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ChapChapteterr 1:1: IntIntrrodoductuctionion

Chap Chap te te r r 1: 1: Int Int r r od od uct uct
Chap Chap te te r r 1: 1: Int Int r r od od uct uct
Chap Chap ter ter 1: 1: Introd Introd ucti ucti on on ■ What Operating

ChapChapterter 1:1: IntrodIntroductiuctionon

Chap Chap ter ter 1: 1: Introd Introd ucti ucti on on ■ What Operating Systems

What Operating Systems Do

Computer­System Organization

Computer­System Architecture

Operating­System Structure

Operating­System Operations

Process Management

Memory Management

Storage Management

Protection and Security

Distributed Systems

Special­Purpose Systems

Computing Environments

■ Special­Purpose Systems ■ Computing Environments Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12,

Operating System Concepts – 7 th Edition, Jan 12, 2005

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Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2 Silberschatz, Galvin

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

O O bj bj ec ec tiv tiv es es ■ To provide a grand

OObjbjecectivtiveses

O O bj bj ec ec tiv tiv es es ■ To provide a grand tour

To provide a grand tour of the major operating systems components

To provide coverage of basic computer system organization

To provide coverage of basic computer system organization Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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Wha Wha t t is is an an O O p p er er a

WhaWhatt isis anan OOppereraatingting SSyystestemm??

an an O O p p er er a a ting ting S S y y

A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware.

Operating system goals:

Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier.

Make the computer system convenient to use.

Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner.

use. ■ Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner. Operating System Concepts – 7 t

Operating System Concepts – 7 th Edition, Jan 12, 2005

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C C o o m m p p ute ute r r S S y

CCoommpputeuterr SSyystestemm SStructutructurree

ute ute r r S S y y ste ste m m S S tructu tructu

Computer system can be divided into four components

Hardware – provides basic computing resources

CPU, memory, I/O devices

Operating system

Controls and coordinates use of hardware among various applications and users

Application programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users

are used to solve the computing problems of the users  Word processors, compilers, web browsers,

Word processors, compilers, web browsers, database systems, video games

Users

People, machines, other computers

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computers Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 5 Silberschatz,

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

F F ou ou r r Co Co mp mp on on en en t

FFouourr CoCompmpononenenttss ooff aa CoCommpuputterer SSystystemem

o o f f a a Co Co m m pu pu t t er er
o o f f a a Co Co m m pu pu t t er er
o o f f a a Co Co m m pu pu t t er er

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O O pe pe r r ati ati ng ng S S y y ste

OOpeperratiatingng SSyystestemm DefiDefinitnitiioonn

ng ng S S y y ste ste m m Defi Defi nit nit i i

OS is a resource allocator

Manages all resources

Decides between conflicting requests for efficient and fair resource use

OS is a control program

Controls execution of programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer

programs to prevent errors and improper use of the computer Operating System Concepts – 7 t

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O O p p eratin eratin g g Syste Syste m m D D e

OOpperatineratingg SysteSystemm DDeefinfiniittionion (Cont.(Cont.))

m m D D e e fin fin i i t t ion ion (Cont. (Cont.

No universally accepted definition

“Everything a vendor ships when you order an operating system” is good approximation

But varies wildly

“The one program running at all times on the computer” is the kernel. Everything else is either a system program (ships with the operating system) or an application program

(ships with the operating system) or an application program Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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C C o o m m p p uter uter S S ta ta r

CCoommpputeruter SStatarrtutupp

C C o o m m p p uter uter S S ta ta r r

bootstrap program is loaded at power­up or reboot

Typically stored in ROM or EPROM, generally known as firmware

Initializates all aspects of system

Loads operating system kernel and starts execution

● Loads operating system kernel and starts execution Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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C C o o m m p p ute ute r r Syste Syste m

CCoommpputeuterr SysteSystemm OOrrggananizizatationion

r r Syste Syste m m O O r r g g an an iz iz

Computer­system operation

One or more CPUs, device controllers connect through common bus providing access to shared memory

Concurrent execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles

execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles Operating System Concepts – 7 t h
execution of CPUs and devices competing for memory cycles Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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C C ompu ompu ter­S ter­S ys ys tem tem Ope Ope r r ati

CCompuomputer­Ster­Sysystemtem OpeOperratiationon

ompu ter­S ter­S ys ys tem tem Ope Ope r r ati ati on on ■

I/O devices and the CPU can execute concurrently.

Each device controller is in charge of a particular device type.

Each device controller has a local buffer.

CPU moves data from/to main memory to/from local buffers

I/O is from the device to local buffer of controller.

