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Q, W, U i H n transformri simple de stare

(pentru simplitate se consider c CV i CP nu depind de temperatur)


Procesul
Izoterm:
T=const
dT=0 i T=0

Ecuaii de stare
(PV)T=const
V2/V1=P1/P2
P=nRT/V

Izobar:
P=const
dP=0 i P=0

P=constT
P2/P1=T2/T1
V=nRT/P
dV=(nR/P)dT

Izocor:
V=const
dV=0 i V=0

V=constT
V2/V1= T2/T1
P=nRT/V
dP=(nR/V)dT
Ecuaiile
Poisson:

Adiabat:
Q=0
Q=0
Lipsete
schimbul de
cldur ntre
sistem i
mediul extern

Q
Q=dU+W
QT=WT=PdV=(nRT/V)dV
QT=WT=nRTlnV2/V1=
=nRTlnP1/P2
Qp=dH=nCPdT
Qp=H=nCPT

W
WT=QT=PdV=(nRT/V)dV
WT=QT=nRTlnV2/V1=
=nRTlnP1/P2

U
dUT=nCVdT=0
UT=0

H
dHT=nCPdT=0
HT=0

WP=PdV=nRdT
WP=PV=nRT

dUP=QP-WP= =nCPdTnRdT=
=n(CP-R)dT=nCVdT
UP=nCVT

dHP=Qp=nCPdT
HP=Qp=nCPT

Q=dU+W=dU+ PdV
QV=dU= nCvdT
QV=U=nCVT

WV=PdV=0
WV=0

dUV=QV=nCvdT
UV= QV =nCVT

Q=0
Q=0

dUad= Q-Wad
Wad=- dUad=-nCvdT
Wad=- U=-nCVT
Wad=nCV(T1-T2)

Vezi formulele pentru Wad


Uad=- Wad= nCVT=nCV(T2T1)

dHV=QV+VdP=
=nCVdT+nRdT=
=n(CV+R)dT=nCPdT
HV=nCPT
Had=nCPT=
= nCP(T2-T1)

PV=const
TV -1=const
TP (1-)/=const
T=PV/nR

-1

Ecuaii ajuttoare pentru Wad


=CP /CV
CV/R=CV/(CP-CV)=
=1/(-1)

-1

a) T1V1 = T2V2
T2=T1(V1/V2) -1
Wad=nCV T1(1-(V1/V2) -1)
b) T1P1 (1-)/ = T2P2 (1-)/
T2=T1(P1/P2) (1-)/
Wad=nCV T1(1-(P1/P2) (1-)/)
c) T1=P1V1/nR ; T2=P2V2/nR
Wad=nCV/nR(P1V1- P2V2)
Wad=1/(-1)(P1V1- P2V2)

a)
Uad =nCV T1( (V1/V2) -1-1)
b)
Uad =nCV T1((P1/P2) (1-)/-1)
c)
Uad =1/(-1)(P2V2- P1V1)

Formulele de calcul
sunt similare cu
formulele a) i b)
pentru Uad, doar c
n loc de CV figureaz
CP
Formula c) este:
Uad =
=CP/R (P2V2- P1V1)