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# R.M.

K COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY
RSM NAGAR, PUDUVOYAL-601206

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS & MACHINERY
III SEM MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Regulation 2013

QUESTION BANK
PREPARED BY

R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 2

R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 3
UNIT - I - FLUID PROPERTIES AND FLOW CHARACTERISTICS
Part - A
1.1) What is a fluid? How are fluids classified?
1.2) Define fluid. Give examples. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.3) How fluids are classified? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, May / J une - 2012]
1.4) Distinguish between solid and fluid. [AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.5) Differentiate between solids and liquids. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
1.6) Discuss the importance of ideal fluid. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.7) What is a real fluid? [AU, April / May - 2003]
1.8) Define Newtonian and Non Newtonian fluids. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.9) What are Non Newtonian fluids? Give example. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.10) Differentiate between Newtonian and Non Newtonian fluids.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.11) What is the difference between an ideal and a real fluid?
1.12) Differentiate between liquids and gases.
1.13) Define Pascals law. [AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2008]
1.14) Define the term density.
1.15) Define mass density and weight density. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.16) Distinguish between the mass density and weight density.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.17) Define the term specific volume and express its units. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.18) Define specific weight.
1.19) Define specific weight and density. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.20) Define density and specific gravity of a fluid. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.21) Define the term specific gravity.
1.22) What is specific weight and specific gravity of a fluid? [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.23) What is specific gravity? How is it related to density? [AU, April / May - 2008]
1.24) What do you mean by the term viscosity?
1.25) What is viscosity? What is the cause of it in liquids and in gases?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
1.26) Define Viscosity and give its unit. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
1.27) Define Newtons law of viscosity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 4
1.28) State the Newton's law of viscosity.
[AU, April / May, Nov / Dec - 2005, May / J une - 2007]
1.29) Define Newtons law of viscosity and write the relationship between shear stress
and velocity gradient? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
1.30) What is viscosity and give its units? [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.31) Define coefficient of viscosity. [AU, April / May - 2005]
1.32) Define coefficient of volume of expansion. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.33) Define relative or specific viscosity. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
1.34) Define kinematic viscosity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.35) Define kinematic and dynamic viscosity. [AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.36) Mention the significance of kinematic viscosity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.37) What is dynamic viscosity? What are its units?
1.38) Define dynamic viscosity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, May / J une - 2012]
1.39) Define the terms kinematic viscosity and give its dimensions.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.40) What is kinematic viscosity? State its units? [AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.41) Differentiate between kinematic viscosity of liquids and gases with respect to
pressure. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
1.42) Write the units and dimensions for kinematic and dynamic viscosity.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
1.43) What are the units and dimensions for kinematic and dynamic viscosity of a
fluid? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006, 2012]
1.44) Differentiate between kinematic and dynamic viscosity.
[AU, May / J une - 2007, Nov / Dec 2008, 2011]
1.45) How does the dynamic viscosity of liquids and gases vary with temperature?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007, April / May - 2008]
1.46) What are the variations of viscosity with temperature for fluids?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.47) What is the effect of temperature on viscosity of water and that of air?
1.48) Why is it necessary in winter to use lighter oil for automobiles than in summer?
To what property does the term lighter refer? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.49) Define the term pressure. What are its units? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 5
1.50) Give the dimensions of the following physical quantities
[AU, April / May - 2003]
a) Pressure b) surface tension
c) Dynamic viscosity d) kinematic viscosity
1.51) Define eddy viscosity. How it differs from molecular viscosity?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.52) Define surface tension. [AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.53) Define surface tension and expression its unit. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.54) Define capillarity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005, May / J une - 2006]
1.55) What is the difference between cohesion and adhesion?
1.56) Define the term vapour pressure.
1.57) What is meant by vapour pressure of a fluid? [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.58) What are the types of pressure measuring devices?
1.59) What do you understand by terms:
i) Isothermal process ii) adiabatic process
1.60) What do you mean by capillarity? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.61) Explain the phenomenon of capillarity.
1.62) Define surface tension.
1.63) What is compressibility of fluid?
1.64) Define compressibility of the fluid.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, May / J une - 2009]
1.65) Define compressibility and viscosity of a fluid. [AU, April / May - 2005]
1.66) Define coefficient of compressibility. What is its value for ideal gases?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.67) List the components of total head in a steady, in compressible irrotational flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.68) Define the bulk modulus of fluid. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.69) Define - compressibility and bulk modulus. [AU, Nov / Dec 2011]
1.70) Write short notes on thyxotropic fluid.
1.71) What is Thyxotrphic fluid? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
1.72) One poises equal to __________Pa.s.
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 6
1.73) Give the types of fluid flow.
1.74) Define steady flow and give an example.
1.75) Define unsteady flow and give an example.
1.76) Differentiate between the steady and unsteady flow. [AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.77) When is the flow regarded as unsteady? Give an example for unsteady flow.
[AU, April / May - 2003]
1.78) Define uniform flow and give an example.
1.79) Define non uniform flow and give an example.
1.80) Differentiate between steady flow and uniform flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.81) Define laminar and turbulent flow and give an example.
1.82) Differentiate between laminar and turbulent flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2008]
1.83) Distinguish between Laminar and Turbulent flow. [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.84) State the criteria for laminar flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.85) State the characteristics of laminar flow. [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.86) What are the characteristics of laminar flow? [AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.87) Mention the general characteristics of laminar flow. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
1.88) Define compressible and incompressible flow and give an example.
1.89) Define rotational and irrotational flow and give an example.
1.90) Distinguish between rotation and circularity in fluid flow.
[AU, April / May - 2005]
1.91) Define stream line. What do stream lines indicate? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.92) Define streamline and path line in fluid flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
1.93) What is stream line and path line in fluid flow? [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.94) What is a streamline? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.95) Define streak line. [AU, April / May - 2008]
1.96) Define stream function. [AU, April / May 2010, May / J une - 2012]
1.97) Define control volume.
1.98) What is meant by continuum? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.99) Define continuity equation.
1.100) Write down the equation of continuity. [AU, Nov / Dec 2008, 2009, 2012]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 7
1.101) State the continuity equation in one dimensional form?
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.102) State the general continuity equation for a 3 - D incompressible fluid flow.
[AU, May / J une - 2007, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.103) State the continuity equation for the case of a general 3-D flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.104) State the equation of continuity in 3dimensional incompressible flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
1.105) State the assumptions made in deriving continuity equation.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.106) Define Euler's equation of motion.
1.107) Write the Euler's equation. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.108) What is Eulers equation of motion? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.109) Define Bernoulli's equation.
1.110) Write the Bernoullis equation in terms of head. Explain each term.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.111) What are the basic assumptions made is deriving Bernoullis theorem?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2012]
1.112) List the assumptions which are made while deriving Bernoullis equation.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.113) State at least two assumptions of Bernoullis equation.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.114) What are the three major assumptions made in the derivation of the Bernoullis
equation? [AU, April / May - 2008]
1.115) State Bernoullis theorem as applicable to fluid flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
1.116) Give the assumptions made in deriving Bernoullis equation.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.117) What are the applications of Bernoullis theorem? [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.118) Give the application of Bernoullis equation.
1.119) List the types of flow measuring devices fitted in a pipe flow, which uses the
principle of Bernoullis equation. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.120) Mention the uses of manometer. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 8
1.121) State the use of venturimeter. [AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.122) Define momentum principle.
1.123) Define impulse momentum equation.
1.124) Write the impulse momentum equation. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
1.125) What do you understand by impulse momentum equation?
[AU, May / J une - 2013]
1.126) State the momentum equation. When can it applied. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.127) State the usefulness of momentum equation as applicable to fluid flow
phenomenon. [AU, May / J une 2007, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.128) Define discharge (or) rate of flow.
1.129) Discuss the momentum flux. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.130) Find the continuity equation, when the fluid is incompressible and densities are
equal.
1.131) What is the moment of momentum equation? [AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.132) Explain classification of fluids based on viscosity.
1.133) State and prove Euler's equation of motion. Obtain Bernoulli's equation from
Euler's equation.
1.134) State and prove Bernoulli's equation. What are the limitations of the Bernoulli's
equation?
1.135) State the momentum equation. How will you apply momentum equation for
determining the force exerted by a flowing liquid on a pipe bend?
1.136) Give the equation of continuity. Obtain an expression for continuity equation
for a three - dimensional flow.
1.137) Calculate the density of one litre petrol of specific gravity 0.7?
[AU, April / May - 2011]
1.138) A soap bubble is formed when the inside pressure is 5 N/m
2
above the
atmospheric pressure. If surface tension in the soap bubble is 0.0125 N/m, find the
diameter of the bubble formed. [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.139) The converging pipe with inlet and outlet diameters of 200 mm and 150 mm
carries the oil whose specific gravity is 0.8. The velocity of oil at the entry is 2.5
m/s, find the velocity at the exit of the pipe and oil flow rate in kg/sec.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 9
1.140) Find the height through which the water rises by the capillary action in a 2mm
bore if the surface tension at the prevailing temperature is0.075 g/cm.
[AU, April / May - 2003]
1.141) Find the height of a mountain where the atmospheric pressure is 730mm of Hg
at normal conditions. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.142) Suppose the small air bubbles in a glass of tap water may be on the order of50
m in diameter. What is the pressure inside these bubbles? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.143) An open tank contains water up to depth of 2.85m and above it an oil of
specific gravity 0.92 for the depth of 2.1m. Calculate the pressures at the interface
of two liquids and at the bottom of the tank. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.144) Two horizontal plates are placed 12.5mm apart, the space between them is
being filled with oil of viscosity 14 poise. Calculate the shear stress in the oil if the
upper plate is moved with the velocity of 2.5m/s. Define specific weight.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.145) Calculate the height of capillary rise for water in a glass tube of diameter 1mm.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
PART - B
1.146) What are the various classification of fluids? Discuss [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.147) State and prove Pascal's law. [AU, May / J une, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.148) What is Hydrostatic law? Derive an expression to show the same.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.149) Explain the properties of hydraulic fluid. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.150) Discuss the equation of continuity. Obtain an expression for continuity
equation in three dimensional forms. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.151) Explain in detail the Newton's law of viscosity. Briefly classify the fluids based
on the density and viscosity. Give the limitations of applicability of Newton's law
of viscosity. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.152) State the effect of temperature and pressure on viscosity.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.153) Explain the term specific gravity, density, compressibility and vapour pressure.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 10
1.154) Explain the terms Specific weight, Density, Absolute pressure and Gauge
pressure. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.155) Define Surface tension and also compressibility of a fluid?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
1.156) Explain the phenomenon surface tension and capillarity.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
1.157) Derive an expression for the capillary rise of a liquid having surface tension
and contact angle between two vertical parallel plates at a distance W apart. If the
plates are of glass, what will be the capillary rise of water? Assume = 0.773N / m,
= 0 Take W=l mm. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.158) What is compressibility of fluids? Give the relationship between
compressibility and bulk modulus [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.159) Prove that the relationship between surface tension and pressure inside the
droplet of liquid in excess of outside pressure is given by P = 4/d.
[AU, April / May 2010, 2011, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.160) Explain the following
Capillarity
Surface tension
Compressibility
Kinematic viscosity [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.161) Derive the energy equation and state the assumptions made while deriving the
equation. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.162) Derive Euler's equation of motion. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.163) Derive from the first principles, the Eulers equation of motion for a steady
flow along a stream line. Hence derive Bernoulli equation. State the various
assumptions involved in the above derivation. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.164) Derive from basic principle the Eulers equation of motion in 2D flow in X-Y
coordinate system and reduce the equation to get Bernoullis equation for
unidirectional stream lined flow. [AU, April / May - 2005]
1.165) State Eulers equation of motion, in the differential form. Derive Bernoullis
equation from the above for the cases of an ideal fluid flow.
[AU, May / J une - 2007, Nov / Dec - 2012]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 11
1.166) State the law of conservation of man and derive the equation of continuity in
Cartesian coordinates for an incompressible fluid. Would it alter if the flow were
unsteady, highly viscous and compressible? [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.167) Derive the equation of continuity for one dimensional flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, April / May - 2010]
1.168) Derive the continuity equation for 3 dimensional flow in Cartesian coordinates.
[AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.169) Derive the general form of continuity equation in Cartesian coordinates.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.170) Derive the continuity equation of differential form. Discuss weathers equation
is valid for a steady flow or unsteady flow, viscous or in viscid flow, compressible
or incompressible flow. [AU, April / May - 2003]
1.171) Derive continuity equation from basic principles. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.172) Derive Bernoullis equation along with assumptions made.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
1.173) State Bernoullis theorem for steady flow of an in compressible fluid.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2004, 2005, April / May 2010, May / J une - 2013]
1.174) State Bernoullis theorem for steady flow of an in compressible fluid. Derive
an expression for Bernoulli equation and state the assumptions made.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.175) State the assumptions in the derivation of Bernoullis equation.
[AU, May / J une, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.176) Derive an expression for Bernoullis equation for a fluid flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2004, 2005, April / May - 2010]
1.177) Derive Bernoullis equation from the first principles? State the assumptions
made while deriving Bernoullis equation. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.178) Derive from basic principle the Eulers equation of motion in Cartesian co
ordinates system and deduce the equation to Bernoullis theorem steady irrotational
flow. [AU, April / May - 2004]
1.179) Derive the Eulers equation of motion and deduce the expression to Bernoullis
equation. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 12
1.180) Develop the Euler equation of motion and then derive the one dimensional
form of Bernoullis equation. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.181) Show that for a perfect gas the bulk modulus of elasticity equals its pressure for
An isothermal process
times the pressure for an isentropic process
[AU, April / May - 2003]
1.182) State and derive impulse momentum equation. [AU, April / May - 2005]
1.183) Derive momentum equation for a steady flow. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.184) Derive the linear momentum equation using the control volume approach and
determine the force exerted by the fluid flowing through a pipe bend.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.185) With a neat sketch, explain briefly an orifice meter and obtain an expression
for the discharge through it. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.186) Draw the sectional view of Pitots tube and write its concept to measure
velocity of fluid flow? [AU, April / May - 2005]

PROBLEMS
1.187) A soap bubble is 60mm in diameter. If the surface tension of the soap film is
0.012 N/m. Find the excess pressure inside the bubble and also derive the
expression used in this problem. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.188) A spherical water droplet of 5 mm in diameter splits up in the air into 16
smaller droplets of equal size. Find the work involved in splitting up the droplet.
The surface tension of water may be assumed as 0.072 N/m
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.189) A liquid weighs 7.25N per litre. Calculate the specific weight, density and
specific gravity of the liquid.
1.190) One litre of crude oil weighs 9.6N. Calculate its specific weight, density and
specific gravity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.191) Determine the viscosity of a liquid having a kinematic viscosity 6 stokes and
specific gravity 1.9. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, April / May - 2010]
1.192) Determine the mass density; specific volume and specific weight of liquid
whose specific gravity 0.85. [AU, April / May - 2010]
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 13
1.193) If the volume of a balloon is to reach a sphere of 8m diameter at an altitude
where the pressure is 0.2 bar and temperature -40C. Determine the mass hydrogen
to be charged into the balloon and volume and diameter at ground level. Where the
pressure is 1bar and temperature is 25C. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.194) A pipe of 30 cm diameter carrying 0.25 m
3
/s water. The pipe is bent by 135
from the horizontal anti-clockwise. The pressure of water flowing through the pipe
is 400 kN. Find the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the bend.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.195) A liquid has a specific gravity of 0.72. Find its density and specific weight.
Find also the weight per litre of the liquid.
1.196) A 1.9mm diameter tube is inserted into an unknown liquid whose density is
960kg/m3, and it is observed that the liquid raise 5mm in the tube, making a
contact angle of 15. Determine the surface tension of the liquid.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
1.197) A 0.3m diameter pipe carrying oil at 1.5m/s velocity suddenly expands to 0.6m
diameter pipe. Determine the discharge and velocity in 0.6m diameter pipe.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.198) Explain surface tension. Water at 20C ( = 0.0.73N/m, = 9.8kN/m
3
and
angle of contact = 0) rises through a tube due to capillary action. Find the tube
diameter requires, if the capillary rise is less than 1mm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.199) A Newtonian fluid is filled in the clearance between a shaft and a concentric
sleeve. The sleeve attains a speed of 50cm/s, when a force of 40N is applied to the
sleeve parallel to the shaft. Determine the speed of the shaft, if a force of 200N is
applied. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
1.200) An oil film thickness 10mm is used for lubrication between the square parallel
plate of size 0.9 m * 0.9 m, in which the upper plate moves at 2m/s requires a force
of 100 N to maintain this speed. Determine the
Dynamic viscosity of the oil in poise and
Kinematic viscosity of the oil in stokes.
The specific gravity of the oil is 0.95. [AU, Nov / Dec 2003]
1.201) The space between two square flat parallel plates is filled with oil. Each side of
the plate is 60cm. The thickness of the oil film is 12.5mm. The upper plate, which
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 14
moves at 2.5 meter per sec, requires a force of 98.1N to maintain the speed.
Determine the
Dynamic viscosity of the oil in poise and
Kinematic viscosity of the oil in stokes.
The specific gravity of the oil is 0.95. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.202) What is the bulk modulus of elasticity of a liquid which is compressed in a
cylinder from a volume of 0.0125m
3
at 80N/cm
2
pressure to a volume of 0.0124m
3