Device controller informs CPU that it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt.

it has finished its operation by causing an interrupt . Operating System Concepts – 7 t

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Comm Comm o o n n F F unc unc tio tio ns ns o

CommCommoonn FFuncunctiotionsns ooff IIntenterrrrupuptsts

unc tio tio ns ns o o f f I I nte nte r r r

Interrupt transfers control to the interrupt service routine generally, through the interrupt vector, which contains the addresses of all the service routines.

Interrupt architecture must save the address of the interrupted instruction.

Incoming interrupts are disabled while another interrupt is being processed to prevent a lost interrupt.

A trap is a software­generated interrupt caused either by an error or a user request.

An operating system is interrupt driven.

request. ■ An operating system is interrupt driven. Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,
request. ■ An operating system is interrupt driven. Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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Int Int er er r r u u pt pt H H an an dli

IntIntererrruuptpt HHanandlidlingng

Int Int er er r r u u pt pt H H an an dli dli

The operating system preserves the state of the CPU by storing registers and the program counter.

Determines which type of interrupt has occurred:

polling

vectored interrupt system

Separate segments of code determine what action should be taken for each type of interrupt

what action should be taken for each type of interrupt Operating System Concepts – 7 t

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In In ter ter rup rup t t Time Time line line Operating System Concepts

InInterterrupruptt TimeTimelineline

In In ter ter rup rup t t Time Time line line Operating System Concepts –
In In ter ter rup rup t t Time Time line line Operating System Concepts –

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line Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 1 4

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I/O I/O S S tr tr u u ctu ctu r r e e ■

I/OI/O SStrtruuctucturree

I/O I/O S S tr tr u u ctu ctu r r e e ■ After

After I/O starts, control returns to user program only upon I/O completion.

Wait instruction idles the CPU until the next interrupt

Wait loop (contention for memory access).

At most one I/O request is outstanding at a time, no simultaneous I/O processing.

After I/O starts, control returns to user program without waiting for I/O completion.

System call – request to the operating system to allow user to wait for I/O completion.

Device­status table contains entry for each I/O device indicating its type, address, and state.

Operating system indexes into I/O device table to determine device status and to modify table entry to include interrupt.

status and to modify table entry to include interrupt. Operating System Concepts – 7 t h
status and to modify table entry to include interrupt. Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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T T w w o o I/O I/O Met Met ho ho ds ds Synchronous
T T w w o o I/O I/O Met Met ho ho ds ds Synchronous

TTwwoo I/OI/O MetMethohodsds

Synchronous

Asynchronous

w o o I/O I/O Met Met ho ho ds ds Synchronous Asynchronous Operating System Concepts

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D D ev ev ic ic e­S e­S t t atu atu s s T

DDevevicice­Se­Sttatuatuss TTabablele

D D ev ev ic ic e­S e­S t t atu atu s s T T
D D ev ev ic ic e­S e­S t t atu atu s s T T

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ab le le Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 .

Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne ©2005

Dir Dir e e ct ct M M emor emor y y Acce Acce ss

DirDireectct MMemoremoryy AcceAccessss SStructtructururee

M emor emor y y Acce Acce ss ss S S truct truct ur ur e

Used for high­speed I/O devices able to transmit information at close to memory speeds.

Device controller transfers blocks of data from buffer storage directly to main memory without CPU intervention.

Only one interrupt is generated per block, rather than the one interrupt per byte.

generated per block, rather than the one interrupt per byte. Operating System Concepts – 7 t

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S S to to r r ag ag e e Str Str uc uc ture

SStotorragagee StrStrucuctureture

S S to to r r ag ag e e Str Str uc uc ture ture

Main memory – only large storage media that the CPU can access directly.

Secondary storage – extension of main memory that provides large nonvolatile storage capacity.

Magnetic disks – rigid metal or glass platters covered with magnetic recording material

Disk surface is logically divided into tracks, which are subdivided into sectors.

The disk controller determines the logical interaction between the device and the computer.

the logical interaction between the device and the computer. Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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S S t t or or a a ge ge H H ie ie r

SSttororaagege HHieierrararcchyhy

S S t t or or a a ge ge H H ie ie r r

Storage systems organized in hierarchy.

