypothesis and affirmative
hypothesis. Hypotheses is a scientific guess which intends subject for thorough investigation. It is
recommended to use null hypothesis in your research project.
4. Significant of the Study
The Significant of the Study indicates how important is your investigatory project for the people,
environment and community as a whole. It is really relevant in the changing world or global impact
into the field of technology.
5. Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The Scope and Delimitation of the Study covers the range of your research. It includes the period of
research, the materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study,
the procedure and the statistical treatment to be used.
6. Definition of Terms
The Definition of Terms has two types: the Dictionary-derived definitions and the Operational
definitions which derived from how these terms were used in your research.
Chapter II
Review of Related Literature and Studies
Related Literature
The Related Literature are statements taken from science books, journals, magazines, newspapers
and any documents from authorized scientists, Science experts or well-known Science agencies.
These statements can support your study through their concepts, theories, principles and
laws. Footnoting is important on this part.
Related Studies
The Related Studies are those researches which may be local and foreign studies who can attribute to
your research or can support your investigation scientifically. Footnoting is also important on this
Chapter III
Methodology has several parts namely: the subject of the study, the procedure and the statistical
1. The Subject of the Study
The Subject of the Study includes your population and the sample. It applies the sampling
techniques to obtain a good sample of the study. Your sample should be valid and reliable.
2. The Procedure
The Procedure is the step by step and systematic process of doing your research. It includes the
materials with right amount of measurements, the appropriate equipment to be used in doing the
scientific investigation. It consists of several trials with control variables, independent variables and
dependent variables. Gathering of data is essential in any kind of research. It is recommended to
use control and experimental set-ups to arrive at valid conclusion.
3. The Statistical Treatment
The Statistical Treatment comes in various ways. It can be mean, median, mode, percentage, Chi-
square, standard deviation, T-test, Pearson r, Spearman rank or Anova I or Anova II. It is
recommended to use T-test in any experimental research.
Chapter IV
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
1. Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
The data gathered should be presented in order to be analyzed. It may be presented in two forms
namely: through table or graph. You may use both of them if you want to clearly figure out your
data. A table has labels with quantity, description and units of measurement. Graph has several
types namely the line graph, bar graph, pie graph and pictograph. Choose what type of graph that
you prefer to use. Analyze the data that had been gathered, presented in table or graph
scientifically. You interpret the data according to what had been quantified and measured. The
numerical data should be interpreted clearly in simple and descriptive statements.
2. Results
Results show the findings or outcomes of your investigation. The result must be based according to
the interpreted data.
Chapter V
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
1. Summary
The Summary briefly summarizes your research from Chapter I to Chapter IV which includes the
research problems, methodology and findings. It consists of one or two paragraphs only.
2. Conclusion
The Conclusion is the direct statement based on findings or results. It should answer your hypothesis
and research problems.
3. Recommendation
The Recommendation is given based on your conclusion. You may give few recommendations which
you think can help the fellow Science students, researchers, consumers or the entire community
where people live in.
How to Make Investigatory Project
By makmak503 | September 2010
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How To Make An Investigatory Project
Sample Format:

# Abstract

After finishing the research and experimentation, you are required to write a (maximum)
250-word, one-page abstract. An abstract includes the a) purpose of the experiment, b)
procedures used, c) data and d) conclusions. It also includes any possible research
applications. The abstract should focus on work done since the last fair. # Research Paper

A research paper should be prepared and available along with a project data book, and any
necessary forms or relevant written materials. A research paper helps organize data as well
as thoughts. A good paper includes the following sections:

1. Title page - title of the project must be brief, simple and catchy 2. Statement of
problems/objectives - the nature & scope of the problem should be presented with clarity.
Two types of objectives may stated: 1. General Objective - this is related to the problem as
given in the early part of the section 2. Specific Objective - this states the purpose of each
experiment conducted. 3. Methodology - provides enough details so that a competent
worker can repeat the experiments 3. Materials/Equipment - the exact technical
specifications, quantities and source of method of preparation for all materials used should
be given. Specifically, built equipment used in the study must be described and the
description accompanied by a picture 4. Treatment/General Procedure - the manner &
sequence by which each experiment or set of observations were done & how
measurements were obtained should be described in detail. Avoid using the "recipe style"
when stating the step-by-step procedure. Use the narrative form in the past tense. 4.
Results and discussion - this may be divided into sub-sections describing each set of
experiment or observations. 5. Findings - the data maybe presented in full & discussed
descriptively in the test or these maybe summarized...