at pressure 150N/cm
2
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2004]
1.203) Determine the bulk modulus of elasticity of elasticity of a liquid, if the pressure
of the liquid is increased from 7MN/m
2
to 13MN/m
2
, the volume of liquid
decreases by 0.15%. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.204) The measuring instruments fitted inside an airplane indicate the pressure 1.032
*10
5
Pa
,
temperature T
0
= 288 K and density
0
= 1.285 kg/m
3
at takeoff. If a
standard temperature lapse rate of 0.0065 K/m is assumed, at what elevation is the
plane when a pressure of 0.53*10
5
recorded? Neglect the variations of acceleration
due gravity with the altitude and take airport elevation as 600m.
A person must breathe a constant mass rate of air to maintain his metabolic
process. If he inhales 20 times per minute at the airport level of 600m, what would
you except his breathing rate at the calculated altitude of the plane?
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.205) The space between two square parallel plates is filled with oil. Each side of the
plate is 75 cm. The thickness of oil film is 10 mm. The upper plate which moves
at 3 m/s requires a force of 100 N to maintain the speed. Determine the
Dynamic viscosity of the oil
Kinematic viscosity of the oil, if the specific gravity of the oil is 0.9.
1.206) A rectangular plate of size 25cm* 50cm and weighing at 245.3 N slides down
at 30 inclined surface with uniform velocity of 2m/s. If the uniform 2mm gap
between the plates is inclined surface filled with oil. Determine the viscosity of the
oil. [AU, April / May 2004, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.207) A space between two parallel plates 5mm apart, is filled with crude oil of
specific gravity 0.9. A force of 2N is require to drag the upper plate at a constant
velocity of 0.8m/s. the lower plate is stationary. The area of upper plate is 0.09m
2
.
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 15
Determine the dynamic viscosity in poise and kinematic viscosity of oil in strokes.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.208) The space between two large flat and parallel walls 25mm apart is filled with
liquid of absolute viscosity 0.7 Pa.sec. Within this space a thin flat plate 250mm *
250mm is towed at a velocity of 150mm/s at a distance of 6mm from one wall, the
plate and its movement being parallel to the walls. Assuming linear variations of
velocity between the plates and the walls, determine the force exerted by the liquid
on the plate. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.209) A jet issuing at a velocity of 25 m/s is directed at 35 to the horizontal.
Calculate the height cleared by the jet at 28 m from the discharge location? Also
determine the maximum height the jet will clear and the corresponding horizontal
location. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.210) A flat plate of area 0.125m
2
is pulled at 0.25 m/sec with respect to another
parallel plate 1mm distant from it, the space between the plates containing water of
viscosity 0.001Ns/ m
2
. Find the force necessary to maintain this velocity. Find also
the power required.
1.211) Lateral stability of a long shaft 150 mm in diameter is obtained by means of a
250 mm stationary bearing having an internal diameter of 150.25 mm. If the space
between bearing and shaft is filled with a lubricant having a viscosity 0.245 N s/m
2
,
what power will be required to overcome the viscous resistance when the shaft is
rotated at a constant rate of 180 rpm? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.212) Find the kinematic viscosity of water whose specific gravity is 0.95 and
viscosity is0.0011Ns/m
2
.
1.213) The dynamic viscosity of oil, used for lubrication between a shaft and sleeve
is6poise. The shaft is of diameter 0.4m and rotates at 190 rpm. Calculate the power
lost in the bearing for a sleeve length of 90mm. The thickness of the oil film is
1.5mm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007, May / J une - 2012]
1.214) A 200 mm diameter shaft slides through a sleeve, 200.5 mm in diameter and
400 mm long, at a velocity of 30 cm/s. The viscosity of the oil filling the annular
space is m = 0.1125 NS/ m
2
. Find resistance to the motion.
[A.U. Nov / Dec - 2008]
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1.215) A 0.5m shaft rotates in a sleeve under lubrication with viscosity 5 Poise at
200rpm. Calculate the power lost for a length of 100mm if the thickness of the oil
is 1mm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.216) A 15 cm diameter vertical cylinder rotates concentrically inside another
cylinder of diameter 15.10 cm. Both cylinders are 25 cm high. The space between
the cylinders is filled with a liquid whose viscosity is unknown. If a torque of 12.0
Nm is required to rotate the inner cylinder at 100 rpm, determine the viscosity of
the fluid. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
1.217) A400 mm diameter shaft is rotating at 200 r.p.m. in a bearing of length 120
mm. If the thickness of film is 1.5 mm and the dynamic viscosity of the oil is 0.7
N.s/m
2
, determine (i) Torque required to overcome friction in bearing (ii) Power
utilized to overcoming viscous friction. Assume linear velocity profile.
[AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.218) Calculate the gauge pressure and absolute pressure within (i) a droplet of water
0.4cm in diameter (ii) a jet of water 0.4cm in diameter. Assume the surface tension
of water as 0.03N/m and the atmospheric pressure as 101.3kN/m
2
.
1.219) What do you mean by surface tension? If the pressure difference between the
inside and outside of air bubble of diameter, 0.01 mm is 29.2kPa, what will be the
surface tension at air water interface? Derive an expression for the surface tension
in the air bubble and from it, deduce the result for the given conditions.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
1.220) A 1.9-mm - diameter tube is inserted into an unknown liquid whose density is
960 kg/ m
3
, and it is observed that the liquid rises 5 mm in the tube, making a
contact angle of 15

## . Determine the surface tension of the liquid.

[AU, April / May - 2008]
1.221) At the depth of 2km in ocean the pressure is 82401kN/m
2
. Assume the specific
gravity at the surface as 10055 N/m
3
and the average bulk modulus of elasticity is
2.354 * 10
9
N/m
2
for the pressure range. Determine the change in specific volume
between the surface and 2km depth and also determine the specific weight at the
depth? [AU, April / May 2004, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.222) At the depth of 8km from the surface of the ocean, the pressure is stated to be
82MN/m
2
. Determine the mass density, weight density and specific volume of
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water at this depth. Take density at the surface = 1025kg/m
3
and bulk modulus K
= 2350MPa for indicated pressure range. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
1.223) Eight kilometers below the surface of ocean pressure is 81.75MPa. Determine
the density of sea water at this depth if the density at the surface is 1025 kg/m
3
and
the average bulk modulus of elasticity is 2.34GPa. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.224) A liquid is compressed in a cylinder having a volume of 0.012 m
3
at a pressure
of 690 N/cm
2
. What should be the new pressure in order to make its volume 0.0119
m3? Assume bulk modulus of elasticity (K) for the liquid = 6.9 x 10
4
N/cm
2
.
[AU, May / J une - 2013]
1.225) Calculate the capillary rise in glass tube of 3 mm diameter when immersed in
mercury; take the surface tension and the angle of contact of mercury as 0.52 N/m
and 130 respectively. Also determine the minimum size of the glass tube, if it is
immersed in water, given that the surface tension of water is 0.0725 N/m and
capillary rise in the tube is not to exceed 0.5mm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
1.226) The capillary rise in a glass tube is not to exceed 0.2mm of water. Determine
its minimum size, given that the surface tension for water in contact with air =
0.0725N/m. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007, May / J une - 2012]
1.227) Calculate the capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 4mm diameter
when immersed in(i) water and (ii) mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 20

C
and the values of surface tension of water and mercury at 20

## C in contact with air

are 0.0735 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively. The contact angle for water u = 0

and
for mercury u = 130

## C as equal to 9780 N/m

3
.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.228) Derive an expression for the capillary rise at a liquid in a capillary tube of
radius r having surface tension and contact angle . If the plates are of glass,
what will be the capillary rise of water having = 0.073 N/m, = 0? Take r =
1mm. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.229) A pipe containing water at 180kN/m2 pressure is connected to differential
gauge to another pipe 1.6m lower than the first pipe and containing water at high
pressure. If the difference in height of 2 mercury columns of the gauge is equal to
90mm, what is the pressure in the lower pipe? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 18
1.230) Determine the minimum size of glass tubing that can be used to measure water
level. If the capillary rise in the tube is not exceed 2.5mm. Assume surface tension
of water in contact with air as 0.0746 N/m. [AU, Nov / Dec 2004, 2012]
1.231) Calculate the capillary effect in millimeters in a glass tube of 4 mm diameter,
when immersed in (i) water and (ii) mercury. The temperature of the liquid is 20

C
and the values of surface tension of water and mercury at 20

## C in contact with air

are 0.0735 N/m and 0.51 N/m respectively. The contact angle for water u = 0 and
for mercury u = 130

## . Take specific weight of water at 20

C as equal to 9790N/
m
3
. [AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2007]
1.232) A Capillary tube having inside diameter 6 mm is dipped in CCl
4
at 20
o
C. Find
the rise of CCl
4
in the tube if surface tension is 2.67 N/m and Specific gravity is
1.594 and contact angle u is 60

## and specific weight of water at 20 C is 9981

N/m
3
. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.233) Two pipes A & B are connected to a U tube manometer containing mercury
of density 13,600kg/m
3
. Pipe A carries a liquid of density 1250kg/m
3
and a liquid
of density 800kg/m
3
flows through a pipe B, The center of pipe A is 80mm above
the pipe B. The difference of mercury level manometer is 200mm and the mercury
surface on pipe A side is 100mm below the center. Find the difference of pressure
between the two connected points of the pipes. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.234) A crude oil of viscosity 0.9 poise and relative density 0.9 is flowing through a
horizontal circular pipe of diameter 120 mm and length 12 m. Calculate the
difference of pressure at the two ends of the pipe, if 785 N of the oils collected in a
tank in 25 seconds. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
1.235) A simple U tube manometer containing mercury is connected to a pipe in
which a fluid of specific gravity 0.8 and having vacuum pressure is flowing. The
other end of the manometer is open to atmosphere. Find the vacuum pressure in the
pipe, if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 40cm and the height of
the fluid in the left from the center pipe is 15cm below. Draw the sketch for the
above problem. [AU, April / May - 2011, May / J une - 2012]
1.236) A U-tube is made of two capillaries of diameter 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm
respectively. The tube is kept vertically and partially filled with water of surface
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 19
tension 0.0736 N/m and zero contact angles. Calculate the difference in the levels
of the menisci caused by the capillary. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.237) Define the terms gauge pressure and absolute pressure. A U tube containing
mercury has its right limb open to atmosphere. The left limb is full of water and is
connected to a pipe containing water under pressure, the centre of which is in the
level with the free surface of mercury. If the difference in the levels of mercury in
the limbs id 5.1cm, calculate the water pressure in the pipe. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.238) The barometric pressure at sea level is 760 mm of mercury while that on a
mountain top is 735 mm. If the density of air is assumed constant at 1.2 kg/m
3
,
what is the elevation of the mountain top? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.239) The barometric pressure at the top and bottom of a mountain are 734mm and
760mm of mercury respectively. Assuming that the average density of air =
1.15kg/m3, calculate the height of the mountain. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
1.240) The maximum blood pressure in the upper arm of a healthy person is about 120
mmHg. If a vertical tube open to the atmosphere is connected to the vein in the
arm of the person, determine how high the blood will rise in the tube. Take the
density of the blood to be 1050 kg/ m
3
. [AU, April / May - 2008]
1.241) When a pressure of 20.7 MN/m
2
is applied to 100 litres of a liquid, its volume
decreases by one litre. Find the bulk modulus of the liquid and identify this liquid.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
1.242) Determine the minimum size of the glass tubing that can be used to measure
water level. If the capillary rise in the tube is not to exceed 2.5mm. Assume surface
tension of water in contact with air as 0.0746 N/m [AU, April / May - 2004]
1.243) A cylinder of 0.6m
3
in volume contains air at 50
o
C and 0.3N/mm
2
absolute
pressure. The air is compressed to 0.3m
3
. Find the (i) pressure inside the cylinder
assuming isothermal process and (ii) pressure and temperature assuming adiabatic
process. Take k = 1.4.
1.244) A 30cm diameter pipe, conveying water, branches into two pipes of diameters
20cm and 15cm respectively. If the average velocity in the 30cm diameter pipe is
2.5m/sec, find the discharge in this pipe. Also determine the velocity in the 15cm
diameter pipe if the average velocity in the 20cm diameter pipe is 2m/sec.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, April / May - 2010]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 20
1.245) Water flows through a pipe AB 1.2m diameter at 3m/second then passes
through a pipe BC 1.5m diameter. At C, the pipe branches. Branch CD is 0.8m in
diameter and carries one - third of the flow in AB. The flow velocity in branch CE
is 2.5m/sec. Find the volume rate of flow in AB, the velocity in BC, the velocity in
CD and the diameter of CE.
1.246) Water is flowing through a pipe having diameters 20cm and 10cm at sections 1
and 2 respectively. The rate of flow, through the pipe is 35litre/sec. The section 1 is
6m above datum and section 2 is 4m above datum. If the pressure at section 1 is
39.24N/cm
2
, find the intensity of pressure at section 2. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
1.247) Water is flowing through a taper pipe of length 100m having diameters 600mm
at the upper end and 300mm at the lower end, at the rate of 50 litres/ sec. The pipe
has a slope of 1 in 30. Find the pressure at the lower end if the pressure at the
higher level is 19.62 N/cm
2
.
1.248) A pipe of diameter 400mm carries water at a velocity of 25m/sec. The
pressures at the points A and B are given as 29.43N/cm
2
and 22.563 N/cm
2

respectively, while the datum head at A and B are 28m and 30m. Find the loss of
1.249) A drainage pipe is tapered in a section running with full of water. The pipe
diameters at the inlet and exit are 1000 mm and 50 mm respectively. The water
surface is 2 m above the center of the inlet and exit is 3 m above the free surface of
the water. The pressure at the exit is250 mm of Hg vacuum. The friction loss
between the inlet and exit of the pipe is 1/10 of the velocity head at the exit.
Determine the discharge through the pipe. [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.250) A pipeline 60 cm in diameter bifurcates at a Y-junction into two branches 40
cm and 30 cm in diameter. If the rate of flow in the main pipe is 1.5 m
3
/s, and the
mean velocity of flow in the 30 cm pipe is 7.5 m/s, determine the rate of flow in the
40 cm pipe. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
1.251) A pipeline of 175 mm diameter branches into two pipes which delivers the
water at atmospheric pressure. The diameter of the branch 1 which is at 35
counter-clockwise to the pipe axis is 75mm. and the velocity at outlet is 15 m/s.
The branch 2 is at 15 with the pipe center line in the clockwise direction has a
diameter of 100 mm. The outlet velocity is 15 m/s. The pipes lie in a horizontal
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plane. Determine the magnitude and direction of the forces on the pipes.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.252) A pipeline conveys 10 lit/s of water from an overhead tank to a building. The
pipe is 2km long and 15cm diameter, the friction factor is 0.03. It is planned to
increase the discharge by 30% by installing another pipeline in parallel with this
over half the length. Find the suitable diameter of pipe to be installed. Is there any
upper limit on discharge augmentation by this arrangement?[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.253) The water is flowing through a taper pipe of length 100 m having diameters
600 mm at the upper end and 300 mm at the lower end, at the rate of 50 litres/s.
The pipe has a slope of 1 in 30. Find the pressure at the lower end if the pressure at
the higher level is 19.62 N/cm
2
. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
1.254) A 45

reducing bend is connected in a pipe line, the diameters at the inlet and
outlet of the bend being 600mm and 300mm respectively. Find the force exerted by
water on the bend if the intensity of pressure at the inlet to the bend is 8.829N/cm
2

and rate of flow of water is600 litre / sec.
1.255) Gasoline (specific gravity = 0.8) is flowing upwards through a vertical pipe line
which tapers from300mm to 150mm diameter. A gasoline mercury differential
manometer is connected between 300 mm and 150 mm pipe sections to measure
the rate of flow. The distance between the manometer tappings is 1meter and the
gauge heading is 500 mm of mercury. Find the(i) differential gauge reading in
terms of gasoline head (ii) rate of flow. Assume frictional and other losses are
negligible. [AU, May / J une 2007, 2014, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.256) Water enters a reducing pipe horizontally and comes out vertically in the
downward direction. If the inlet velocity is 5 m/s and pressure is 80 kPa (gauge)
and the diameters at the entrance and exit sections are 30 cm and 20 cm
respectively, calculate the components of the reaction acting on the pipe.
[AU, May / J une 2007, Nov / Dec - 2012]
1.257) A horizontal pipe has an abrupt expansion from 10 cm to 16 cm. The water
velocity in the smaller section is 12 m/s, and the flow is turbulent. The pressure in
the smaller section is 300 kPa. Determine the downstream pressure, and estimate
the error that would have occurred if Bernoullis equation had been used.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
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1.258) Air flows through a pipe at a rate of 20 L/s. The pipe consists of two sections
of diameters20 cm and 10 cm with a smooth reducing section that connects them.
The pressure difference between the two pipe sections is measured by a water
manometer. Neglecting frictional effects, determine the differential height of water
between the two pipe sections. Take the air density to be 1.20 kg/m
3
.
[AU, April / May - 2008]

1.259) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet diameter 200 mm and throat diameter 100
mm is employed to measure the flow of water. The reading of the differential
manometer connected to the inlet is 180 mm of mercury. If C
d
= 0.98, determine
the rate of flow. [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.260) A horizontal venturimeter of specification 200mm * 100mm is used to
measure the discharge of an oil of specific gravity 0.8. A mercury manometer is
used for the purpose. If the discharge is 100 litres per second and the coefficient of
discharge of meter is 0.98, find the manometer deflection. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
1.261) Determine the pressure difference between inlet and throat of a vertical
venturimeter of size 150 mm x 75 mm carrying oil of S = 0.8 at flow rate of 40 lps.
The throat is 150 mm above the inlet.
1.262) A pipe of 300 mm diameter inclined at 30

## to the horizontal is carrying

gasoline (specific gravity = 0.82). A venturimeter is fitted in the pipe to find out
the flow rate whose throat diameter is 150 mm. The throat is 1.2 m from the
entrance along its length. The pressure gauges fitted to the venturimeter read 140
kN/m
2
and 80kN/m
2
respectively. Find out the co-efficient of discharge of
venturimeter if the flow is 0.20 m
3
/s. [AU, April / May - 2010]
1.263) A venturimeter of throat diameter 0.085m is fitted in a 0.17m diameter vertical
pipe in which liquid a relative density 0.85 flows downwards. Pressure gauges ate
fitted at the inlet and to the throat sections. The throat being 0.9m below the inlet.
20 cm
air
200 L/s
h
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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 23
Taking the coefficient of the meter as 0.95 find the discharge when the pressure
gauges read the same and also when the inlet gauge reads 15000N/m
2
higher than
the throat gauge. [AU, April / May - 2011]
1.264) A Venturimeter having inlet and throat diameters 30 cm and 15 cm is fitted in a
horizontal diesel pipe line (Sp. Gr. = 0.92) to measure the discharge through the
pipe. The venturimeter is connected to a mercury manometer. It was found that the
discharge is 8 litres /sec. Find the reading of mercury manometer head in cm. Take
C
d
=0.96. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
1.265) A venturimeter is inclined at 60

## to the vertical and its 150 mm diameter throat

is 1.2 m from the entrance along its length. It is fitted to a pipe of diameter 300
mm. The pipe conveys gasoline of S = 0.82 and flowing at 0.215 m
3
/s upwards.
Pressure gauges inserted at entrance and throat show the pressures of 0.141
N/mm
2
and 0.077 N/mm
2
respectively. Determine the co-efficient of discharge of
the venturimeter. Also determine the reading in mm of differential mercury
column, if instead of pressure gauges the entrance and the throat of the
venturimeter are connected to the limbs of a U tube mercury manometer.
[AU, April / May - 2004]
1.266) A horizontal venturimeter with inlet and throat diameter 300mm and 100mm
respectively is used to measure the flow of water. The pressure intensity at inlet is
130 kN/m
2
while the vacuum pressure head at throat is 350 mm of mercury.
Assuming 3% head lost between the inlet and throat. Find the value of coefficient
of discharge for venturimeter and also determine the rate of flow.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2004, 2005, April / May - 2010]
1.267) A vertical venturimeter carries a liquid of relative density 0.8 and has inlet
throat diameters of 150mm and 75mm. The pressure connection at the throat is
150mm above the inlet. If the actual rate of flow is 40litres/sec and C
d
= 0.96, find
the pressure difference between inlet and throat in N/m
2
. [AU, May / J une - 2006]
1.268) A 300 mm x 150 mm venturimeter is provided in a vertical pipeline carrying
oil of relative density 0.9, the flow being upwards. The differential U tube mercury
manometer shows a gauge deflection of 250 mm. Calculate the discharge of oil, if
the co-efficient of meter is 0.98. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 24
1.269) In a vertical pipe conveying oil of specific gravity 0.8, two pressure gauges
have been installed at A and B, where the diameters are 160mm a 80mm
respectively. A is 2m above B. The pressure gauge readings have shown that the
pressure at B is greater than at A by 0.981 N/cm
2
. Neglecting all losses, calculate
the flow rate. If the gauges at A and B are replaced by tubes filled with the same
liquid and connected to a U tube containing mercury, calculate the difference in
the level of mercury in the two limbs of the U tube. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
1.270) Determine the flow rate of oil of S = 0.9 through an orifice meter of size 15 cm
diameter fitted in a pipe of 30 cm diameter. The mercury deflection of U tube
differential manometer connected on the two sides of the orifice is 50 cm. Assume
C
d
of orifice meter as 0.64.
1.271) A submarine moves horizontally in sea and has its axis 15 m below the surface
of water. A pitot static tube properly placed just in front of the submarine along its
axis and is connected to the two limbs of a U - tube containing mercury. The
difference of mercury level is found to be170 mm. Find the speed of submarine
knowing that the sp. gr of sea water is 1.026.
1.272) A submarine fitted with a Pitot tube move horizontally in sea. Its axis is 20m
below surface of water. The Pitot tube placed in front of the submarine along its
axis is connected to a differential mercury manometer showing the deflection of
20cm. Determine the speed of the submarine. [AU, April / May - 2005]
1.273) A pitot-static probe is used to measure the velocity of an aircraft flying at 3000
m. If the differential pressure reading is 3 kPa, determine the velocity of the
aircraft. [AU, April / May - 2008]
1.274) A 15 cm diameter vertical pipe is connected to 10 cm diameter vertical pipe
with a reducing socket. The pipe carries a flow of 1001/s. At point 1 in 15 cm pipe
gauge pressure is 250 kPa. At point 2 in the 10 cm pipe located 1.0 m below point
1 the gauge pressure is 175 kPa.
Find whether the flow is upwards / downwards.
Head loss between the two points.
1.275) Water enters a reducing pipe horizontally and comes out vertically in the
downward direction. If the inlet velocity is 5 m/sec and pressure is 80 kPa (gauge)
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
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and the diameters at the entrance and exit sections are 300 mm and 200 mm
respectively. Calculate the components of the reaction acting on the pipe.