Speed

Cost

Volatility

Caching – copying information into faster storage system; main memory can be viewed as a last cache for secondary storage.

can be viewed as a last cache for secondary storage. Operating System Concepts – 7 t

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S S t t or or a a ge­ ge­ D D ev ev ice

SSttororaage­ge­DDeveviceice HHiiererarchyarchy

a a ge­ ge­ D D ev ev ice ice H H i i er er
a a ge­ ge­ D D ev ev ice ice H H i i er er

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archy Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2 1

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C C a a ch ch ing ing ■ Important principle, performed at many levels
C C a a ch ch ing ing ■ Important principle, performed at many levels

CCaachchinging

Important principle, performed at many levels in a computer (in hardware, operating system, software)

Information in use copied from slower to faster storage temporarily

Faster storage (cache) checked first to determine if information is there

If it is, information used directly from the cache (fast)

If not, data copied to cache and used there

Cache smaller than storage being cached

Cache management important design problem

Cache size and replacement policy

design problem ● Cache size and replacement policy Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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P P e e rform rform ance ance o o f f V V ario

PPeerformrformanceance ooff VVarioariousus LLevelsevels ooff SSttooragerage

ario us us L L evels evels o o f f S S t t o

Movement between levels of storage hierarchy can be explicit or implicit

levels of storage hierarchy can be explicit or implicit Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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implicit Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2 3

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Migration Migration o o f f In In t t eg eg er er A

MigrationMigration ooff InInttegegerer AA ffroromm DDiskisk ttoo RegRegististerer

f f ro ro m m D D isk isk t t o o Reg Reg

Multitasking environments must be careful to use most recent value, no matter where it is stored in the storage hierarchy

value, no matter where it is stored in the storage hierarchy ■ Multiprocessor environment must provide

Multiprocessor environment must provide cache coherency in hardware such that all CPUs have the most recent value in their cache

Distributed environment situation even more complex

■ Distributed environment situation even more complex ● Several copies of a datum can exist ●
■ Distributed environment situation even more complex ● Several copies of a datum can exist ●

Several copies of a datum can exist

Various solutions covered in Chapter 17

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17 Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2 4

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O O p p er er a a tin tin g g S S y

OOppereraatintingg SSyystestemm SStructutructurree

tin tin g g S S y y ste ste m m S S tructu tructu

Multiprogramming needed for efficiency

Single user cannot keep CPU and I/O devices busy at all times

Multiprogramming organizes jobs (code and data) so CPU always has one to execute

A subset of total jobs in system is kept in memory

One job selected and run via job scheduling

When it has to wait (for I/O for example), OS switches to another job

Timesharing (multitasking) is logical extension in which CPU switches jobs so frequently that users can interact with each job while it is running, creating interactive computing

job while it is running, creating interactive computing ● Response time should be < 1 second

Response time should be < 1 second

Each user has at least one program executing in memory

If several jobs ready to run at the same time

If processes don’t fit in memory, swapping moves them in and out to run

Virtual memory allows execution of processes not completely in memory

process

CPU scheduling

of processes not completely in memory process CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts – 7 t h
of processes not completely in memory process CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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Mem Mem o o r r y y L L ayou ayou t t f

MemMemoorryy LLayouayoutt fforor MMultultiiproprogramgrammedmed SSystystemem

M M ult ult i i pro pro gram gram med med S S yst yst
M M ult ult i i pro pro gram gram med med S S yst yst
M M ult ult i i pro pro gram gram med med S S yst yst

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Operatin Operatin g­Sys g­Sys tem tem O O p p er er a a tio

OperatinOperating­Sysg­Systemtem OOppereraatiotionsns

g­Sys g­Sys tem tem O O p p er er a a tio tio ns ns

Interrupt driven by hardware

Software error or request creates exception or trap

Division by zero, request for operating system service

Other process problems include infinite loop, processes modifying each other or the operating system

Dual­mode operation allows OS to protect itself and other system components

User mode and kernel mode

Mode bit provided by hardware

mode and kernel mode ● Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when
mode and kernel mode ● Mode bit provided by hardware  Provides ability to distinguish when

Provides ability to distinguish when system is running user code or kernel code

Some instructions designated as privileged, only executable in kernel mode

System call changes mode to kernel, return from call resets it to user

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to user Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2

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Tr Tr a a ns ns itio itio n n from from U U s

TrTraansnsitioitionn fromfrom UUsserer ttoo KerKernnelel MMododee

U U s s er er t t o o Ker Ker n n el el

Timer to prevent infinite loop / process hogging resources

Set interrupt after specific period

Operating system decrements counter

When counter zero generate an interrupt

Set up before scheduling process to regain control or terminate program that exceeds allotted time

control or terminate program that exceeds allotted time Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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time Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2 8

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P P r r o o ce ce ss ss Ma Ma na na gemen

PPrroocecessss MaMananagemengementt

P P r r o o ce ce ss ss Ma Ma na na gemen gemen

A process is a program in execution. It is a unit of work within the system. Program is a passive entity, process is an active entity.