Basic Education Reaps Awards in Science
Fair, Visayas Debate
Thursday, Sep 18 3:25 PM
Students from the Elementary and High School Departments won in their respective competitions held in Dumaguete
and Cebu last week.
During the Division Science Fair held September 11 to 12 in Dumaguete, two science investigatory projects by
students from the School of Basic Education won first place.
"An Investigative Comparison on Heating Value and
Combustion Gas Composition of Sacharumofficinarum Leaves and Oryza sativa Hulls Charcoal," by High School
student Jude Martin Amiscaray, won in the Individual Study in the Physical Science Category.
From the Elementary Department, "Oil Absorption of Taro Leaves as Remedy for Oil Spill," by Marc Kyle Maxino, Ken
Shiraishi and Martin Kho, also won first in the Team Study in the Life Science Category.
Second place was awarded for the following projects:
(Science Investigatory Project) "Determining the Toxicity of Local Rivers through Bioassay," by High School
seniors Denise Gumahad, Ma. Chiera Patrice Magallano and Kennedy Quigg
Elementary Level Trash-to-Fashion entry of Leira Camille Ronato, Belle Kate Cual and Chuche Montenegro,
Maika Lano and Matthew Ivan Ariston Teves III. Their model, Ronato, was adjudged Female Model.
Silliman also ranked third in these categories:
High School Level Trash-to-Fashion, with seniors Euclid Uy, Rae Lubguban, Kyana Tayko and Jason
Patrick Lagahit. Their model, Tayko, won Third Best Female Model.
Seventh Graders Science Trivia, with MJ Simon Orbeta
Elementary Level: Grade 3 to 4 Category Science Quiz Bowl, with Mark Vincent Enojo and Celeste Dan
Meanwhile, in the Speak Up: Visayas Schools Debating Championship held September 12 to 14 at the University of
the Philippines-Cebu, Amiscaray was also adjudged third best speaker in the Visayas.
He and his teammate, Gian Carlo Sanglay, were also the team that was ranked first among 32 teams that advanced
into the final series. This ranking was taken from total number of points that the debate teams garnered in all five
preliminary rounds.
Both Amiscaray and Sanglay also moved up to the championship round. They debated on the motion: Assuming the
discovery of another habitable earth-like planet with a carrying capacity that cannot accommodate majority of the
earth's population, this house believes that humanity should not abandon earth until its end. The winner was
Springdale High School.
The other debaters from Silliman were Azel Amada, Micah Edem, Andrey Solera, Gerald Araco, Carissa Araco, Ann
Bernadette Ramon, Nikita Cordova, Jeya Baylosis, Fretzie Aranas and Kent Michael Jugador.