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CE6451 FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY QUESTION BANK by ASHOK KUMAR.R (AP / Mech) 26
UNIT - II - FLOW THROUGH CIRCULAR CONDUCTS
PART - A
2.1) How are fluid flows classified? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.2) Distinguish between Laminar and Turbulent flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
2.3) Write down Hagen Poiseuilles equation for viscous flow through a pipe.
2.4) Write down Hagen Poiseuilles equation for laminar flow.
[AU, April / May - 2005, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.5) Write the Hagen Poiseuilles Equation and enumerate its importance.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
2.6) State Hagen Poiseuilles formula for flow through circular tubes.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.7) Write down the Darcy - Weisbachs equation for friction loss through a pipe
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009, April / May - 2011]
2.8) What is the relationship between Darcy Friction factor, Fanning Friction Factor
and Friction coefficient? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.9) Mention the types of minor losses. [AU, April / May - 2010]
2.10) List the minor losses in flow through pipe.
[AU, April / May - 2005, May / J une - 2007]
2.11) What are minor losses? Under what circumstances will they be negligible?
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.12) Distinguish between the major loss and minor losses with reference to flow
through pipes. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.13) List the causes of minor energy losses in flow through pipes.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.14) What are the losses experienced by a fluid when it is passing through a pipe?
2.15) What is a minor loss in pipe flows? Under what conditions does a minor loss
become a major loss?
2.16) What do you understand by minor energy losses in pipes?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.17) List out the various minor losses in a pipeline
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2.18) What are major and minor losses of flow through pipes?
[AU, May / J une 2007, Nov / Dec - 2007, 2012, April / May - 2010]
2.19) List the minor and major losses during the flow of liquid through a pipe.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
2.20) Enlist the various minor losses involved in a pipe flow system.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.21) What factors account in energy loss in laminar flow. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.22) Differentiate between pipes in series and pipes in parallel.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
2.23) What is Darcy's equation? Identify various terms in the equation.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
2.24) What is the relation between Dracy friction factor, Fanning friction factor and
friction coefficient? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.25) When is the pipe termed to be hydraulically rough? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.26) What is the physical significance of Reynold's number?
[AU, May / J une, Nov / Dec - 2007]
2.27) Define Reynolds Number. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.28) Write the Navier's Stoke equations for unsteady 3 - dimensional, viscous,
incompressible and irrotational flow. [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.29) Define Moodys diagram
2.30) What are the uses of Moodys diagram? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, 2012]
2.31) Write down the formulae for loss of head due to
(i) sudden enlargement in pipe diameter
(ii) sudden contraction in pipe diameter and
(iii) Pipe fittings.
2.32) Define (i) relative roughness and (ii) absolute roughness of a pipe inner surface.
2.33) How does surface roughness affect the pressure drop in a pipe if the flow is
turbulent? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
2.34) A piping system involves two pipes of different diameters (but of identical
length, material, and roughness) connected in parallel. How would you compare
the flow rates and pressure drops in these two pipes? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
2.35) What do you mean by flow through parallel pipes? [AU, May / J une - 2013]
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2.36) What is equivalent pipe?
2.37) What is the use of Dupuits equations?
2.38) What is the condition for maximum power transmission through a pipe line?
2.39) Give the expression for power transmission through pipes?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.40) Write down the formula for friction factor of pipe having viscous flow.
2.41) Define boundary layer and boundary layer thickness.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2007, 2012]
2.42) Define boundary layer thickness. [AU, May / J une - 2006, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.43) What is boundary layer? Give its sketch of a boundary layer region over a flat
plate. [AU, April / May - 2003]
2.44) What is boundary layer? Why is it significant? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.45) Define boundary layer and give its significance. [AU, April / May - 2010]
2.46) What is boundary layer and write its types of thickness?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2006]
2.47) What do you understand by the term boundary layer? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.48) Define the following (i) laminar boundary layer (ii) turbulent boundary layer
(iii) laminar sub layer.
2.49) What is a laminar sub layer? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.50) Define momentum thickness and energy thickness.
[AU, May / J une 2007, 2012]
2.51) Define the term boundary layer. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.52) Define the terms boundary layer, boundary thickness. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.53) What is boundary layer separation? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.54) Define the following:
(i) Displacement thickness (ii) Momentum thickness
(iii)Energy thickness.
2.55) What do you mean by displacement thickness and momentum thickness?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.56) What do you understand by hydraulic diameter? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.57) What is hydraulic gradient line? [AU, May / J une - 2009]
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2.59) Brief on HGL. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.60) Differentiate between Hydraulic gradient line and total energy line.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003, April / May - 2005, 2010, May / J une2007, 2009]
2.61) What is T.E.L? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.62) Distinguish between hydraulic and energy gradients. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
[AU, May / J une - 2014]
2.64) What are stream lines, streak lines and path lines in fluid flow?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2006, 2009]
2.65) What do you mean by Prandtls mixing length?
2.66) Draw the typical boundary layer profile over a flat plate.
2.67) Define flow net. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.68) What is flow net and state its use? [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.69) Define lift. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
2.70) Define the terms: drag and lift. [AU, Nov / Dec 2007, May / J une - 2009]
2.71) Define drag and lift co-efficient.
2.72) Give the expression for Drag coefficient and Lift coefficient.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
2.73) Considering laminar flow through a circular pipe, draw the shear stress and
velocity distribution across the pipe section. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.74) Considering laminar flow through a circular pipe, obtain an expression for the
velocity distribution. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.75) A circular and a square pipe are of equal sectional area. For the same flow rate,
determine which section will lead to a higher value of Reynolds number.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.76) A 20cm diameter pipe 30km long transport oil from a tanker to the shore at
0.01m
3
/s. Find the Reynolds number to classify the flow. Take the viscosity = 0.1
Nm/s
2
and density = 900 kg/m
3
for oil. [AU, April / May - 2003]
2.77) Find the loss of head when a pipe of diameter 200 mm is suddenly enlarged to a
diameter 0f 400 mm. Rate of flow of water through the pipe is 250 litres/s.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
PART - B
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2.78) What are the various types of fluid flows? Discuss [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.79) Define minor losses. How they are different from major losses?
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.80) Discuss on various minor losses in pipe flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
2.81) Which has a greater minor loss co-efficient during pipe flow: gradual expansion
or gradual contraction? Why? [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.82) Derive Chezys formula for loss of head due to friction in pipes.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.83) What is the hydraulic gradient line? How does it differ from the total energy
line? Under what conditions do both lines coincide with the free surface of a
liquid? [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.84) Write notes on the following:
Concept of boundary layer.
Moody diagram.
2.85) Briefly explain Moodys diagram regarding pipe friction
[AU, May / J une - 2014]
2.86) For a flow of viscous fluid flowing through a circular pipe under laminar flow
conditions, show that the velocity distribution is a parabola. And also show that the
average velocity is half of the maximum velocity. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
2.87) For flow of viscous fluids through an annulus derive the following expressions:
Discharge through the annulus.
Shear stress distribution. [AU, May / J une 2007, 2012]
2.88) For a laminar flow through a pipe line, show that the average velocity is half of
the maximum velocity.
2.89) Prove that the Hagen-Poiseuilles equation for the pressure difference between
two sections 1 and 2 in a pipe is given by with usual notations.
2.90) Derive Hagen Poiseuilles equation and state its assumptions made.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
2.91) Derive Hagen Poiseuilles equation [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.92) Obtain the expression for Hagen Poiseuilles flow. Deduce the condition of
maximum velocity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
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2.93) Give a proof a Hagen Poiseuilles equation for a fully developed laminar
flow in a pipe and hence show that Darcy friction coefficient is equal to 16/R
e
,
where R
e
is Reynolds number. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.94) Derive an expression for head loss through pipes due to friction.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
2.95) Explain Reynolds experiment to demonstrate the difference between laminar
flow and turbulent flow through a pipe line.
2.96) Derive Darcy - Weisbach formula for calculating loss of head due to friction in a
pipe. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.97) Derive Darcy - Weisbach formula for head loss due to friction in flow through
pipes. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
2.98) Obtain expression for Darcy Weisbach friction factor f for flow in pipe.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.99) Explain the losses of energy in flow through pipes. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.100) Derive an expression for Darcy Weisbach formula to determine the head loss
due to friction. Give an expression for relation between friction factor f and
Reynoldss number Re for laminar and turbulent flow. [AU, April / May - 2003]
2.101) Prove that the head lost due to friction is equal to one third of the total head at
inlet for maximum power transmission through pipes. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.102) Show that for laminar flow, the frictional loss of head is given by
h
f
= 8 fLQ
2
/g
2
D
5
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.103) Derive Eulers equation of motion for flow along a stream line. What are the
assumptions involved. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.104) A uniform circular tube of bore radius R
1
has a fixed co axial cylindrical solid
2
. An incompressible viscous fluid flows through the annular
passage under a pressure gradient (-p/x). Determine the radius at which shear
stress in the stream is zero, given that the flow is laminar and under steady state
condition. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.105) If the diameter of the pipe is doubled, what effect does this have on the flow
rate for a given head loss for laminar flow and turbulent flow.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
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2.106) Derive an expression for the variation of jet radius r with distance y
downwards for a jet directed downwards. The initial radius is R and the head of
fluid is H. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.107) Distinguish between pipes connected in series and parallel.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
2.108) Determine the equivalent pipe corresponding to 3 pipes in series with lengths
and diameters l
1
, l
2
, l
3
, d
1
, d
2
, d
3
respectively. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.109) For sudden expansion in a pipe flow, work out the optimum ratio between the
diameter of before expansion and the diameter of the pipe after expansion so that
the pressure rise is maximum. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.110) Obtain the condition for maximum power transmission through a pipe line.
2.111) Explain stream lines, path lines and flow net. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.112) What are the uses and limitations of flow net? [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.113) Briefly explain about boundary layer separation. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.114) Explain on boundary layer separation and its control.
2.115) Considering a flow over a flat plate, explain briefly the development of
hydrodynamic boundary layer. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.116) Discuss in detail about boundary layer thickness and separation of boundary
layer. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.117) What is boundary layer and write its types of thickness?
[AU, April / May - 2003]
2.118) Explain in detail
Drag and lift coefficients
Boundary layer thickness
Boundary layer separation
Naviers strokes equation. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.119) In a water reservoir flow is through a circular hole of diameter D at the side
wall at a vertical distance H from the free surface. The flow rate through an actual
hole with a sharp-edged entrance (k
L
= 0.5) will be considerably less than the flow
rate calculated assuming frictionless flow. Obtain a relation for the equivalent
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diameter of the sharp-edged hole for use in frictionless flow relations.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.120) Define : Boundary layer thickness(); Displacement thickness(
*
); Momentum
thickness() and energy thickness(
**
). [AU, April / May - 2010]
2.121) Briefly explain the following terms
Displacement thickness
Momentum thickness
Energy thickness [AU, May / J une - 2014]
2.122) Find the displacement thickness momentum thickness and energy thickness for
the velocity distribution in the boundary layer given by (u/v) = (y/), where uis
the velocity at a distance y from the plate and u=U at y=, where = boundary
layer thickness. Also calculate (
*
/). [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007, April / May - 2010]
2.123) Explain the concept of boundary layer in pipes for both laminar and turbulent
flows with neat sketches. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
2.124) What is hydraulic gradient line? How does it differ from the total energy line?
Under what conditions do both lines coincide with surface of the liquid?
[AU, April / May - 2008]
2.125) Derive an expression for the velocity distribution for viscous flow through a
circular pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
2.126) Write a brief note on velocity potential function and stream function.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.127) Derive an expression for the velocity distribution for viscous flow through a
circular pipe. Also sketch the distribution of velocity cross a section of the pipe.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
PROBLEMS
2.128) A 20 cm diameter pipe 30 km long transports oil from a tanker to the shore at
0.01m
3
/s. Find the Reynolds number to classify the flow. Take viscosity and
density for oil.
2.129) A pipe line 20cm in diameter, 70m long, conveys oil of specific gravity 0.95
and viscosity 0.23 N.s/m
2
. If the velocity of oil is 1.38m/s, find the difference in
pressure between the two ends of the pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
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2.130) Oil of absolute viscosity 1.5 poise and density 848.3kg/m
3
flows through a
300mm pipe. If the head loss in 3000 m, the length of pipe is 200m, assuming
laminar flow, find
(i) the average velocity,
(ii) Reynoldss number and
(iii) Friction factor. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.131) An oil of specific gravity 0.7 is flowing through the pipe diameter 30cm at the
rate of 500litres/sec. Find the head lost due to friction and power required to
maintain the flow for a length of 1000m. Take = 0.29 stokes.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, May / J une - 2009]
2.132) A pipe line 10km, long delivers a power of 50kW at its outlet ends. The
pressure at inlet is 5000kN/m
2
and pressure drop per km of pipeline is 50kN/m
2
.
Find the size of the pipe and efficiency of transmission. Take 4f = 0.02.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
2.133) A lubricating oil flows in a 10 cm diameter pipe at 1 m/s. Determine whether
the flow is laminar or turbulent.
2.134) For the lubricating oil 2 = 0.1Ns /m and = 930 kg/m
3
. Calculate also
transition and turbulent velocities. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.135) Oil of ,mass density 800kg/m
3
and dynamic viscosity 0.02 poise flows through
50mm diameter pipe of length 500m at the rate of 0.19 liters/ sec. Determine
Reynolds number of flow
Center line of velocity
Loss of pressure in 500m length
Wall shear stress
Power required to maintain the flow. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.136) In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the velocity at R/2 (midway
between the wall surface and the center line) is measured to be 6m/s. Determine the
velocity at the center of the pipe. [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.137) A pipe 85m long conveys a discharge of 25litres per second. If the loss of head
is 10.5m. Find the diameter of the pipe take friction factor as 0.0075.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
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2.138) A smooth pipe carries 0.30m
3
/s of water discharge with a head loss of 3m per
100m length of pipe. If the water temperature is 20C, determine diameter of the
pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.139) Water is flowing through a pipe of 250 mm diameter and 60 m long at a rate of
0.3 m
3
/sec. Find the head loss due to friction. Assume kinematic viscosity of
water 0.012 stokes.
2.140) Consider turbulent flow (f = 0.184 Re
-0.2
) of a fluid through a square channel
with smooth surfaces. Now the mean velocity of the fluid is doubled. Determine
the change in the head loss of the fluid. Assume the flow regime remains
unchanged. What will be the head loss for fully turbulent flow in a rough pipe?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
2.141) A pipe of 12cm diameter is carrying an oil ( = 2.2 Pa.s and = 1250 kg/m
3
)
with a velocity of 4.5 m/s. Determine the shear stress at the wall surface of the
pipe, head loss if the length of the pipe is 25 m and the power lost.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.142) Find the head loss due to friction in a pipe of diameter 30cm and length 50cm,
through which water is flowing at a velocity of 3m/s using Darcys formula.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.143) For a turbulent flow in a pipe of diameter 300 mm, find the discharge when the
center-line velocity is 2.0 m/s and the velocity at a point 100 mm from the center as
measured by pitot-tube is 1.6 m/s. [AU, April / May - 2010]
2.144) A laminar flow is taking place in a pipe of diameter 20cm. The maximum
velocity is 1.5m/s. Find the mean velocity and radius at which this occurs. Also
calculate the velocity at 4cm from the wall pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.145) Water is flowing through a rough pipe of diameter 60 cm at the rate of
600litres/second. The wall roughness is 3 mm. Find the power loss for 1 km
length of pipe.
2.146) Water flows in a 150 mm diameter pipe and at a sudden enlargement, the loss
of head is found to be one-half of the velocity head in 150 mm diameter pipe.
Determine the diameter of the enlarged portion.
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2.147) A 150mm diameter pipe reduces in diameter abruptly to 100mm diameter. If
the pipe carries water at 30 liters per second, calculate the pressure loss across the
contraction. The coefficient of contraction as 0.6. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.148) A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.85, changes in diameter from
350mm at position 1 to 550mm diameter to a position 2, which is at 6m at a higher
level. If the pressure at position 1 and 2 are taken as 20N/cm
2
and 15N/cm
2

respectively and discharge through the pipe is 0.2m
3
/s. Determine the loss of head.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
2.149) A pipe line carrying oil of specific gravity 0.87, changes in diameter from
200mm at position A to 500mm diameter to a position B, which is at 4m at a higher
level. If the pressure at position A and B are taken as 9.81N/cm
2
and 5.886N/cm
2

respectively and discharge through the pipe is 200 litres/s. Determine the loss of
head and direction of flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.150) A 30cm diameter pipe of length 30cm is connected in series to a 20 cm
diameter pipe of length 20cm to convey discharge. Determine the equivalent length
of pipe diameter 25cm, assuming that the friction factor remains the same and the
minor losses are negligible. [AU, April / May - 2003]
2.151) A pipe of 0.6m diameter is 1.5 km long. In order of augment the discharge,
another line of the same diameter is introduced parallel to the first in the second
half of the length. Neglecting minor losses. Find the increase in discharge, if
friction factor f= 0.04. The head at inlet is 40m.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2004, 2005, 2012]
2.152) A pipe of 10 cm in diameter and 1000 m long is used to pump oil of viscosity
8.5 poise and specific gravity 0.92 at the rate of1200 lit./min. The first 30 m of the
pipe is laid along the ground sloping upwards at 10 to the horizontal and
remaining pipe is laid on the ground sloping upwards 15 to the horizontal. State
whether the flow is laminar or turbulent? Determine the pressure required to be
developed by the pump and the power required for the driving motor if the pump
efficiency is 60%. Assume suitable data for friction factor, if required.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.153) Oil with a density of 900 kg/m
3
and kinematic viscosity of 6.2 10
-4
m
2
is being
discharged by a 6 mm diameter, 40 m long horizontal pipe from a storage tank
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open to the atmosphere. The height of the liquid level above the center of the pipe
is 3 m. Neglecting the minor losses, determine the flow rate of oil through the pipe.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.154) The velocity of water in a pipe 200mm diameter is 5m/s. The length of the pipe
is 500m. Find the loss of head due to friction, if f = 0.008. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
2.155) A 200mm diameter (f = 0.032) 175m long discharges a 65mm diameter water
jet into the atmosphere at a point which is 75m below the water surface at intake.
The entrance to the pipe is reentrant with k
e
= 0.92 and the nozzle loss coefficient
is 0.06. Find the flow rate and the pressure head at the base of the nozzle.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
2.156) A pipe line 2000m long is used for power transmission 110kW is to be
transmitted through a pipe in which water is having a pressure of 5000kN/m
2
at
inlet is flowing. If the pressure drop over a length of a pipe is 1000kN/m
2
and
coefficient of friction is 0.0065, find the diameter of the pipe and efficiency of
transmission. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
2.157) A horizontal pipe of 400 mm diameter is suddenly contracted to a diameter of
200 mm. The pressure intensities in the large and small pipe are given as 15 N/cm
2

and 10 N/cm
2
respectively. Find the loss of head due to contraction, if C
c
= 0.62,
determine also the rate of flow of water.
2.158) A horizontal pipe line 40 m long is connected to a water tank at one end and
discharges freely into the atmosphere at the other end. For the first 25 m of its
length from the tank, the pipe is 150 mm diameter and its diameter is suddenly
enlarged to 300 mm. The height of water level in the tank is 8 m above the centre
of the pipe. Considering all losses of head which occur, determine the rate of flow.
Take f = 0.01 for both sections of the pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
2.159) A 15cm diameter vertical pipe is connected to 10cm diameter vertical pipe with
a reducing socket. The pipe carries a flow of 100 l/s. At a point 1 in 15cm pipe
gauge pressure is 250kPa. At point 2 in the 10cm pipe located 1m below point 1 the
gauge pressure is 175kPa.
Find weather the flow is upwards /downwards
Head loss between the two points [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
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2.160) The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.25 m
3
/sec. The
diameter of the pipe, which is 20 cm, is suddenly enlarged to 40 cm. The pressure
intensity in the smaller pipe is 11.7 N/cm
2
. Determine the loss of head due to
sudden enlargement and pressure intensity in the larger pipe, power loss due to
enlargement. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.161) A 45 reducing bend is connected to a pipe line. The inlet and outlet diameters
of the bend being 600mm and 300mm respectively. Find the force exerted by water
on the bend, if the intensity of pressure at inlet to bend is 8.829N/cm
2
and the rate
of flow of water is 600 liters/s. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
2.162) Horizontal pipe carrying water is gradually tapering. At one section the
diameter is 150mm and the flow velocity is 1.5m/s. If the drop pressure is 1.104bar
is reduced section, determine the diameter of that section. If the drop is 5kN/m
2
,
what will be the diameter Neglect the losses? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.163) The rate of flow of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.3m
3
/sec. The diameter
of the pipe, which is 25cm, is suddenly enlarged to 50 cm. The pressure intensity
in the smaller pipe is 14N/cm
2
. Determine the loss of head due to sudden
enlargement, pressure intensity in the larger pipe power lost due to enlargement.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
2.164) Water at 15C ( =999.1 kg/m
3
and = 1.138 x 10
-3
in a30-m-long and 4 cm diameter horizontal pipe made of stainless steel at a rate of
8 L/s. Determine (i) the pressure drop, (ii) the head loss, and (iii) the pumping
power requirement to overcome this pressure drop. Assume friction factor for the
pipe as 0.015. [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.165) The discharge of water through a horizontal pipe is 0.25m3/s. The diameter of
above pipe which is 200mm suddenly enlarges to 400mm at a point. If the pressure
of water in the smaller diameter of pipe is 120kN/m
2
, determine loss of head due to
sudden enlargement; pressure of water in the larger pipe and the power lost due to
sudden enlargement. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.166) A pipe of varying sections has a sectional area of 3000, 6000 and 1250 mm
2
at
point A, B and C situated 16 m, 10 m and 2 m above the datum. If the beginning of
the pipe is connected to a tank which is filled with water to a height of 26 m above
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the datum, find the discharge, velocity and pressure head at A, B and C. Neglect all
losses. Take atmospheric pressure as 10 m of water.
2.167) An existing 300mm diameter pipeline of 3200m length connects two reservoirs
having 13m difference in their water levels. Calculate the discharge Q
1
. If a parallel
pipe 300mm in diameter is attached to the last 1600m length of the above existing
pipe line, find the new discharge Q
2
. What is the change in discharge? Express it as
a % of Q
1
. Assume friction factor f = 0.14 in Darcy Weisbach formula.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.168) Two reservoirs with a difference in water surface elevation of 15 m are
connected by a pipe line ABCD that consists of three pipes AB, BC and CD joined
in series. Pipe AB is 10 cm in diameter, 20 m long and has f = 0.02. Pipe BC is of
16 cm diameter, 25 m long and has f = 0.018. Pipe CD is of 12 cm diameter, 15 m
long and has f = 0.02. The junctions with the reservoirs and between the pipes are
abrupt. (a) Calculate the discharge (b) What difference in reservoir elevation is
necessary to have a discharge of 20 litres/sec? Include all minor losses.
2.169) Two tanks of fluid ( = 998 kg/m
3
and = 0.001 kg/ms.) at 20C are
connected by a capillary tube 4 mm in diameter and 3.5 m long. The surface of
tank 1 is 30 cm higher than the surface of tank 2. Estimate the flow rate in m
3
/h. Is
the flow laminar? For what tube diameter will Reynolds number be 500?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
2.170) Three pipes of 400mm, 350mm and 300mm diameter connected in series
between two reservoirs. With difference in level of 12m. Friction factor is 0.024,
0.021 and 0.019 respectively. The lengths are 200m, 300m and 250m. Determine
flow rate neglecting the minor losses. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.171) Three pipes of diameters 300 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm and lengths450 m, 255
m and 315 m respectively are connected in series. The difference in water surface
levels in two tanks is 18 m. Determine the rate of flow of water if coefficients of
friction are 0.0075, 0.0078and 0.0072 respectively considering: the minor losses
and by neglecting minor losses. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
2.172) Three pipes of diameters 300 mm, 200 mm and 400 mm and lengths 300 m,
170 m and 210 m respectively are connected in series. The difference in water
surface levels in two tanks is 12 m. Determine the rate of flow of water if
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coefficients of friction are 0.005, 0.0052 and 0.0048 respectively considering: the
minor losses and by neglecting minor losses [AU, May / J une 2012]
2.173) Three pipes connected in series to make a compound pipe. The diameters and
lengths of pipes are respectively, 0.4m, 0.2m, 0.3m and 400m, 200m, 300m. The
ends of the compound pipe are connected to 2 reservoirs whose difference in water
levels is 16m. The friction factor for all the pipes is same and equal to 0.02. The
coefficient of contraction is 0.6. Find the discharge through the compound pipe if,
minor losses are negligible. Also find the discharge if minor losses are included.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.174) A compound piping system consists of 1800 m of 0.5 m, 1200 m of 0.4 m and
600 m of 0.3 m new cast-iron pipes connected in series. Convert the system to (i)
an equivalent length of0.4 m diameter pipe and (ii) an equivalent size of pipe of
3600 m length. [AU, April / May - 2003]
2.175) A pipe line of 600 mm diameter is 1.5 km long. To increase the discharge,
another line of the same diameter is introduced parallel to the first in the second
half of the length. If f = 0.01 and head at inlet is 30 m, calculate the increase in
discharge.
2.176) A pipe line of 0.6m diameter is 1.5Km long. To increase the discharge,
another line of same diameter is introduced in parallel to the first in second half of
the length. Neglecting the minor losses, find the increase in discharge if 4f = 0.04.
The head at inlet is 30cm. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.177) Two pipes of 15cm and 30cm diameters are laid in parallel to pass a total
discharge of 100 litres per second. Each pipe is 250m long. Determine discharge
through each pipe. Now these pipes are connected in series to connect two tanks
500m apart, to carry same total discharge. Determine water level difference
between the tanks. Neglect the minor losses in both cases, f=0.02 f
n
both pipes.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
2.178) Two pipes of diameter 40 cm and 20 cm are each 300 m long. When the pipes
are connected in series and discharge through the pipe line is0.10 m
3
/sec, find the
loss of head incurred. What would be the loss of head in the system to pass the
same total discharge when the pipes are connected in parallel? Take f = 0.0075 for
each pipe. [AU, May / J une 2007, 2012, Nov / Dec - 2010]
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2.179) A main pipe divides into two parallel pipes, which again forms one pipe. The
length and diameter for the first parallel pipe are 2000m and 1m respectively, while
the length and diameter of second parallel pipe are 200m and 0.8m respectively.
Find the rate of flow in each parallel pipe, if total flow in the main is 3m
3
/s. The
coefficient of friction for each parallel pipe is same and equal to 0.005.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
2.180) The main pipe is divided into two parallel pipes which again forms one pipe,
the first parallel pipe has length of 1000 m and diameter of 0.8 m. The second
parallel pipe has length of 1000 m and diameter of 0.6 m. The coefficient friction
for each parallel pipe is 0.005. If the total rate of flow in the main pipe is 2 m
3
/sec,
find the rate of flow in each parallel pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
2.181) For a town water supply, a main pipe line of diameter 0.4 m is required. As
pipes more than 0.35m diameter are not readily available, two parallel pipes of
same diameter are used for water supply. If the total discharge in the parallel pipes
is same as in the single main pipe, find the diameter of parallel pipe. Assume co-
efficient of discharge to be the same for all the pipes. [AU, April / May - 2010]
2.182) Two pipes of identical length and material are connected in parallel. The
diameter of pipe A is twice the diameter of pipe B. Assuming the friction factor to
be the same in both cases and disregarding minor losses, determine the ratio of the
flow rates in the two pipes. [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.183) A pipe line 30cm in diameter and 3.2m long is used to pump up 50Kg per
second of oil whose density is 950 Kg/m
3
and whose kinematic viscosity is 2.1
strokes, the center of the pipe line at the upper end is 40m above than the lower
end. The discharge at the upper end is atmospheric. Find the pressure at the lower
end and draw the hydraulic gradient and total energy line. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.184) Two water reservoirs A and B are connected to each other through a 50 m long,
2.5 cm diameter cast iron pipe with a sharp-edged entrance. The pipe also involves
a swing check valve and a fully open gate valve. The water level in both reservoirs
is the same, but reservoir A is pressurized by compressed air while reservoir B is
open to the atmosphere. If the initial flow rate through the pipe is 1.5 l/s, determine
the absolute air pressure on top of reservoir A. Take the water temperature to be
25C. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
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2.185) When water is being pumped is a pumping plant through a 600mm diameter
main, the friction head was observed as 27m. In order to reduce the power
consumption, it is proposed to lay another main of appropriate diameter along the
side of existing one, so that the two pipes will work in parallel for the entire length
and reduce the friction head to 9.6m only. Find the diameter of the new main if
with the exception of diameter; it is similar to the existing one in all aspects.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
2.186) Determine the
The shear stress at the two horizontal parallel plates and
Discharge per meter width for the laminar flow of oil with maximum
velocity 2m/s between two horizontal parallel fixed plates which are
10cm apart. Given = 2.4525 Ns/m
2
[AU, April / May - 2011]
2.187) In fully developed laminar flow in a circular pipe, the velocity at R/2 (midway
between the wall surface and the centerline) is measured to be 6 m/s. Determine
the velocity at the center of the pipe. [AU, April / May - 2008]
2.188) A smooth two dimensional flat plate is exposed to a wind velocity of 100
km/h. If laminar boundary layer exists up to a value of Re
x
equal to 3 x 10
5
, find
the maximum distance up to which laminar boundary layer exists and find its
maximum thickness. Assume kinematic viscosity of air as 1.49 x 10
-5
m
2
/sec.
[AU, April / May - 2003]
2.189) Air is flowing over a flat plate with a velocity of 5 m/s. The length of the plate
is 2.5 m and width 1 m. The kinematic viscosity of air is given as 0.15 x 10
-4
m
2
/s.
Find the
(i) boundary layer thickness at the end of plate
(ii) shear stress at 20 cm from the leading edge
(iii) shear stress at 175 cm from the leading edge
(iv) Drag force on one side of the plate.
(v) Take the velocity profile over a plate as and the density of air1.24 kg/m
3
.
2.190) A plate of 600mm length and 400mm wide is immersed in a fluid of specific
gravity 0.9 and kinematic viscosity of = 10
-4
m
2
/s. The fluid is moving with
velocity of 6m/s. Determine
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Boundary layer thickness
Shear stress at the end of the plate
Drag force on one side of the plate. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.191) Water at 20 C enters a pipe with a uniform velocity (U) of 3m/s. What is the
distance at which the transition (x) occurs from a laminar to a turbulent boundary
layer? If the thickness of this initial laminar boundary layer is given by 4.91(vx/U)
what is its thickness at the point of transition?(v kinematic viscosity).
[AU, April / May - 2011]
2.192) A flat plate 1.5 m x 1.5 m moves at 50 km/h in stationary air of density 1.15
kg/m
3
. If the co-efficient of drag and lift are 0.15 and 0.75 respectively, determine
the
(i) Lift force
(ii) Drag force
(iii) The resultant force and
(iv) The power required to set the plate in motion. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
2.193) A jet plane which weighs 29430 N and has the wing area of 20m
2
flies at the
velocity of 250km/hr. When the engine delivers 7357.5kW. 65% of power is used
to overcome the drag resistance of the wing. Calculate the coefficient of lift and
coefficient of drag for the wing. Take density of air = 1.21 kg/m
3

[AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.194) For the velocity profile in laminar boundary layer as u/U = 3/2 (y/)-1/2(y/)
3
.
Find the thickness of the boundary layer and shear stress, 1.8m from the leading
edge of a plate. The plate is 2.5 m long and 1.5 m wide is placed in water, which is
moving with a velocity of 15 cm/sec. Find the drag on one side of the plate if the
viscosity of water is 0.01 poise. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
2.195) Consider flow of oil through a pipe of 0.3m diameter. The velocity distribution
is parabolic with maximum velocity of 3 m/s at the pipe centre. Estimate the shear
stress at the pipe wall and within the fluid 50mm from the pipe wall. The viscosity
of the oil is 1.7Pa.s. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.196) The velocity distribution for flow over a plate is given by u = 2y y
2
where u
is the velocity in m/sec at a distance y meters above the plate. Determine the
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velocity gradient and shear stress at the boundary and 0.15m from it. Dynamic
viscosity of the fluid is 0.9Ns/m
2
[AU, April / May - 2010]
2.197) The velocity distribution in the boundary layer is given by u/U = y/, where u
is the velocity at the distance y from the plate u = U at y = , being boundary
layer thickness. Find the displacement thickness, momentum thickness and energy
thickness. [AU, April / May - 2010]
2.198) The flow rate in a 260mm diameter pipe is 220 litres/sec. The flow is turbulent,
and the centerline velocity is 4.85m/s. Plot the velocity profile, and determine the
head loss per meter of pipe. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.199) The velocity distribution over a plate is given by u = (3/4) * y y
2
where u is
velocity in m/s and at depth y in m above the plate. Determine the shear stress at a
distance of 0.3m from the top of plate. Assume dynamic viscosity of the fluid is
taken as 0.95 Ns/m
2
[AU, April / May - 2005]
2.200) The velocity distribution over a plate is given by a relation,
= (
2
3
)
Where y is the vertical distance above the plate in meters. Assuming a
viscosity of 0.9Pa.s, find the shear stress at y = 0 and y = 0.15m.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
2.201) An oil of viscosity 0.9Pa.s and density 900kg/m
3
flows through a pipe of
100mm diameter. The rate of pressure drop for every meter length of pipe is 25kPa.
Find the oil flow arte, drag force per meter length, pumping power required to
maintain the flow over a distance of 1km, velocity and shear stress at 15, from the
pipe wall. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
2.202) Consider the flow of a fluid with viscosity m through a circular pipe. The
velocity profile in the pipe is given as where is the maximum flow velocity, which
occurs at the centerline; r is the radial distance from the centerline; is the flow
velocity at any position r; and R is the Reynold's number. Develop a relation for
the drag force exerted on the pipe wall by the fluid in the flow direction per unit
length of the pipe. [AU, April / May - 2008]