The investigatory processPresentation Transcript
1. Ways of Acquiring Knowledge and Solving Problems
2. Learning Objectives:Learning Objectives: Identify the component of an investigatory process.
Describe what is meant by fair test. Recognize that the design of an investigation should show fair
3. Something to Ponder The formulation of the problem is often more essential than its solution,
which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. Albert Einstein
4. Biblical Integration A simple man believes anything, but a prudent man gives thought to his
steps. Proverbs 14:13
5. What is a Fair Test?What is a Fair Test? An investigation where only one factor is changed while
all others are kept the same (controlled). This way, the changes are due only to the thing we want to
test. e.g. if testing the effect of amount of light on growth of seedlings, keep everything else the
same e.g. type of soil, amount of water, temperature, length of time grown etc.
6. Variables The things that can change in an experiment are called variables. e.g. in the seedling
experiment, variables were amount of light, amount of water, temp, soil type.
7. There are different types of variables in a fair test: Independent variable: the thing that is
changed on purpose Dependent variable: the thing that is measured Controlled variables: all
other changeable factors that must be kept the same to ensure a fair test
8. Question Independent Variable (What I change) Dependent Variables (What I observe) Controlled
Variables (What I keep the same) How much water flows through a tap at different openings? Tap
opening (closed, half open, fully open) Amount of water flowing measured in litres per minute - tap -
water pressure, or how much the water is "pushing" Does heating a cup of water allow it to dissolve
more sugar? Temperature of the water measured in degrees Centigrade Amount of sugar that
dissolves completely measured in grams - stirring - type of sugar Does fertilizer make a plant grow
bigger? Amount of fertilizer measured in grams Growth of the plant measured by its height AND /
OR Growth of the plant measured by the number of leaves Same size pot for each plant Same
type of plant in each pot Same type and amount of soil in each pot Same amount of water and light
Make measurements of growth for each plant at the same time
Preliminary Data Formulating the Hypothesis Testing the Hypothesis Analysing the Data
Drawing Conclusion Writing the Research Report Doing an Investigatory Project
10. Thinking about a practical problem motivates a research question which defines a research
problem which finds a research answer which helps to solve the practical problem. A question
raised for inquiry, consideration or solution. Statement about an area of concern Condition to be
improved Difficulty to be eliminated, or a troubling question that exists Points to the need for
meaningful understanding and deliberate investigation. Does not specifically state how to do
something Does not offer a vague or broad proposition Does not present a bias
statement/question. The greatest challenge to any thinker is stating the problem in a way that will
allow a solution. Bertrand Russell British author, mathematician, & philosopher (1872 - 1970)
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-based
11. The necessity to be prepared before heading to the field! Find out about what you want to
investigate. Read books, articles, journals, magazines or ask professionals to learn about the effect
or area of study. Keep track of where you got your information from. Data-collection methods are
the identification of the broad problem area, preliminary information gathering, especially through
unstructured and structured interviews and literature survey and problem definition.
12. Formulating a hypothesis or educated guess helps by defining an initial explanation to be
tested in the research process. Suggest a causal relationship involve at least one independent
variable and at least one dependent variable; in other words, one variable which is presumed to
affect the other. Null hypothesis vs. Alternative hypothesis It is expressed verbally or in writing
and states a theory regarding an if-blank-then-blank situation. Understand the scope of study:
while a hypothesis is usually used for studying the sciences, it is not limited to those disciplines.
13. Design an experiment to test each hypothesis. Make a step-by-step list of what you will do to
answer each question. This list is called an experimental procedure or specific aims. Variables-
things that can change in an experiment are called variables. Independent variable: the thing that
is changed on purpose (what you change for a purpose) Dependent variable: the thing that is
measured (what you observe for occurrences of changes) Controlled variables: all other
changeable factors that must be kept the same to ensure a fair test (what you keep the same)
14. Interpreting the meaning of the data we have collected, organized Displayed in the form of a
table, bar chart, line graph, or other representation. Looking for patternssimilarities, disparities,
trends, and other relationshipsand thinking about what these patterns might mean. The ability to
make inferences and predictions based on data is a critical skill students need to develop.
15. Using the trends in your experimental data and your experimental observations, try to answer
your original questions. Is your hypothesis correct? Now is the time to pull together what happened,
and assess the experiments you did. Other things you can mention in the conclusion: If your
hypothesis is not correct, what could be the answer to your question? Summarize any difficulties or
problems you had doing the experiment. Do you need to change the procedure and repeat your
experiment? What would you do different next time? List other things you learned
16. Aim is to write clearly and concisely about your research topic so that the reader can easily
understand the purpose and results of your research. General framework: Introduction
Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Significance of the Study Scope and
Limitation of the Study Review of Literature and Conceptual Framework Review of Literature
Conceptual Framework Hypothesis Definition of Terms Methodology Results and Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation SAMPLE 1 SAMPLE 2 FORMAT
17. Content Apply/demonstrate scientific principles or attempt to provide new knowledge Be a
result of continuing or parallel scientific research and investigation & not a copy of any previous
research; Have socio-economic significance and relevance to livelihood development; and
Contribute to the advancement of S&T and the development of the community. Physical Set-
up/Visual Display Attractive and informative. Interested spectators and judges should easily
asses the study and the results obtained. Use clear and concise displays. Make headings stand-
out, draw graphs and diagrams clearly and label them correctly. A one-page project abstract must
be posted in one corner of the booth. Be sure to adhere to the size limitations and safety rules when
preparing the display.
Earth and environmental science encompass a large number of topics, such as rocks and minerals,
layers of the Earth, the atmosphere and alternative energy. This means that a large number of
science projects that can be done in these areas. The projects here can be used as either classroom
explorations or as science fair projects in earth science or environmental science.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/info_7922990_science-ideas-earth-environmental-science.html

1. Erosion
o The topic of erosion straddles both earth science and environmental science. Demonstrate
one aspect of erosion with this project. Take samples of several types of rock, such as
limestone, sandstone and granite. Fill a plastic water bottle around half full of water, drop
your rock samples into the bottle and put the lid on. Place the bottle in the freezer until the
water has frozen. Remove the bottle and let the water thaw. Shake the bottle for one or two
minutes and then put it back in the freezer to freeze. Repeat this process four or five times.
When finished, pour off the water and remove the rock samples. Note which ones have
eroded the most. What does this tell you about each type of rock?
Make Acid Rain
o Smoke and other pollutants in the air can cause rain to become acidic, so that when it falls
to earth it can damage plants and animals. You can demonstrate how this occurs through a
science project. You will need some acid-base (pH) indicator paper. Take a small jar and fill
it with water. Pour the water out. Test the water by touching the pH paper to the side of the
jar and note down the pH. Hold the jar upside down over a dish to catch water drips. Have
an adult light a match and blow it out, and then quickly place it inside the jar. Wait a few
minutes and then test the water stuck to the sides of the jar with the pH paper. It should
now be more acidic from the effects of the smoke.
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Oil Spill Clean Up
o This project demonstrates an important aspect of environmental science -- how to clean up
messes caused by human activity. Place samples of several rocks into a disposable pie plate,
together with some feathers, sand, swatches of fake fur and leaves. Pour a small amount of
motor oil over everything. Now, try to clean the oil off using different materials. You can use
dish washing detergent, sponges, cotton balls, hand soap and paint thinner. Note which
works better on each material and which materials were the most difficult to clean.
Sponge Rock
o One of the main engines of erosion, and a part of the water cycle, is the way that water
moves through rocks. Use this earth science project to explore how water moves through the
natural pores in rocks, and which rocks are the most porous. Use samples of different types
of common rock, such as chalk (calcium carbonate), pumice and granite. Weigh each sample
of rock and record the weights. Place each sample in a cup of water. Remove the samples
after five minutes and weigh them. Record the weights. Repeat this every five minutes for
one hour. You can determine the amount of water that each rock absorbed using the
information that 1 milliliter (ml) of water weighs 1 gram. So, if a rock gained 2 grams of
weight, it absorbed 2 ml of water.
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Read more : http://www.ehow.com/info_7922990_science-ideas-earth-environmental-science.html
As elementary students work to build a base of scientific knowledge, they commonly complete
simple science experiments. The purpose of these experiments is not as much to unearth scientific
knowledge as it is to teach them the experimentation process. When guiding elementary school
students through a science experiment, ensure that they understand the steps they must complete
for success and that they stay safe while completing them.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/how_7733080_conduct-science-experiment-elementary-kids.html
o 1
Seek an experimental topic that will be of interest to students. Experiments with things like
candy or toilet paper generally prove compelling to elementary students and as such are a
wise experimental topic choice.
o 2
Select materials that pose no danger to students. Though your students will likely
experiment with chemicals later in their science study, elementary school students are often
too inexperienced to exercise the proper precautions when working with substances of these
sorts. To prevent potential injury, use non-toxic substances like water, sugar and salt
whenever possible.
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o 3
Demonstrate steps before asking students to complete them. Don't show students the
outcome of the experiment, but do show them what you intend for them to do. This makes it
much easier for elementary school students to follow the steps required for successful
experiment completion.
o 4
Divide students into groups. By placing students in groups instead of asking them to
complete experiments independently, you can ensure that each science student has
someone to fall back on should she get confused as to what she needs to do.
o 5
Assign group members' roles. Elementary school students work best in groups if they are
given specific roles. Assign one student the role of reporter, and ask her to record the
information gathered in the experiment. Assign another student the role of conductor, and
ask him to actually carry out the experiment. Assign a third student the role of checker and
ask her to check the experiment steps to ensure they don't deviate. When assigning these
roles, consider student ability, or assign them randomly.
o 6
Engage them in the creation of a hypothesis before they begin the experiment. Ask students
to make and jot down an educated guess as to how the experimental results will fall before
they begin. This hypothesis doesn't have to be highly formal, like the ones they will develop
in later science study, but can instead be informal and rudimentary, as it is just an early
attempt at hypothesis creation.
o 7
Assist students in composing a simple experimental report after they have finished the
experiment. Instruct students to work together to write their report and include basic
sections like a materials list, procedure section, data section and conclusion in which they
explain where their hypothesis was proven or disproven.
o 8
Allow students to share their findings. Give each group the chance to present, allowing them
to take pride in their scientific exploration.