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2.203) Velocity components in flow are given by U = 4x, V = -4y. Determine the
stream and potential functions. Plot these functions for 60, 120, 180, and 240 and
0, 60, 120, 180, +60, +120, +180. Check for continuity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
2.204) A fluid of specific gravity 0.9 flows along a surface with a velocity profile
given by v = 4y - 8y
3
m/s, where y is in m. What is the velocity gradient at the
boundary? If the kinematic viscosity is 0.36S, what is the shear stress at the
boundary? [A.U. Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.205) In a two dimensional incompressible flow the fluid velocities are given by u =
x ay and v = - y 4x. Show that the velocity potential exists and determine its
form. Find also the stream function. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
2.206) A smooth flat plate with a sharp leading edge is placed along a free stream of
water flowing at 3m/s. Calculate the distance from the leading edge and the
boundary thickness where the transition from laminar to turbulent- flow may
commence. Assume the density of water as 1000 kg/m
3
and viscosity as
1centipoise. [AU, April / May - 2011]
2.207) A smooth two dimensional flat plate is exposed to a wind velocity of 100
km/hr. If laminar boundary layer exists up to a value of R
N
= 3 x10
5
, find the
maximum distance up to which laminar boundary layer persists and find its
maximum thickness. Assume kinematic viscosity of air as 1.49x10
-5
m
2
/s.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
2.208) A power transmission pipe 10 cm diameter and 500 m long is fitted with a
nozzle at the exit, the inlet is from a river with water level 60 m above the
discharge nozzle. Assume f = 0.02, calculate the maximum power which can be
transmitted and the diameter of nozzle required. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]

u
max
u(r) = u
max
(1-r / R )
n n
R
r
o
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UNIT - III - DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
PART - A
3.1) What do you understand by fundamental units and derived units?
[AU, April / May - 2010]
3.2) Differentiate between fundamental units and derived units. Give examples.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.3) Define dimensional analysis.
3.4) What do you mean by dimensional analysis? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
3.5) Define dimensional homogeneity.
3.6) What is dimensional homogeneity and write any one sample equation?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
3.7) Explain the term dimensional homogeneity. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.8) Give the methods of dimensional analysis.
3.9) State a few applications, usefulness of dimensional analysis.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
3.10) What is a dimensionally homogenous equation? Give example.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
3.11) Cite examples for dimensionally homogeneous and non-homogeneous
equations. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
3.12) Check whether the following equation is dimensionally homogeneous.
Q =Cd .a (2 gh) . [AU, April / May - 2011]
3.13) Define Rayleigh's method.
3.14) Give the Rayleigh method to determine dimensionless groups.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.15) State any two choices of selecting repeating variables in Buckingham
theorem. [AU, April / May - 2011]
3.16) State Buckinghams theorem. [AU, Nov / Dec 2008, 2012]
3.17) What is Buckingham's theorem?
3.18) The excess pressure p inside a bubble is known to be a function of the surface
tension and the radius. By dimensional reasoning determine how the excess
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pressure. Will vary if we double the surface tension and the radius.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
3.19) Distinguish between Rayleigh's method and Buckingham's - theorem.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
3.20) Under what circumstances, will Buckinghams theorem yield incorrect
number of dimensionless group?
3.21) State a few applications / usefulness of dimensional analysis.
3.22) Define Euler's number. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
3.23) List out any four rules to select repeating variable.
3.24) Define similitude.
3.25) Give the three types of similarities.
3.26) What are the types of similarities? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
3.27) Define geometric similarity.
3.28) Define kinematic similarity.
3.29) Define dynamic similarity.
3.30) What is meant by dynamic similarity? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
3.31) What is dynamic similarity? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
3.32) What is similarity in model study? [AU, April / May - 2005]
3.33) What is scale effect in physical model study?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2006, May / J une 2012]
3.34) If two systems (model and prototype) are dynamically similar, is it implied that
they are also kinematically and geometrically similar? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
3.35) Distinguish between a control and differential control volume.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
3.36) Mention the circumstances which necessitate the use of distorted models.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
3.37) Give the types of forces in a moving fluid.
3.38) Give the dimensions of power and specific weight. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
3.39) Define inertia force.
3.40) Define viscous force.
3.41) Define gravity and pressure force.
3.42) Define surface tension force.
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3.43) Define dimensionless numbers.
3.44) Give the types of dimensionless numbers.
3.45) Give the dimensions of the following physical quantities: surface tension and
dynamic viscosity. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
3.46) Define Reynolds number. What its significance? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
3.47) Define Reynolds number and Froudes numbers. [AU, Nov / Dec 2007,2011]
3.48) Define the Froude's dimensionless number. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
3.49) Define Froude's number.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2009, 2008, April / May 2010, May / J une - 2012]
3.50) State Froude's model law. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
3.51) Define Euler number and Mach number. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
3.52) Define Reynolds number and Mach number. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
3.53) Define Mach number. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
3.54) What is Mach number? Mention its field of use. [AU, April / May - 2003]
3.55) Define Mach's number and mention its field of use.
3.56) Write down the dimensionless number for pressure. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
PART - B
3.57) What is repeating variables? How are these selected? [AU, May / J une - 2007]
3.58) State the similarity laws used in model analysis. [AU, April / May - 2010]
3.59) State and explain the various laws of similarities between model and its
prototype.
3.60) What is meant by geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarities?
[AU, May / J une 2007, 2014]
3.61) What is meant by geometric, kinematic and dynamic similarities? Are these
similarities truly attainable? If not, why? [AU, May / J une - 2009]
3.62) Explain the different types of similarities exist between a proto type and its
model. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
3.63) What is distorted model and also give suitable example?
[AU, April / May - 2004]
3.64) What are distorted models? State merits and demerits. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
3.65) Define dimensional homogeneity and also give example for homogenous
equation. [AU, April / May - 2005]
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3.66) Classify Models with scale ratios. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
3.67) Derive on the basis of dimensional analysis suitable parameters to present the
thrust developed by a propeller. Assume that the thrust P depends upon the angular
velocity , speed of advance V, diameter D, dynamic viscosity , mass density ,
elasticity of the fluid medium which can be denoted by the speed of sound in the
medium C. [AU, Nov / Dec 2011, 2012]
3.68) Check the following equations are dimensionally homogenous
Drag force = ( C
d
U
2
A) where C
d
is coefficient of drag which is
constant
F = Q ( U
1
U
2
) / g ( P
1
A1 P
2
A
2
)
Total energy per unit mass = v
2
/2 + gz + P/
Q = / 15C
d
tan(/2) (2g) * (H)
5/2
where C
d
is coefficient of discharge
constant [AU, April / May - 2004, 2010, Nov / Dec - 2005]
3.69) Define and explain Reynolds number, Froudes number, Eulers number and
Machs number. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
3.70) What are the significance and the role of the following parameters?
Reynolds number
Froude number
Mach number
Weber number. [AU, April / May - 2011]
3.71) Define the following dimensionless numbers and state their significance for
fluid flow problems. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
Reynolds number
Mach number
3.72) Explain the Reynolds model law and state its applications.
3.73) Use dimensionless analysis to arrange the following groups into dimensionless
parameters; p, V, , g and f, , L, V use MLT system. [AU, April / May - 2011]
3.74) Use dimensional analysis and the MLT system to arrange the following into a
dimensionless number: L, , and a. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
3.75) Consider force F acting on the propeller of an aircraft, which depends upon the
variable U, , , D and N. Derive the non dimensional functional form F/(U
2
D
2
)
= f ((UD/),(ND/U)) [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
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3.76) The frictional torque T of a disc diameter D rotating at a speed N in a fluid of
viscosity and density in a turbulent flow is given by
T = D
5
N
2
[/D
2
N]. Prove this by Buckinghams theorem.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
3.77) Resistance R, to the motion of a completely submerged body is given by R =
v
2
l
2
(VL/), where and are the mass density and kinematic viscosity of the
fluid; v velocity of flow; l length of the body. If the resistance of a one eighth
scale air - ship model when tested in water at 12m/s is 22N, what will be the
resistance of the air ship at the corresponding aped, in air? Assume kinematic
viscosity of air is 13times that of water and density of water is 810 times of air.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007, April / May - 2010]
3.78) The resisting force R to a supersonic plane during flight can be considered as
dependent upon the length of the aircraft l, velocity V, air viscosity m, air density
and bulk modulus of air K. Express the functional relationship between these
variables and the resisting force.
3.79) The resisting force F of a plane during flight can be considered as dependent
upon the length of aircraft (l), velocity (v), air viscosity (), air density () and bulk
modulus of air (K). Express the functional relationship between these variables
using dimensional analysis. Explain the physical significance of the dimensionless
groups arrived. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
3.80) Derive an expression for the shear stress at the pipe wall when an
incompressible fluid flows through a pipe under pressure. Use dimensional analysis
with the following significant parameters: pipe diameter D, flow velocity V, and
viscosity and density of the fluid. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
3.81) The resistance R, to the motion of a completely submerged body depends upon
the length of the body (L), velocity of flow (V), mass density of fluid (),
kinematic viscosity (). Prove by dimensional analysis that
R = V
2
L
2
(VL/) [AU, May / J une - 2009]
3.82) The power developed by hydraulic machines is found to depend on the head h,
flow rate Q, density , speed N, runner diameter D, and acceleration due to gravity
g. Obtain suitable dimensionless parameters to correlate experimental results.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
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3.83) Show that the power P developed in a water turbine can be expressed as:

Where, r = Mass density of the liquid,
N = Speed in rpm,
D = Diameter of the runner,
B = Width of the runner and
m = Dynamic viscosity [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.84) The capillary rise h is found to be influenced by the tube diameter D, density ,
gravitational acceleration g and surface tension . Determine the dimensionless
parameters for the correlation of experimental results. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.85) Using dimensional analysis, obtain a correlation for the frictional torque due to
rotation of a disc in a viscous fluid. The parameters influencing the torque can be
identified as the diameter, rotational speed, viscosity and density of the fluid.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.86) The drag force on a smooth sphere is found to be affected by the velocity of
flow, u, the diameter D of the sphere and the fluid properties density and
viscosity . Find the dimensionless groups to correlate the parameters.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
3.87) State Buckingham's - theorem. What do you mean by repeating variables?
How are the repeating variables selected in dimensional analysis?
3.88) State Buckingham's - theorem. What are the considerations in the choice of
repeating variables? [AU, April / May - 2010]
3.89) Express efficiency in terms of dimensionless parameters using density,
viscosity, angular velocity, diameter of rotor and discharge using Buckingham
theorem. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
3.90) State the Buckingham theorem. What are the criteria for selecting repeating
variable in this dimensional analysis? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
3.91) State Buckingham theorem. Mention the important principle for selecting
the repeating variables. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
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3.92) State and prove Buckingham theorem.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2009, April / May - 2010]
3.93) Using Buckinghams - theorem show that the velocity through a circular
orifice is given by V = (2gH) [(D/H), (/VH)
Where H is the head causing the flow
D is the diameter of the orifice
is the coefficient of velocity
is the mass density
g is the acceleration due to gravity [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, April / May - 2010]
3.94) Using Buckingham's - theorem, show that the pressure difference DP in a pipe
of diameter D and length l due to turbulent flow depends on the velocity V,
viscosity m, density and roughness k.
3.95) The efficiency () of a fan depends on (density), (viscosity) of the fluid,
(angular velocity), d(diameter of rotor) and Q(discharge). Express in terms of
non-dimensional parameters. Use Buckingham's theorem.
[AU, April / May - 2010, 2011]
3.96) The pressure difference p in a pipe of diameter D and length L due to viscos
flow depends on the velocity V, viscosity and density . Using Buckingham's
theorem, obtain an expression for p. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
3.97) The power required by the pump is a function of discharge Q, head H,
acceleration due to gravity g, viscosity , mass density of the fluid , speed of
rotation N and impeller diameter D. Obtain the relevant dimensionless parameters.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
3.98) State Buckingham's -theorem. The discharge of a centrifugal pump (Q) is
dependent on N (speed of pump), d (diameter of impeller), g (acceleration due to
gravity), H (manometric head developed by pump) and and (density and
dynamic viscosity of the fluid). Using the dimensional analysis and Buckingham's
-theorem, prove that it is given by [AU, May / J une - 2013]
=
3
(

2
,

)
3.99) Consider viscous flow over a very small object. Analysis of the equations of
motion shows that the inertial terms are much smaller than viscous and pressure
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terms. Fluid density drops out, and these are called creeping flows. The only
important parameters are velocity U, viscosity , and body length scale d. For
three-dimensional bodies,. Like spheres, creeping flow analysis yields very good
results. It is uncertain, however, if creeping flow applies to two-dimensional
bodies, such as cylinders, since even though the diameter may be very small, the
length of the cylinder is infinite. Let us see if dimensional analysis can help. (1)
Apply the Pi theorem to two-dimensional drag force F
2-D
, as a function of the other
parameters. Be careful: two-dimensional drag has dimensions of fake per unit
length, not simply force. (2) Is your analysis in part (1) physically plausible? If not,
explain why not. (3) It turns out that fluid density cannot be neglected in analysis
of creeping flow over two dimensional bodies. Repeat the dimensional analysis,
this time including as a variable, and find the resulting non dimensional relation
between the parameters in this problem. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
3.100) When fluid in a pipe is accelerated linearly from rest, it begins as laminar flow
and then undergoes transition to turbulence at a time t, which depends upon the
pipe diameter D, fluid acceleration a, density and viscosity . Arrange this into a
dimensionless relation between t and D. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
3.101) What are the similarities between model and prototype? Mention the
applications of model testing. [AU, May / J une - 2013]

PROBLEMS
3.102) Find the discharge through a weir model by knowing the discharge over the
actual (proto type) weir is measured as 1.5m
3
/s. The horizontal dimension of the
model = 1/50 of the horizontal dimensions of the proto type and the vertical
dimension of the model = 1/10 of the vertical dimension of the proto type. (Hint:
Apply Froude model law) [AU, April / May - 2004]
3.103) Model of an air duct operating with water produces a pressure drop of 10
kN/m
2
over 10 m length. If the scale ratio is 1/50. Density of water is 1000 kg/m
3

and density of air is 1.2 kg/m
3
. Viscosity of water is 01.001 Ns/m
2
and viscosity of
air 0.00002 Ns/m
2
. Estimate corresponding drop in a 20m long air duct.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2004, 2005, April / May - 2010]
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3.104) A model of a hydroelectric power station tail race is proposed to build by
selecting vertical scale 1 in 50 and horizontal scale 1 in 100. If the design pipe has
flow rate of 600m
3
/s and allow the discharge of 800m
3
/s. Calculate the
corresponding flow rates for the model testing. [AU, April / May - 2005]
3.105) A pipe of diameter 1.5 m is required to transport an oil of specific gravity 0.90
and viscosity 3 * 10
-2
poise at the rate 3000 litre / sec. Test where conducted on a
15cm diameter pipe using water at 20 C. Find the velocity and the rate of flow in
model. Viscosity of water at 20C = 0.01poise. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
3.106) In order to predict the pressure in a large air duct model is constructed with
linear dimensions (1/10)
th
that of the prototype and the water was used as the
testing fluid. If water is 1000 times denser than that of air and has 100 times the
viscosity of air, determine the pressure drop in the prototype, for the conditions
corresponding to a pressure drop of 70kPa, in the model. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
3.107) In an aero plane model of size 1/10 of its prototype, the pressure drop is
7.5kN/m
2
. The model is tested in water; find the corresponding drop in prototype.
Assume density of air = 1.24kg/m
3
; density of water = 1000kg/m
3
; viscosity of air
= 0.00018 poise; viscosity of water = 0.01 poise. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
3.108) A geometrically similar model of an air duct is built to 1/25 scale and tested
with water which is 50 times more viscous and 800 times denser than air. When
tested under dynamically similar conditions, the pressure drop is 200 kN/m
2
in the
model. Find the corresponding pressure drop in the full scale prototype and express
in cm of water. [AU, Nov / Dec 2010, May / J une - 2014]
3.109) Model tests have conducted to study the energy losses in a pipe line of 1m
diameter required to transport kerosene of specific gravity 0.80 and dynamic
viscosity 0.02 poise at the rate of 2000 litre/sec. Tests were conducted on a 10cm
diameter pipe using water at 20C. What is the flow rate in the model? If the
energy head loss in 30m length of the model is measured as 44cm of water, what
will be the corresponding head loss in the prototype? What will be the friction
factor for the prototype pipe. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
3.110) In a geometrically similar model of spillway the discharge per meter length is
0.2m
3
/sec. if the scale of the model is 1/36, find the discharge per meter run of the
prototype. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
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3.111) A spillway model is to be built to a geometrically similar scale of
1
50
- across a
flume of 600 mm width. The prototype is 15 m high and maximum head on it is
expected to be 1.5 m.
What height of model and what head on the model should be used?
If the flow over the model at a particular head is 12 litres per second, what
flow per metre length of the prototype is expected?
If the negative pressure in the model is 200 mm, what is the negative
pressure in prototype? Is it practicable? [AU, May / J une - 2013]
3.112) An agitator of diameter D rotates at a speed N in a liquid of density and
viscosity . Show that the power required to mix the liquid is expressed by a
functional form [AU, April / May - 2011]

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UNIT IV PUMPS
PART - A
4.1) Define centrifugal pump.
4.2) Mention the main parts of the Centrifugal pump. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
4.3) How centrifugal pumps are classified based on casing? [AU, May / J une - 2006]
4.4) Define impeller.
4.5) Define casing.
4.6) List the commonly used casings in centrifugal pumps. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.7) What is the role of a volute chamber of a centrifugal pump?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
4.8) What precautions are to be taken while starting and closing the centrifugal
pump? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.9) Define priming of centrifugal pump.
4.10) What is priming? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.11) Why priming is necessary in a centrifugal pump?
[AU, May / J une - 2007, April / May - 2010]
4.12) What is meant by priming of pumps? [AU, April / May - 2008]
4.13) What is priming? Why is it necessary? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.14) Define cavitation. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
4.15) Define cavitation in a pump. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.16) What is the effect of cavitation in pump? [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.17) What are the effects of cavitation? Give necessary precautions against
cavitations? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.18) What is cavitation? What causes it? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.19) Define the characteristic curves of centrifugal pump.
4.20) List out the types of characteristic curves.
4.21) Define multistage centrifugal pump and give its function.
4.22) What are the advantages of centrifugal pump over reciprocating pumps?
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.23) What is a delivery pipe?
4.24) Define manometric efficiency and mechanical efficiency of a centrifugal pump.
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4.25) What is the maximum theoretical suction head possible for a centrifugal pump?
[AU, April / May - 2008]
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
4.27) Define - manometric head and write its mathematical equation.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.28) What do you mean by Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH)?
[AU, May / J une - 2014]
4.29) How does the specific speed of a centrifugal pump differ from that of a turbine?
4.30) Write the equation for specific speed for pumps and also for turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
4.31) Define specific speed as applied to pumps. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.32) Define specific speed. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.33) What is specific speed of a pump? How are pumps classified based on this
number? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.34) What is a type number?
4.35) Give examples of machines handling gases with high pressure rise.
4.36) What do you mean by manometric efficiency and mechanical efficiency of a
centrifugal pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.37) Define pump.
4.38) What is the principle of pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.39) Give the classification of pumps.
4.40) What is a positive displacement pump?
4.41) Define non - positive displacement pump (or) roto dynamic pump.
4.42) List the types of positive displacement pumps.
4.43) Under what conditions would you suggest use of double-suction pump and a
multistage pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.44) What are roto dynamic pumps? Give examples. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.45) List the types of roto dynamic pumps.
4.46) What is a reciprocating pump?
4.47) Why the reciprocating pump is called a positive displacement pump?
[AU, April / May - 2011]
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4.48) How are reciprocating pumps classified? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.49) Define a single acting reciprocating pump.
4.50) Define a double acting reciprocating pump.
4.51) Brief the working of double acting reciprocating pump.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.52) When will you select a reciprocating pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
4.53) Draw the relationship between discharge and crank angle for a single acting
pump. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.54) What is the function of non return valve in a reciprocating pump?
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.55) Distinguish between centrifugal pump and reciprocating pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, 2012]
4.56) Mention the significance of 'back leakage'. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.57) Define slip of a reciprocating pump. What is negative slip? When does negative
slip occur?
4.58) Define slip of reciprocating pump. [AU, April / May - 2010, Nov / Dec - 2012]
4.59) When does negative slip occur? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
4.60) What is negative slip in a reciprocating pump? What are the causes for it?
[AU, May / J une - 2013]
4.61) Define slip of a pump. When does negative slip occur? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
4.62) Define slip and percentage of slip of a reciprocating pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, 2010]
4.63) Define slip, negative slip in reciprocating pump. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
4.64) Define slip and percentage slip. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.65) What is the % of slip in reciprocating pump? [AU, May / J une 2012]
4.66) Discuss slip and volumetric efficiency. [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.67) Define slip in reciprocating machines. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.68) Distinguish between pumps in series and pumps in parallel.
[AU, April / May - 2005]
4.69) What is percentage slip in reciprocating pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
4.70) Can actual discharge be greater than theoretical discharge in a reciprocating
pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
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4.71) Which factors determine the maximum speed of reciprocating pump?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.72) What factors govern the speed of reciprocating pump?
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.73) Define co-efficient of discharge.
4.74) Brief on acceleration head. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.75) Define rotary pump.
4.76) What are rotary pumps? Give examples [AU, April / May - 2003]
4.77) What is a rotary pump? Give its classification. [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.78) Define gear pump.
4.79) What is an air vessel?
4.80) What is the function of air vessel?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, May / J une - 2009, April / May - 2010]
4.81) What is an air vessel in reciprocating pump? [AU, May / J une - 2006]
4.82) Mention the working principle of an Air-vessel. [AU, April / May - 2010]
4.83) What is an air vessel? List the objectives that would be fulfilled by the use of air
vessels. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.84) What is an air vessel? What are its uses? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.85) What are the uses of air vessels? [AU, May / J une - 2014]
4.86) What are the advantages of air vessel? [AU, May / J une - 2013]
4.87) State the advantages of fitting air vessels in reciprocating pumps.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.88) Define indicator diagram. State its uses.
[AU, May / J une, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.89) What is indicator diagram? [AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.90) Draw the ideal indicator diagram. [AU, April / May - 2010]
4.91) Write down the formula for discharge, work done and power required for a
double acting reciprocating pump.
4.92) What is the main difference between a single acting and double acting
reciprocating pump?
4.93) Give the types of rotary pumps.
4.94) What is the formula for work done by a reciprocating pump?
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4.95) Give the formula for discharge through a double acting reciprocating pump.
4.96) A single acting reciprocating pump, running at 50rpm. The diameter of piston =
20cm and length = 40cm. Find the theoretical discharge of the pump.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.97) A centrifugal pump delivers 20 litres/s of water against a head of 850 mm at 900
rpm. Find the specific speed of pump. [AU, April / May - 2010]
4.98) The following data refer to a centrifugal pump which is designed to run at 1500
rpm. D
1
= 100 mm, D
2
= 300 mm, B
1
= 50 mm, B
2
= 20 mm, V
f1
= 3 m/s. Find the
velocity of flow at outlet. [AU, April / May - 2010]
4.99) A pump is to discharge 0.82 m
3
/s at a head of 42 m when running at 300 rpm.
What type of pump will be required? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]

PART - B
4.100) Draw typical velocity triangles for fluid motion along a series of moving curve
vanes and derive Eulers equation of energy transfer. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.101) Explain the construction and working of a centrifugal pump with a neat sketch.
4.102) Explain the operation of centrifugal pump with the help of a neat sketch. Write
short notes on different types of casing used in centrifugal pumps.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.103) What is the role of volute chamber of a centrifugal pump? Define manometric
head. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.104) Sketch and briefly describe the volute diffusion type pumps. What function is
served by volute chamber in a centrifugal pump? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
pumps. [AU, April / May - 2008]
4.106) What is priming in a centrifugal pump? Why is it necessary?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
4.107) Obtain the expression for work done by impeller of a centrifugal pump on
water per second per unit weight of water.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, May / J une - 2009]
4.108) Describe multi-stage pump with impeller in series and impellers in parallel.
[AU, May / J une - 2014]
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4.109) Define the manometric efficiency of a centrifugal pump?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
4.110) Define cavitation and discuss its causes, effects and prevention.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
4.111) Define cavitation. What are the effects of cavitation? Give the necessary
precaution against cavitation. [AU, May / J une 2009, 2014]
4.112) Define cavitation and explain the various effects of cavitation.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.113) Draw the velocity triangle for a centrifugal pump and obtain the expression for
the work done. [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.114) What is specific speed of pump?
[AU, April / May 2004, May / J une - 2009]
4.115) Define speed of a centrifugal pump. How does it differ from that of turbine?
[AU, May / J une 2007, 2012]
4.116) State the expression for the specific speed of a pump. What is its use?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2007, 2012]
4.117) What do you understand by characteristics curves of a centrifugal pump?
Explain them with neat sketches. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
4.118) Explain in detail about the performance curves for pumps and turbines.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.119) Determine the minimum speed for starting a centrifugal pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.120) Explain briefly the following efficiencies of a centrifugal pump (i) Manometric
efficiency (ii) Volumetric efficiency [AU, May / J une - 2014]
4.121) Discuss - characteristics of centrifugal pump at constant speed.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.122) Explain the characteristics curves of a centrifugal pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.123) Define specific speed of a centrifugal pump. Derive expression for the same in
the terms of head H, discharge Q and speed N [AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.124) Enumerate the losses that occur during the operation of the centrifugal pump.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
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4.125) Distinguish between roto dynamic pump and positive displacement pump with
simple sketch. [AU, April / May - 2005]
4.126) How rotary pumps are classified. Explain the working principles of any one
type of rotary pump with the aid of a neat sketch.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, May / J une 2012]
4.127) Discuss the working of rotary positive displacement pumps.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.128) Discuss in detail about rotary positive displacement pumps.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.129) With neat sketches, discuss about the rotary positive displacement pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.130) With an example, explain in detail the working principle and construction of
rotary pumps with neat diagram. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.131) Classify pumps. Explain the working of double acting reciprocating pump with
a neat diagram. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009, April / May - 2010]
4.132) Describe the working and principles of a reciprocating pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2005, April / May - 2011]
4.133) What is a reciprocating pump? Describe the principle and working of a
reciprocating pump with a neat sketch.
4.134) Draw a neat sketch of reciprocating pumps. List the components and briefly
explain their functions. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
4.135) Describe the principle and working of a reciprocating pump with a neat sketch.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
4.136) Explain the working principle of reciprocating pump with neat sketch.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
4.137) Explain the working principle of a reciprocating pump with neat diagram in
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.138) With a neat sketch explain the working of double acting reciprocating pump
with its performance characteristics. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.139) Derive an expression for acceleration head developed in a reciprocating pump.
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4.140) Explain the working principle of single and double acting reciprocating pumps
with neat diagram in detail. Also explain the effects of inertia pressure and friction
on the performance of the pump using indicator diagrams with and without air
vessel. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.141) Sketch and describe the working principle of double acting reciprocating pump
with indicator diagram. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.142) Differentiate between single acting and double acting pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.143) Discuss on the following: Working of double acting pump, indicator diagram,
4.144) Define indicator diagram. Prove that the area of the indicator diagram is
proportional to the work done by the reciprocating pump. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
4.145) Prove that work done by the pump is proportional to the area of the indicator
diagram. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.146) Show that the work done by a reciprocating pump is equal to the area of the
indicator diagram. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009, April / May - 2010]
4.147) Write briefly on the following.
Rotary pumps and their classifications.
Indicator diagram for reciprocating pump. [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.148) Define slip, percentage slip and negative slip of a reciprocating pump.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.149) Define: slope, % of slip and negative slop with respect to reciprocating pump.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.150) Define % of slip and indicator diagram, with respect to reciprocating pump.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.151) What is % of slip in reciprocating pump? [AU, April / May - 2010]
4.152) What is an air vessel? Describe the function of the air vessel for reciprocating
pumps.
4.153) What is an air vessel? What are the uses/advantages of fitting air vessel in a
reciprocating pump? [AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.154) What is air vessel and write the expression for work done by reciprocating
pump fitted with air vessel. [AU, April / May - 2005]
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4.155) What is an air vessel? Derive the expression for the percentage work saved by
using an air vessel. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
4.156) What is an air vessel? What are the advantages of fitting air vessel in a
reciprocating pump? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.157) Calculate the work saved by fitting an air vessel for a double acting single
cylinder reciprocating pump. [AU, April / May 2008, May / J une - 2013]
4.158) Describe the function of the air vessel.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008, May / J une 2012]
4.159) What are the functions of air vessel in a positive displacement pump?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.160) Determine the % of work saved in one cycle when air vessel is provided on the
delivery side of a single cylinder single acting reciprocating pump.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.161) Explain the working principle of Gear pump with neat sketch.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
4.162) With a neat sketch, explain the working of a gear pump.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.163) Explain the construction and working of the following rotary pumps with neat
sketches. (a) Gear pump (b) Vane pump
[AU, Nov / Dec 2007, May / J une - 2014]
4.164) Explain in detail the working principle and construction of rotary pumps with
neat sketch. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
4.165) Explain the working of the following pumps with the help of neat sketches and
mention two applications of each.
(i) External gear pump (ii) Lobe pump (iii) Vane pump (iv) Screw pump.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
4.166) Explain in detail the working of a gear pump with a neat sketch.
[AU, April / May, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.167) Explain the working of vane pump with neat diagram.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.168) Discuss briefly the working principle of vane pump with a schematic diagram.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
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4.169) Explain the working principle of screw pump and gear pump with neat diagram
in detail. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.170) Draw and explain the indicator diagram for a reciprocating pump including the
effect of friction and acceleration.
4.171) Derive an expression for the percentage work saved by using an air vessel with
(i) single acting and (ii) double acting reciprocating pump.

PROBLEMS
4.172) A centrifugal pump is provided at a height of 5m above the sump water level
and the outlet of the delivery pipe is 10m above the sump. The vane angle at outlet
is 50

## . The velocity of flow through the impeller is constant at 1.6m/s. Find :

[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
The pressure head at inlet to the wheel
The pressure head at outlet of the wheel. Assume that the velocity of water
in the pipes is equal to the velocity of flow through the impeller. Ignore
losses
4.173) The following observations are made while conducting a performance test on
centrifugal pump. Determine the overall efficiency of the pump. Discharge of
water is 1.8m
3
/s. Diameter of suction and delivery pipe are 15cm and 10cm
respectively. The suction and delivery gauge readings are 25cm of mercury and
175 kN/m
2
respectively. The height of delivery gauge over suction gauge is 0.5m.
The output of driving motor is 9.555kW. [AU, April / May - 2005]
4.174) The head discharge characteristics of a centrifugal pump is given below.

The pump delivers fresh water through a 500 m long, 15 cm diameter pipe line having
friction coefficient of f = 0.025. The static lift is 15 m. Neglecting minor losses in
the pipe flow, find (i) the discharge of the pump under the above conditions (ii)
driving power of the pump motor. Assume a pump efficiency of 72%.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
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4.175) The internal and external diameters of the impeller of a centrifugal pump are
200mm and 400mm respectively. The pump is running at 1200 rpm. The vane
angles of the impeller at inlet and outlet are 20

and 30

## respectively. The water

enters the impeller radically and the velocity of flow is constant. Determine the
work done by the impeller per unit weight of water.
[AU, Nov / Dec 2008, 2012]
4.176) The internal and external diameter of an impeller of a centrifugal pump which
is running at 1000 r.p.m, are 200 mm and 400 mm respectively. The discharge
through pump is 0.04 m3/s and velocity of flow is constant and equal to 2.0 d s .
The diameters of the suction and delivery pipes are 150mm and 100mm
respectively and suction and delivery heads are 6 m (abs.) and 30 m (abs.) of water
respectively. If the outlet vane angle is 45 and power required to drive the pump is
16.186 kW, determine:
(i) Vane angle of the impeller at inlet,
(ii) The overall efficiency of the pump, and
(iii) Manometric efficiency of the pump. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
4.177) A centrifugal pump with backward-curved blades has the following measured
performance when tested with water at 20C :

Estimate the best efficiency point and the maximum efficiency. Also, estimate the
most efficient flow rate, and the resulting head and brake power, if the diameter is
doubled and the rotation speed is increased by 50%. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.178) The impeller of a centrifugal pump is 300mm outside diameter and 150mm
inside diameter. The impeller vane angles are 30 and 25 at the inner and outer
peripheries respectively and the speed is 1450rpm. The velocity of the flow
through the impeller is constant. Find the work done by the impeller per N of
water. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.179) A centrifugal pump running at 800rpm is working against a total head of
20.2m. The external diameter of impeller is 480mm and the outlet width is 60mm.
If the vane angle at outlet is 40 and manometric efficiency is 70%, determine
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
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Flow velocity at outlet
Absolute velocity of water leaving the vane
Angle made by the absolute velocity at outlet with direction of motion
Rate of flow through the pump
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009, April / May - 2010]
4.180) A centrifugal pump running at 1440rpm has an impeller diameter of 0.42m.
The backward curved blade outlet angle is 35 to the tangent. The flow velocity at
outlet is 10m/s. Determine the static head through which water will be lifted. In
case a diffuser reduces the outlet velocity to 40% of the velocity at the impeller
outlet, what will increase in the static head? [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.181) A centrifugal pump running at 1200rpm has a discharge of 13m
3
/min. The
pump has manometric efficiency of 85% and working against a head of 22m. The
impeller has an outlet vane angle of 40. If the velocity of the flow at the outlet is
2.6m/s. Determine the diameter of the impeller and width of the impeller at the
outlet. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
4.182) A centrifugal pump is to discharge 0.12 m
3
/s at a speed of 1400rpm with a head
of 30m. The impeller diameter is 275mm, its width at outlet is 50mm. The
manometric efficiency is 78%. Calculate the vane angle at the outer periphery of
the impeller. [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.183) A Centrifugal pump impeller runs at 80 rpm and has outlet vane angle of 60.
The velocity of flow is 2.5 m/s throughout and diameter of the impeller at exit is
twice that at inlet. If the manometric head is 20 m and the manometric efficiency is
75 percent, determine the diameter of the impeller at the exit and the inlet vane
angle. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.184) A pump has to supply water which is at 70C water at 90 m
3
/min and 1800
rpm. Find the type of pump needed, the power required, and the impeller diameter
if the required pressure rise for one stage is 200 kPa; and 1250 kPa.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.185) A centrifugal pump with an impeller diameter of 0.4 m runs at 1450 rpm. The
angle at outlet of the backward curved vane is 25 with tangent. The flow velocity
remains constant at 3 m/s. If the manometric efficiency is 84% determine the
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
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fraction of the kinetic energy at outlet recovered as static head.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
4.186) The impeller of a centrifugal pump is 300mm in diameter and having a width
of 50mm at the periphery. It has blades whose tip angles are inclined backwards at
60 from the radius. The pump delivers 17m3/min of water and the impeller
rotates at 1000rpm. Assuming that the pump is designed to admit liquid radially,
calculate
Speed and direction of water as it leaves impeller
Torque exerted by the impeller on water
Shaft power required
Lift of the pump
Assume the mechanical efficiency = 95% and the hydraulic efficiency = 75%
[AU, May / J une 2007, 2012]
4.187) A centrifugal pump discharges 2000 l/s of water per second developing a head
of 20m when running at 300rpm. The impeller diameter at the outlet ant the
outflow velocity is 1.5m and 3m/s respectively. It vanes are set back at an angle of
30 at the outlet, determine
Manometric efficiency
Power required by the pump
If inner diameter is 750mm, find the minimum speed to start the pump.
[AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.188) The impeller of a centrifugal pump has an external diameter of 450mm and
internal diameter of 200mm and it runs at 1440rpm. Assuming a constant radial
flow through the impeller at 2.5m/s and the vanes at exit are set back at an angle of
25. Determine
Inlet vane angle
The angle, absolute velocity of water at exit makes with the tangent
and
The work done per N of water. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
4.189) A centrifugal pump has 30 cm and 60 cm diameters at inlet and outlet. The
inlet and outlet vane angles are 30

and 45

## respectively. Water enters at a

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velocity of 2.5 m/s radially. Find the speed of impeller in rpm and the power of
the pump if the flow is 0.2 m
3
/s. [AU, April / May - 2008]
4.190) A centrifugal pump delivers water against a net head of 14.5 meters and a
design speed of 1000 rpm. The vanes are curved back to an angle of 30

with the
periphery. The impeller diameter is 300 mm and outlet width 50 mm. Determine
the discharge of the pump if the manometric efficiency is 95%.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.191) A centrifugal pump with 1.2m diameter runs at 200rpm and discharge 1880
litres/s, against an average lift of 6m. The angle which the vanes make at exit with
the tangent to the impeller is 26 and the radial velocity of the flow is 2.5m/s. Find
the manometric efficiency and at least speed to start the pump against the head of
6m. Assume the inner diameter of the impeller as 0.6m. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.192) A single stage centrifugal pump with impeller diameter of 30cm rotates at
2000rpm and lifts 3m
3
of water per second to a height of 30m with an efficiency of
75%. Find the number of stages and diameter of each impeller of a similar
multistage pump to lift 5m
3
of water per second to a height of 300m when rotating
at 1500rpm. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.193) A centrifugal pump having an outer diameter equal to two times the inner
diameter and running at 1000 rpm. Works against a total head of 40m. The
velocity of flow through the impeller is constant and equal to 2.5m/sec. The vanes
are set back at an angle of 40