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Teaching primary science involves planning and preparation to create an effective, hands-on
curriculum. By engaging the kids in interactive projects, you give them the opportunity to explore
basic science concepts and relate them to the world. A balance of activities makes the teaching
approach more effective for students with different learning styles.

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o 1
Outline the topics you'll teach the primary school students. Refer to the curriculum
guidelines or the primary science textbook if you're using one. List the main topic and the
subtopics under each one. Refer to this outline as you plan the specific activities for each
o 2
Create a time line for the teaching topics. Determine how much time you need for each
chapter. Refer to the school year calendar to pencil in approximate dates for each part of the
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o 3
Write the goals or expected outcomes for each chapter. This will include what the primary
students should understand about the concept and what they will do to demonstrate an
understanding. It might include completing a particular science task, taking a written test or
verbally explaining the concept. Keep these goals in mind as you plan the activities.
o 4
Plan an introductory activity for each chapter or concept. A demonstration such as a science
experiment or video clip is a good way to pique the interest of the primary students.
Conducting a quick prior knowledge assessment such as a KWL chart is another good way to
introduce a new chapter.
o 5
Choose at least one hands-on activity for the kids for each subtopic. This might include a
science experiment, building a 3-D model or creating a science-related art project. The
specific subtopic will help plan the specific activity that works well. Create a list of materials
needed so you are prepared for the activity when you reach that point in the curriculum.
o 6
Select children's books to complement the primary science curriculum. Choose both fiction
and nonfiction children's books for variety.
o 7
Fill in the science lessons with a mixture of textbook work, paper-and-pencil activities and
science games. You can easily customize classic kids' games to fit the science topics you're
studying. Games such as Memory, "Jeopardy!" and Bingo work well. This gives the kids an
alternative way to practice the science concepts.
o 8
Use science journals with the primary students to help them record their observations.
There are many uses for science journals. They can draw pictures of science observations,
write predictions about science events or answer daily science questions as a warm-up

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orces and Energy: Film Canister Rockets
The film canister rocket experiment is an outdoor activity. To make the rocket, you need an
empty film canister, construction paper, tape, scissors, baking soda and vinegar. Construct
the rocket by rolling a piece of construction paper around the film canister to make a long
tube. Making sure the lid of the canister is at the bottom end of the tube, tape the paper into
place. Make a paper cone by cutting a circle out of construction paper, then cutting a line
halfway through the middle of the circle. Twist this paper into a cone shape, and tape it into
place on top of the long tube. Cut triangular fins out of construction paper and tape on the
tube on the opposite end of the cone. This stabilizes the rocket. Now comes the fun part.
Take off the film canister lid and put some baking soda in the canister. Add some vinegar
and cover it quickly. Set the rocket on the ground cone end up and stand back---the rocket
may shoot as high as 25 feet in the air.
Air: Flying Toilet Paper

The flying toilet paper experiment is entertaining for kids or adults. For this cool
experiment you need a hair dryer, an empty paper towel tube, ping-pong balls, a balloon, a
beach ball, a roll of toilet paper, and a stick or piece of dowel rod. Set the hair dryer to the
cool setting, turn it on and aim it at the ceiling. Next, hold the dryer steady and place ping-
pong ball in the stream of air. Watch as the ball floats in the stream of air. Move the dryer
left and right and watch as the ping-pong ball stays in the stream of air. Float other objects
at the same time; see how many objects can float in the air. To make toilet paper fly, place a
roll on a stick or dowel and watch the paper spin off the roll into the air. For the grand
finale, float a ping-pong ball in the stream of air. Place the empty toilet paper tube above the
ball. See if the ball gets sucked up into the tube. To conclude the experiment, discuss
Bernoulli's Principle, which allows heavier-than-air objects to fly.

Chemistry: Frozen Bubbles

Kids like to make bubbles, and the idea of making frozen bubbles is intriguing to them. In
addition to bubble solution and dry ice, for the frozen bubble experiment you will need an
old wok or fish tank. Put the dry ice in the bottom of the wok or fish tank. Let it sit for 15
minutes. Then, gently blow bubbles over the thawing dry ice. The ice produces carbon
dioxide when it thaws, and the air-filled bubbles will float on the carbon dioxide, since air is
lighter. Sometimes a bubble will fall through and onto the dry ice; it may then freeze in
place, or freeze while it is in the middle of popping.

Read more : http://www.ehow.com/list_7317210_cool-elementary-science-experiments.html