at outlet. If the outer diameter of the impeller is
500mm and width at outlet is 50mm, determine the
i) Vane angle at inlet
ii) Manometric efficiency
iii) Work done by impeller on water per second.
4.194) The outer diameter of an impeller of a centrifugal pump is 400mm and outlet
width is 50mm. The pump is running at 800rpm and working against a total head
of 15m. The vanes angle at outlet is 40 and the manometric efficiency is 75%.
Determine the velocity of flow at inlet, velocity of water leaving the vane, angle
made by the absolute velocity at outlet with direction of motion at outlet, and the
discharge. [AU, Nov / Dec 2007, 2012]
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4.195) The centrifugal pump has the following characteristic. Outer diameter of
impeller = 800mm; width of the impeller vane at outlet = 100mm; angle of the
impeller vanes at outlet = 40. The impeller runs at 550 rpm and delivers 0.98 m
3
/s
under an effective head of 35m. A 500 kW motor is used to drive the pump.
Determine the manometric, mechanical and overall efficiencies of the pump.
Assume waters enter impeller vanes radially at inlet.
[AU, April / May 2003, 2010]
4.196) A centrifugal pump delivers water against a net head of 14.5m and design
speed of 1000rpm. The vanes are curved back angle of 30 with the periphery. The
impeller diameter is 300mm and the outlet width 50mm. Determine the discharge
of the pump if manometric efficiency is 95%. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.197) A centrifugal pump, in which water enters radially, delivers water to a head of
165m. The impeller has a diameter of 360mm and width 180mm at inlet and the
corresponding dimensions at the outlet are 720mm and 90mm respectively. Its
rotational speed is 1200 rpm. The blades are curved backward at 30 to the tangent
at exit and discharge is 0.389 m
3
/s. Determine [AU, May / J une - 2007]
Manometric efficiency
Pressure rise across the impeller assuming losses equal to 12% of velocity
Pressure rise and the loss of head in the volute casing
The vane angle at inlet and
Power required to drive the pump assuming an overall efficiency of 70%.
What would be the corresponding mechanical efficiency?
4.198) Compute the overall efficiency of a centrifugal pump from the following test
152(gauge) height of the delivery gauge over suction gauge is 0.4m, discharge is
2100mm. Diameter of the suction pipe is 15cm and diameter of delivery pipe is
10cm. the motor power = 12MHP and fluid water. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.199) A centrifugal pump id to discharge 0.118m
3
/s at a speed of 1450rpm against a
head of 25m. The impeller diameter is 25cm, its width at outlet is 5cm and
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manometric efficiency is 75%. Determine the vane angle at the outer periphery of
the impeller and draw its velocity triangle. [AU, April / May - 2011]
4.200) A centrifugal pump delivers 400 litres/s of water to a height of 20m through a
pipe diameter 15cm and length 100m. The pump has an overall efficiency of 70%
and the friction coefficient is 0.15. Determine the power required to drive the
pump. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.201) A radial flow impeller has a diameter 25 cm and width 7.5 cm at exit. It
delivers 120 lps of water against a head of 24 m at 1440 rpm. Assuming that the
vanes block the flow area by5 percent and the hydraulic efficiency as 0.8, estimate
the vane angle at exit. Also calculate the torque exerted on the driving shaft if the
mechanical efficiency is 95 percent.
4.202) A single acting reciprocating pump, running at 50rpm, delivers 0.01m
3
/sec of
water. The diameter of the piston is 200mm and stroke length 400mm. Determine
the
theoretical discharge of the pump
co-efficient of discharge
slip and the percentage slip of the pump
[AU, Nov / Dec 2007, 2008, May / J une 2012]
4.203) For a single acting reciprocating pump, piston diameter is 150 mm, stroke
length is 300 mm, and rotational speed is 50 r.p.m. The pump is required to lift
water to a height of 18 m. Determine the theoretical discharge. If the actual
discharge is 4.0 lit/sec, and the mechanical efficiency is 80% determine the
volumetric efficiency, slip, theoretical power and the actual power required.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.204) A single acting reciprocating pump has a plunger diameter of 250mm and
stroke of 150mm. It is driven at 60rpm and undergoes SHM. The length and
diameter of the delivery pipe are 60m and 100mm respectively. Determine the
power saved in overcoming the friction in the delivery pipe, due to fitting of an air
vessel on the delivery side of the pump. Assume the friction factor f = 0.01 the
pipe friction formula h
f
=(flv
2
/2gd ) [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.205) A single acting reciprocating pump is to raise a liquid of density 1200kg/m
3

through a vertical height of 11.5m, from 2.5m below pump axis to 9m above it.
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The plunger which moves in SHM, has diameter 125mm and stroke 225mm. The
suction and delivery side pipes are 75mm diameter and 3.5 and 1.5m long,
respectively. There is a large air vessel fitted on the delivery pipe near to the pump
axis. But there is no air vessel on the suction pipe. If separation takes place at
8.829 N/cm
2
below atmospheric pressure, find the maximum speed at which the
pump can run without separation taking place and the power required to drive the
pump. Assume there is no slip in the pump and f = 0.08 the pipe friction formula
h
f
=(flv
2
/2gd) [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
4.206) A single acting reciprocating pump has a plunger of diameter 30 cm and stroke
of 20 cm. If the speed of the pumps is 30 rpm and it delivers to6.5 lit/s of water,
find the coefficient of discharge and the percentage slip of the pump.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.207) The piston area of a single acting reciprocating pump 0.15 m
2
and stroke is 30
cm. The water is lifted through a total head of 15 m. The area of delivery pipe is
0.03 m
2
. If the pump is running at 50rpm, find the percentage slip, coefficient of
discharge and the power required to derive the pump. The actual discharge is 350
litres per second. Take mechanical efficiency is 0.85. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.208) A single acting reciprocating pump has a diameter (piston) of 150mm and
stroke length 350 mm. The center of the pump is 3.5 m above the water surface in
the sump and 22 m below the delivery water level. Both the suction and delivery
pipes have the same diameter of 100 mm and are 5 m and 30 m long respectively.
If the pump is working at 30 rpm determine the pressure heads on the piston at the
beginning, middle and end of both suction and delivery strokes.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.209) Calculate the rate of flow in and out of the air vessel on the delivery side in a
single acting reciprocating pump of 220 mm bore and 330 mm stroke running at 50
rpm. Also find the angle of crank rotation at which there is no flow into or out of
the air vessel. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.210) In a single acting reciprocating pump the bore and stroke are 100 and 150 mm.
respectively. The static head requirements are 4 m suction and 18 m delivery. If
the pressure at the end of delivery is atmospheric calculate the operating speed.
The diameter of the delivery pipe is 75 mm and the length of the delivery pipe is
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24 m. Determine the acceleration head at = 33 from the start of delivery.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
4.211) A double - acting reciprocating pump, running at 40rpm is discharging 1m
3
of
water per minute. The pump has a stroke of 400mm. The diameter of the piston is
200mm. The delivery and suction heads are 20m and 5m respectively. Find the slip
of the pump and the power required to drive the pump.
4.212) The cylinder bore diameter of a single acting reciprocating pump is150mm and
its stroke length is 300mm. The pump runs at 50 rpm and lifts water through a
height of 25m. The delivery pipe is 22m long and 100mm in diameter. Find the
theoretical discharge and the theoretical power required to run the pump. If the
actual discharge is 4.2 litres/s. Find the percentage of slip.
[AU, April / May - 2004, Nov / Dec - 2005, 2012]
4.213) The diameter and stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are 120 mm and
300 mm respectively. The water is lifted by a pump through a total head of 25 m.
The diameter and length of delivery pipe are 100 mm and 20 m. respectively. find
out:
(i) Theoretical discharge and theoretical power required to run the pump
if its speed is60 rpm.
(ii) Percentage slip, if the actual discharge is 2.95 1/s and
(iii) The acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the delivery stroke.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
4.214) The length and diameter of a suction pipe of a single acting reciprocating pump
are 5 m and 10 cm respectively. The pump has a plunger of diameter 150 mm and
a stroke length of 300 mm. The center of the pump is 4 m above the water surface
in the sump. The atmospheric pressure head is 10.3m of water and the pump runs
at 40 rpm. Determine the
i) Pressure head due to acceleration at the beginning of the suction stroke.
ii) Maximum pressure head due to acceleration.
iii) Pressure head in the cylinder at the beginning and at the end of the stroke.
4.215) Consider a double acting reciprocating pump running at 40rpm. The pump
delivers 1m
3
/min of water. The piston diameter is 20cm and the stroke length is
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40cm. The delivery and the suctions heads are 20m and 5m respectively. Calculate
the % slip and the power required to drive the pump. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
4.216) The diameter and the stroke of a single acting reciprocating pump are 200mm
and 400mm respectively, the pump runs at 60 rpm and lifts 12 litres of water per
second through a height of 25m. The delivery pipe is 20m long and 150mm in
diameter. Find (i) theoretical power required to run the pump (ii) % of slip and (iii)
acceleration head at the beginning and middle of the delivery stroke.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
4.217) The diameter and stroke length of a single acting reciprocating pump are 75
mm and 150 mm respectively. Supply of water to the pump is from a sump 3 m
below the pump through a pipe of 5 m long and 40 mm in diameter. The pump
delivers water to a tank located at 12 m above the pump through a pipe 30 mm in
diameter and 15 m long. Assuming that a separation of flow occurs at 75 kN/m
2

(below the atmospheric pressure), find the maximum speed at which the pump
may be operated without any separation. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.218) The cylinder of a single- acting reciprocating pump is 15 cm in diameter and
30 cm in stroke. The pump is running at 30 r.p.m. and discharge water to a height
of 12 m. The diameter and length of the delivery pipe are 10 cm and 30 m
respectively. If a large air vessel is fitted in the delivery pipe at a distance of 2 m
from the centre of the pump, find the pressure head in the cylinder.
(i) At the beginning of the delivery stroke, and
(ii) In the middle of the delivery stroke. Take f = 0.01.
[AU, May / J une - 2013]
4.219) A double acting pump with 35 cm bore and 40 cm stroke runs at 60 strokes per
minute. The suction pipe is 10m long and delivery pipe is 200m long. The
diameter of the delivery pipe is 15 cm. The pump is situated at a height of 2.5 m
above the sump; the outlet of the delivery pipe is 70 m above the pump. Calculate
the diameter of the suction pipe for the condition that separation is avoided.
Assume separation to occur at an absolute pressure head is 2.5m of water. Find the
Horsepower required to drive the pump neglecting all losses other than friction in
the pipes assuming friction factor f as 0.02. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
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4.220) A double acting reciprocating pump is running at 30rpm. Its bore and stroke
are 250mm and 400mm respectively. The pump lift water from sump 3.8m below
and delivers it to a tank located at 65m above the axis of the pump. The lengths of
suction and delivery pipes are 6m and 150m respectively. The diameter of the
delivery pipe is 100mm. if an air vessel of adequate capacity has been fitted on the
delivery side of the pump, determine
The minimum diameter of the suction pipe to prevent separation of flow,
assuming the minimum head to prevent occurrence of separation is 2.5m
4.221) The maximum gross head against which the pump has to work and the
corresponding power of motor. Assume the mechanical efficiency = 78% and slip
= 1.5%; Hatm = 10m; F=0.012. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
4.222) The plunger diameter and the stroke length of a single acting reciprocating
pump are 300mm and 500mm respectively. The speed of the pumps is 60rpm. The
diameter and length of the delivery pipe are 150mm and 60m respectively. If the
pump is equipped with an air vessel at delivery side at the center line of the pump,
find the power saved in overcoming friction in delivery pipe. Assume Darcys
friction factor as 0.04, and plunger undergoes a simple harmonic motion.
[AU, May / J une - 2009]
4.223) The plunger diameter and the stroke length of a single acting reciprocating
pump are 300mm and 500mm respectively. The speed of the pumps is 50rpm. The
diameter and length of the delivery pipe are 150mm and 55m respectively. If the
pump is equipped with an air vessel at delivery side at the center line of the pump,
find the power saved in overcoming friction in delivery pipe. Assume Darcys
friction factor as 0.01. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
4.224) The diameter and length of a single acting reciprocating pump are 100mm and
200mm respectively. The pump is used to deliver water to the tank 14m above the
pump through a pipe of 30mm in diameter and 18m long by taking its supply from
the sump am below the pump, through a pipe 40mm in diameter and 6m long. If
separation occurs at 78.48kN/m2, below the atmospheric pressure find the
maximum speed at which the pump can be operated without separation. Assume 1
atm pressure = 10.3m of water column and the plunger undergoes simple harmonic
motion. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
R.M.K COLLEGE OF ENGG AND TECH / AQ / R2013/ CE6451 / III / MECH / JUNE 2014 NOV 2014
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4.225) Determine the maximum operating speed in rpm and the maximum capacity in
lps of a single acting reciprocating pump with the following details. Plunger
diameter = 25cm, stroke = 50cm, suction pipe diameter = 15cm, length = 9cm,
delivery pipe diameter = 10cm, length = 36cm, static suction head = 3m, static
delivery head = 20m, atmospheric pressure = 76cm of mercury, vapour pressure of
water = 25kPa. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
4.226) A reciprocating pump handling water with a bore of 110mm and stroke of
205mm runs at 38rpm. The delivery pipe is of 90mm diameter and 30m long. An
air vessel of sufficient volume is added at a distance of 2.5m from the pump.
Determine the acceleration head with and without air vessel.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
4.227) A single cylinder double acting reciprocating pump has a piston diameter of
300mm and stroke length of 400mm. When the pump runs at 45rpm, it discharges
0.039m
3
/s under a total head of 15m. What will be the volumetric efficiency, work
done per second and power required if the mechanical efficiency of the pump is
75%. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
4.228) The indicator diagram of a single acting reciprocating pump gives effective
delivery head of 5m and 23m with crank at inner and outer dead center
respectively. What is the static delivery head of reciprocating pump?
[AU, April / May - 2005]

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UNIT V TURBINES
PART - A
5.1) Define turbo machines.
5.2) Define turbine.
5.3) Classify fluid machines. [AU, April / May - 2010]
5.4) Give the classification of turbines.
5.5) How are hydraulic turbines classified
[AU, May / J une - 2009, 2014, Nov / Dec - 2009 April / May - 2011]
5.6) What are high head turbines? Give example. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.7) State the principles on which turbo-machines are based. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
5.8) Explain specific speed. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
5.9) Define specific speed. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.10) Define specific speed of a turbine. [AU, Nov / Dec 2003,
2008, 2009, May / J une2007, 2009, April / May 2010, 2011]
5.11) Define specific speed of a turbine. What is its usefulness?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.12) How is specific speed of a turbine defined? [AU, May / J une - 2006]
5.13) What is meant by specific speed of a turbine? [AU, April / May - 2010]
5.14) Write the equation for specific speed for pumps and also for turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.15) What is hydraulic turbine? [AU, May / J une - 2006]
5.16) Classify turbines according to flow. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
5.17) Define impulse turbine and give examples.
5.18) Explain the working of impulse turbine. [AU, April / May - 2011]
5.19) Define reaction turbine and give examples.
5.20) What is reaction turbine? Give examples [AU, April / May - 2003]
5.21) Differentiate between reaction turbine and impulse turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003, April / May - 2008, May / J une - 2012]
5.22) What is a breaking jet in Pelton wheel/turbine?
[AU, May / J une - 2007, Nov / Dec 2007, 2012]
5.23) Draw velocity triangle diagram for Pelton wheel turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
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5.24) Define tangential flow turbine.
5.25) Define radial flow - turbine.
5.26) Define axial flow turbine.
5.27) Define mixed flow turbine.
5.28) Define the flow ratio of reaction radial flow turbine. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.29) Draw a sketch of a Francis turbine and name its components.
[AU, April / May - 2005]
5.30) List the main parts of Kaplan turbine. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.31) What is draft tube? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.32) What is a draft tube? Explain why it is necessary in reaction turbine.
5.33) What is draft tube? In which type of turbine is mostly used?
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
5.34) Write the function of draft tube in turbine outlet?
[AU, April / May - 2005, 2008, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.35) What is the function of draft tube?
[AU, May / J une 2007, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.36) What are the different types of draft tubes? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.37) Why does a Pelton wheel not possess any draft tube? [AU, May / J une - 2012]
5.38) Mention the importance of Euler turbine equation. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.39) What are the different efficiencies of turbine to determine the characteristics of
turbine? [AU, May / J une 2012]
5.40) Define hydraulic efficiency of turbine
5.41) Define hydraulic efficiency and jet ratio of a Pelton wheel.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
5.42) Define hydraulic efficiency and axial thrust of a roto-dynamic hydraulic
machine. [AU, May / J une - 2013]
5.43) What is meant by hydraulic efficiency of turbine?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2012, 2013]
5.44) Define hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiency of a turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.45) What are the different efficiencies of turbine to determine the characteristics of
turbine? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
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5.46) Define overall efficiency and plant efficiency of turbines.
[AU, May / J une 2007, 2012]
5.47) Draw the characteristics curves of a turbine with head variation.
[AU, April / May - 2005]
5.48) What is the difference between a turbine and a pump?
[AU, Nov / Dec 2010, May / J une - 2012]
5.49) Differentiate between pumps and turbines.
[AU, May / J une, Nov / Dec 2007, 2008]
5.50) A shaft transmits 150 Kw at 600 rpm. What is the torque in Newton meters?
[AU, April / May - 2011]
5.51) The mean velocity of the buckets of the Pelton wheel is 10 m/s. The jet supplies
water at 0.7 m
3
/s at a head of 30 m. The jet is deflected through an angle of 160

by the bucket. Find the hydraulic efficiency. Take C
V
= 0.98.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
5.52) A water turbine has a velocity of 8.5m/s at the entrance of draft tube and
velocity of 2.2m/s at exit. The frictional loss is 0.15m and the tail race water is 4m
below the entrance of draft tube. Calculate the pressure head at entrance.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
PART B
5.53) Derive the general equation of turbo machines and draw the inlet and outlet
triangles. [AU, April / May - 2011]
5.54) How will you classify the turbines? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.55) Describe briefly the function of the various main components of a Pelton wheel
turbine with neat sketches.
5.56) Describe briefly the functions of various components of Pelton turbine with neat
sketches. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.57) Explain the component parts and working of a Pelton wheel turbine.
[AU, April / May - 2010]
5.58) Define and derive an expression for specific speed of a turbine.
5.59) Explain the terms unit power, unit speed and unit discharge with reference to a
turbine.
5.60) Explain the hydraulic efficiency of a turbine. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
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5.61) Sketch the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of a Pelton wheel.
5.62) What is breaking jet in Pelton wheel turbine?
[AU, April / May 2004, Nov / Dec - 2005, May / J une 2012]
5.63) Differentiate Pelton wheel turbine with Francis turbine.
[AU, April / May - 2005]
5.64) Distinguish between reaction turbine and impulse turbine.
[AU, May / J une - 2013]
5.65) Give the comparison between impulse and reaction turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
5.66) With the help of neat diagram explain the construction and working of a Pelton
wheel turbine. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
5.67) With a neat sketch, explain the working of a Pelton wheel.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
5.68) With a neat sketch, explain the working of a Pelton wheel. Also obtain the
expression of the work done. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.69) Obtain an expression for power developed in a reaction turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.70) What is the condition for hydraulic efficiency of a Pelton wheel to be
maximum? [AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
5.71) Explain the construction and working of the following turbines with neat
sketches.
(i) Pelton wheel turbine (ii) Francis turbine (iii) Kaplan turbine
5.72) Compare radial flow and axial flow turbo machines.
5.73) Draw the inlet and outlet velocity triangles for an inward flow reaction turbine
indicating the various components. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.74) Derive an expression for the maximum hydraulic efficiency of an impulse
turbine.
5.75) Obtain an expression for the work done per second by water on the runner of a
Pelton wheel. Hence derive an expression for maximum efficiency of the Pelton
wheel giving the relationship between the jet speed and bucket speed.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
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5.76) Obtain the expression for the work done per second by water on the runner of a
Pelton wheel and draw inlet and outlet velocity triangles for a Pelton turbine and
indicates the direction of various velocities. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
5.77) Derive the velocity triangle for Pelton wheel and obtain the expression for the
work done. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010, April / May - 2011]
5.78) Sketch the velocity triangles at inlet and outlet of Pelton wheel.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
5.79) Derive the expression for efficiency and work done for a Pelton wheel and draw
the velocity triangles. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
5.80) Explain how the net head on the reaction turbine is increased with the use of
draft tube. [AU, April / May - 2008]
5.81) Derive Eulers equation of motion for turbines and obtain the components of
energy transfer with a construction of velocity triangles. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
5.82) An inward flow reaction turbine has inlet and outlet vane angles and are
both equal to 90. If H = head of the machine, = guide vane angle and C = ratio
of velocity of flow at outlet and inlet, show that the peripheral velocity and
hydraulic efficiency are given by [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]

5.83) Show that the hydraulic efficiency for a Francis turbine having velocity flow
through runner as constant given by relation. [AU, April / May - 2011]

5.84) An inward flow reaction turbine discharges radially and the velocity of flow is
constant, show that the hydraulic efficiency can be expressed by

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Where and are the guide and vane angles at inlet. [AU, May / J une - 2012]
5.85) Write a short note on Governing of Turbines. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.86) Classify hydraulic machines and give one example for each.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.87) Explain the working principle of Kaplan turbine and derive the working
proportion of its design. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.88) Draw a neat sketch of Kaplan turbine, name the parts and briefly explain the
working. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
5.89) Draw a schematic diagram of a Kaplan turbine and explain its construction and
Working. [AU, May / J une - 2014]
5.90) Explain with help of a diagram, the essential features of Kaplan turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.91) Draw a schematic diagram of a Kaplan turbine and explain briefly its
construction and working. Obtain an expression for work done by the runner.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.92) What is function draft tube in Francis turbine?
[AU, April / May 2003, 2010]
5.93) Derive an expression for the efficiency of draft tube. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
5.94) Derive an expression for specific speed. What is the significance of specific
speed of turbine? [AU, May / J une - 2009]
5.95) How is a specific speed of the turbine, defined? [AU, May / J une - 2009]
5.96) Write a note on performance curves of turbine. [AU, April / May - 2010]
5.97) Show that the overall efficiency of a hydraulic turbine is the product of
volumetric, hydraulic and mechanical efficiencies. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
5.98) Define: Hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiency with respect to turbines.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.99) Explain the different types of the efficiency of a turbine.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.100) Explain the load efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbines with a diagram.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]
5.101) Discuss the performance characteristics of reaction turbine in detail.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
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5.102) Discuss briefly the characteristics curves of hydraulic turbines.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
PROBLEMS
5.103) A turbine develops 9000kW when running at speed of 140rpm and under a
head of 30m. Determine the specific speed of the turbine. Derive the expression
used in above problem. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.104) A Pelton wheel is to be designed for the following specifications :
a. Shaft power =11,772 KW ; head = 380 metres; speed = 750 rpm,
b. Overall efficiency=86%. Jet diameter is not to exceed one-sixth of the wheel
diameter. Determine the
i) Wheel diameter ii) Number of jets required
iii) Diameter of the jet. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.105) A Pelton wheel is to be designed for a head of 60m when running at 200 rpm.
The Pelton wheel develops 95.6475 kW shaft power. The velocity of the buckets is
equal to 0.45 times the velocity of the jet. Overall efficiency = 0.85 and co-efficient
of velocity is equal to 0.98.
5.106) A Pelton wheel has to be designed for the following data. Power to be
developed = 6000kW; Net head available = 300m; Speed = 550rpm; Ratio of jet
diameter to wheel diameter = 1/10 and overall efficiency = 85%. Find the no of
jets, diameter of jet, diameter of wheel and quantity of water required.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
5.107) A Pelton wheel is to be designed for the following specifications:
Shaft power = 11,772 kW
Speed = 750rpm
Overall efficiency (
0
) = 86%
Jet diameter > 1/6 wheel diameter.
Determine: The wheel diameter, the number of jets required and diameter of
the jet. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.108) A single jet Pelton wheel runs at 300 rpm under a head of 510 m. The jet
diameter is 200 m and its deflection inside the bucket is 165

## . Assuming that its

relative velocity is reduced by 15% due to friction, determine (i) water power (ii)
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resultant force on bucket and (iii) overall efficiency.
[AU, May / J une - 2007, 2012]
5.109) A Pelton wheel supplied water from reservoir under a gross head of 112m and
the friction losses in pen stock amounts to 20m of head. The water from pen stock
is discharged through a single nozzle of diameter of 100mm at the rate of 0.30m
3
/s.
Mechanical losses due to friction amounts to 4.3kW of power and the shaft power
available is 208kW. Determine velocity of jet, water power at inlet to runner,
power losses in nozzles, power lost in runner due to hydraulic resistance.
[AU, May / J une - 2007]
5.110) A Pelton wheel is having a mean bucket diameter of 1 m and is running at
1000 rpm. The net head on the Pelton wheel is 700 m. If the side clearance angle
is 15

## and the discharge through the nozzle is 0.1m

3
/sec, find the i) power available
at the nozzle and ii) hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Take C
V
=1.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.111) A Pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 12 m/s and supplied with water at
the rate of 0.7 m
3
/s under a head of 300 m. If the buckets deflect the jet through an
angle of 160
,
find the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
5.112) A Pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 10m/s with a jet of water flowing
at the rate of0.7 m
3
/s under a head of 30m. The buckets deflect the jet through an
angle of 160
. Calculate the power given by the water to the runner and the
hydraulic efficiency of the turbine. Assuming the coefficient of velocity as 0.98

[AU, April / May - 2004, Nov / Dec - 2005, 2010, 2012, May / J une - 2009]
5.113) A Pelton wheel which is receiving water from a penstock with a gross head of
510m. One - third of Gross head is lost in the penstock. The rate of flow through
the nozzle fitted at the end of the penstock is 2.2 m
3
/sec. The angle of deflection of
the jet is 165. Determine (1) The power given by the water to the runner (2)
Hydraulic efficiency of the Pelton wheel. Take C
v
=1 and speed ratio =0.45
[AU, May / J une - 2014]
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5.114) A Pelton turbine is required to develop 9000 kW when working under a head
of 300m the impeller may rotate at 500 rpm. Assuming a jet ratio of 10 and overall
efficiency of 85% calculate [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
(i) Quantity of water required
(ii) Diameter of the wheel
(iii) Number of jets
(iv) Number and size of the bucket vanes on the runner
5.115) The nozzle of a Pelton wheel gives a jet of 9cm diameter and velocity 75m/s.
Coefficient of velocity is 0.978. The pitch circle diameter is 1.5m and the
deflection angle of the buckets is 170. The wheel velocity is 0.46 times the jet
velocity. Estimate the speed of the Pelton wheel turbine in rpm, theoretical power
developed and also the efficiency of the turbine.
[AU, April / May - 2005, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.116) A Pelton turbine having 1.6m bucket diameter develops a power of 3600kW at
400rpm, under a net head of 275m. If the overall efficiency is 88%, and the
coefficient of velocity is 0.97, find speed ratio, discharge, diameter of the nozzle
and specific speed. [AU, May / J une - 2007]
5.117) A Pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 12m/s and supplied with water at
the rate of 0.7m3/s under a head of 300m. If the buckets deflect the jet through an
angle of 160 find the power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
5.118) A Pelton turbine is to produce 18MW under a head of 450 m when running at
480 rpm. If D/d ratio is 10, determine the number of jets required.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.119) Consider an impulse wheel with a pitch diameter of 2.75m and a bucket angle
of 170. If the velocity is 58m/s, the jet diameter is 100mm, and the rotational
speed is 320rpm, find the force on the buckets, the torque on the runner, and the
power transferred to the runner. Assume v
2
= 0.9v
1
. [AU, April / May - 2011]
5.120) A gas turbine operates between 1000k and 650 k temperature limits taking in
air 20 kg/s at 125 m/s and discharging at 300 m3/s. Estimate the power developed
by the turbine. Given C
p
=995 J / Kg.K. [AU, April / May - 2011]
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5.121) A reaction turbine at 450rpm, head 120m, diameter at inlet 120cm flow area
0.4m2 has angles made by absolute and relative velocities at inlet 20 and 60
respectively. Find volume flow rate, H.P and efficiency. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.122) An inward flow reaction turbine has internal and external diameter as 0.85m
and 1m respectively. The hydraulic efficiency of turbine is 0.92 under a head of
60m. The velocity of flow at outlet is 3m/s and discharge at outlet is radial. The
vane angle at the outlet is 18 and width of the wheel is 75mm. Calculate the guide
blade angle, turbine speed, vane angle at inlet and power developed by the turbine.
[AU, April / May - 2011]
5.123) An inward flow reaction turbine has external and internal diameters as 0.9m
and 0.45m respectively. The turbine is running at 200 rpm and width of the turbine
at inlet is 200mm. The velocity of flow through the runner is constant and is equal
to 1.8m/sec. The guide blades make an angle of 10

## to the tangent of the wheel and

the discharge at the outlet of the turbine is radial. Determine the
i) Absolute velocity of water at inlet of runner
ii) Velocity of whirl at inlet
iii) Relative velocity at inlet
v) Width of the runner at outlet
vi) Mass of water flowing through the runner per second
vii) Head at the inlet of the turbine
viii) Power developed and hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.
5.124) An inward flow reaction turbine having an overall efficiency of 80% is
required to deliver 136 kW. The head H is 16 m and the peripheral velocity is 3.3
H. The radial velocity of flow at inlet is 1.1H. The runner rotates at 120 rpm.
The hydraulic losses in the turbine are 15% of the flow available energy.
Determine (i) diameter of the runner, (ii) guide vane angle, (iii) the runner blade
angle at inlet and (iv) the discharge through the turbine. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2010]
5.125) In an outward flow reaction turbine, the internal and external diameters are 2m
and 2.7m respectively. The turbine speed is 275rpm and the water flow rate is
5.5m
3
/s. The width of the runner is constant at the inlet and outlet and equal to
250mm. The head acting on the turbine is 160m. The vanes have negligible
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thickness and the discharge at the outlet is radial. Determine the vane angles and
velocity of the flow at inlet and outlet. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
5.126) In a hydroelectric station, water is available at the rate of 175m3/s under head
of 18m. The turbine run at a speed of 150 rpm, with overall efficiency of 82%. Find
the number of turbines required, if they have the maximum specific speed of 460.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2005]
5.127) A radial flow impeller has a diameter 25 cm and width 7.5 cm at exit. It
delivers 120 liters of water per second against a head of 24 m at 1440 rpm.
Assuming the vanes block the flow area by 5% and hydraulic efficiency 0.8,
estimate the vane angle at exit. Also calculate the torque exerted on the driving
shaft in the mechanical efficiency is 95% [AU, Nov / Dec - 2003]
5.128) A 50m/s velocity jet of water strikes without shock, a series of vanes moving at
15m/s. The jet is inclined at an angle of 20 to the direction of motion of vanes.
The relative velocity of jet at outlet is 0.9 times of the values at inlet and the
absolute velocity of water exit is to be normal to the motion of vanes. Determine
the vane angle at entrance and exit. Also determine work done on vanes per second
N of water supplied by the jet. [AU, April / May - 2005]
5.129) In an inward radial flow turbine, water enters at an angle of 22

to the wheel
tangent to the outer rim and leaves at 3 m/s. The flow velocity is constant through
the runner. The inner and outer diameters are 300 mm and 600 mm respectively.
The speed of the runner is 300 rpm. The discharge through the runner is radial.
Find the
(ii) Taking inlet width as 150 mm and neglecting the thickness of the blades,
find the power developed by the turbine. [AU, April / May - 2010]
5.130) The velocity of the whirl at the inlet to the runner of an inward flow reaction
turbine is 3.15H m/s and the velocity of flow at inlet is 1.05H m/s. The velocity
of whirl at exist is 0.22H m/s in the same direction as at inlet and the flow at exist
is 0.83H m/s, where H is head of water 30m. The inner diameter of the runner is
0.6 times the outer diameter. Assuming hydraulic efficiency of 80%. Compute
angles of the runner vanes at inlet and exist. [AU, April / May 2003, 2010]
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5.131) Design a Francis Turbine runner with the following data: Net head = 70m
speed N = 800 rpm. Output power 400 Kw Hydraulic efficiency = 95% Overall
efficiency = 85% Flow ratio = 0.2 Breadth ratio = 0.1 Inner diameter is 1/3 outer
diameter. Assume 6% circumferential area of the runner to be occupied by the
thickness of the vanes. The flow is radial at exit and remains constant throughout.
[AU Nov / Dec - 2008]
5.132) The following data is given for a Francis Turbine Net head = 60m speed N =
700 rpm. Shaft power 294.3 Kw Hydraulic efficiency = 93% Overall efficiency =
84% Flow ratio = 0.2 Breadth ratio = 0.1 Inner diameter is 1/2 outer diameter.
Assume 5% circumferential area of the runner to be occupied by the thickness of
the vanes. Velocity of flow is constant at inlet and outlet and discharge is radial
outlet. Determine [AU, Nov / Dec - 2012]
Runner vane angle at inlet and outlet
Diameter of the runner at inlet and outlet
Width of the wheel at inlet
5.133) The inner and outer diameters of an inward flow reaction turbine are 50 cm
and 100 cm respectively. The vanes are radial at inlet and discharge is also radial.
The inlet guide vanes angle is 10

## . Assuming the velocity of flow as constant and

equal to 3 m/s, find the speed of the runner and the vane angle at the outlet.
[AU, April / May - 2008]
5.134) A reaction turbine works at 450rpm under a head of 120metres. Its diameter at
inlet is 120cm and the flow area is 0.4m
2
. The angles made by absolute and relative
velocities at inlet are 20

and 60

## respectively with the tangential velocity.

Determine the
Volume flow rate
Power developed
Hydraulic efficiency. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.135) A turbine is to operate under a head of 25m at 200rpm. The discharge is
9cumec. If the efficiency is 90%, determine the
i) Specific speed of the turbine
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ii) Power generated
iii) Type of turbine
5.136) A Francis turbine with overall efficiency of 75% is required to produce
149.26kN. It is working against a head of 7.62m. The peripheral velocity is
0.26(2gH) and the radial velocity of flow at inlet is 0.96(2gH). The wheel runs at
150rpm and the hydraulic losses in the turbine account for 22% of the available
energy. Assume radial discharge; determine the guide blade angle, the wheel vane
angle at inlet, diameter of the wheel at inlet and width of the wheel at inlet.
[AU, May / J une 2009, 2013]
5.137) A Francis turbine with overall efficiency of 76% and hydraulic efficiency of
80% is required to produce 150kW. It is working against a head of 8m. The
peripheral velocity is 0.25(2gH) and the radial velocity of flow at inlet is
0.95(2gH). The wheel runs at 150rpm. Assume radial discharge; determine the
guide blade angle, the wheel vane angle at inlet, diameter of the wheel at inlet and
width of the wheel at inlet. [AU, Nov / Dec 2009, April / May - 2010]
5.138) A dam on a river is being sited for a hydraulic turbine. The flow rate is 1600
m
3
/h, the available head is 25 m, and the turbine speed is to be 460 rpm. Discuss
the estimated turbine size and feasibility for a Francis turbine; and a Pelton wheel.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.139) A turbine is to operate under a head of 25m at 200rpm. The discharge is 9
cumec. If the efficiency is 90%, determine the performance of the turbine under a
head of 20 meters. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.140) A reaction turbine works at 450 rpm under a head of 120 m. Its diameter at
inlet is 120 cm and the flow area is 0.4 m
2
. The angles made by the absolute and
relative velocity at inlet are 20

and 60

## respectively, with the tangential velocity.

Determine the volume flow rate, the power developed and the hydraulic efficiency.
[AU, Nov / Dec - 2007]
5.141) Calculate the diameter and speed of the runner of a Kaplan turbine
developing6000 kW under an effective head of 5 m. Overall efficiency of the
turbine is 90% and the diameter of the boss is 0.4 times the external diameter of the
runner. The turbine speed ratiois 2.0. And flow ratio is 0.6. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2006]
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5.142) A Kaplan turbine runner is to be designed to develop 7357.5kW shaft power.
The net available head is 5.50m. Assume that the speed ratio is 2.09 and flow ratio
is 0.68, and the overall efficiency is 60%. The diameter of the boss is 1/3
rd
of the
diameter of the runner, its specific speed. [AU, May / J une - 2009]
5.143) A Kaplan turbine runner is to be designed to develop 7360kW. The net
available head is 5.5m. Assuming the speed ratio is 2.09 and the flow ratio is 0.68
and the overall efficiency is 60%. The diameter of the boss is one third of the
diameter of the runner. Find the diameter of the runner, its speed and its specific
speed. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2009]
5.144) A Kaplan turbine working under a head of 20 m develops 15 MV brake power.
The hub diameter and runner diameter of the turbine are 1.5 m and 4 m
respectively. The guide blade angle at the inlet is 30

## . The discharge is radial.

Find the runner vane angles and turbine speed.
[AU, April / May - 2010, Nov / Dec - 2011]
5.145) A Kaplan turbine is to be designed to develop 9100kW. The net available head
is 5.6m/ If the speed ratio is 0.68, overall efficiency 86% and the diameter of the
boss is 1/3 the diameter of the runner. Find the diameter of the runner, its speed and
specific speed of turbine. [AU, April / May - 2011]
5.146) A Kaplan turbine delivers 10 MW under a head of 25 m. The hub and tip
diameters are 1.2 m and 3 m. Hydraulic and overall efficiencies are 0.90 and 0.85.
If both velocity triangles are right angled triangles, determine the speed, guide
blade-outlet angle and blade outlet angle. [AU, Nov / Dec - 2013]