Process needs resources to accomplish its task

CPU, memory, I/O, files

Initialization data

Process termination requires reclaim of any reusable resources

Single­threaded process has one program counter specifying location of next instruction to execute

Process executes instructions sequentially, one at a time, until completion

instructions sequentially, one at a time, until completion ■ Multi­threaded process has one program counter per

Multi­threaded process has one program counter per thread

Typically system has many processes, some user, some operating system running concurrently on one or more CPUs

Concurrency by multiplexing the CPUs among the processes / threads

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threads Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 2 9

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Pr Pr oc oc es es s s M M ana ana ge ge m

PrPrococesesss MManaanagegemmeentnt ActActivitiivitieses

M M ana ana ge ge m m e e nt nt Act Act iviti iviti

The operating system is responsible for the following activities in connection with process management:

Creating and deleting both user and system processes

Suspending and resuming processes

Providing mechanisms for process synchronization

Providing mechanisms for process communication

Providing mechanisms for deadlock handling

■ Providing mechanisms for deadlock handling Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12,

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Me Me m m o o r r y y Ma Ma nag nag emen

MeMemmoorryy MaManagnagemenementt

Me Me m m o o r r y y Ma Ma nag nag emen emen

All data in memory before and after processing

All instructions in memory in order to execute

Memory management determines what is in memory when

Optimizing CPU utilization and computer response to users

Memory management activities

Keeping track of which parts of memory are currently being used and by whom

Deciding which processes (or parts thereof) and data to move into and out of memory

Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed

● Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,
● Allocating and deallocating memory space as needed Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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S S to to r r ag ag e e M M an an age

SStotorragagee MMananageagemmeentnt

S S to to r r ag ag e e M M an an age age

OS provides uniform, logical view of information storage

Abstracts physical properties to logical storage unit ­ file

Each medium is controlled by device (i.e., disk drive, tape drive)

Varying properties include access speed, capacity, data­ transfer rate, access method (sequential or random)

File­System management

Files usually organized into directories

Access control on most systems to determine who can access what

OS activities include

to determine who can access what ● OS activities include  Creating and deleting files and
to determine who can access what ● OS activities include  Creating and deleting files and

Creating and deleting files and directories

Primitives to manipulate files and dirs

Mapping files onto secondary storage

Backup files onto stable (non­volatile) storage media

 Backup files onto stable (non­volatile) storage media Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition,

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Ma Ma ss­ ss­ S S torag torag e e M M ana ana ge

MaMass­ss­SStoragtoragee MManaanagegemmeentnt

ss­ S S torag torag e e M M ana ana ge ge m m e

Usually disks used to store data that does not fit in main memory or data that must be kept for a “long” period of time.

Proper management is of central importance

Entire speed of computer operation hinges on disk subsystem and its algorithms

OS activities

Free­space management

Storage allocation

Disk scheduling

Some storage need not be fast

● Disk scheduling ■ Some storage need not be fast ● Tertiary storage includes optical storage,

Tertiary storage includes optical storage, magnetic tape

Still must be managed

Varies between WORM (write­once, read­many­times) and RW (read­ write)

WORM (write­once, read­many­times) and RW (read­ write) Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan

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write) Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 3 3

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I/O I/O S S u u bs bs yst yst em em ■ One purpose

I/OI/O SSuubsbsystystemem

I/O I/O S S u u bs bs yst yst em em ■ One purpose of

One purpose of OS is to hide peculiarities of hardware devices from the user

I/O subsystem responsible for

Memory management of I/O including buffering (storing data temporarily while it is being transferred), caching (storing parts of data in faster storage for performance), spooling (the overlapping of output of one job with input of other jobs)

General device­driver interface

Drivers for specific hardware devices

interface ● Drivers for specific hardware devices Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan

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P P r r o o tect tect ion ion an an d d Secu

PPrrootecttectionion anandd SecuSecurritityy

r o o tect tect ion ion an an d d Secu Secu r r it

Protection – any mechanism for controlling access of processes or users to resources defined by the OS

Security – defense of the system against internal and external attacks

Huge range, including denial­of­service, worms, viruses, identity theft, theft of service

Systems generally first distinguish among users, to determine who can do what

User identities (user IDs, security IDs) include name and associated number, one per user

User ID then associated with all files, processes of that user to determine access control

Group identifier (group ID) allows set of users to be defined and controls managed, then also associated with each process, file

Privilege escalation allows user to change to effective ID with more rights

allows user to change to effective ID with more rights Operating System Concepts – 7 t
allows user to change to effective ID with more rights Operating System Concepts – 7 t

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Compu Compu ting ting E E n n vironmen vironmen ts ts ■ Traditional computer

CompuComputingting EEnnvironmenvironmentsts

Compu Compu ting ting E E n n vironmen vironmen ts ts ■ Traditional computer ●

Traditional computer

Blurring over time

Office environment

PCs connected to a network, terminals attached to mainframe or minicomputers providing batch and timesharing

Now portals allowing networked and remote systems access to same resources

Home networks

remote systems access to same resources ● Home networks  Used to be single system, then
remote systems access to same resources ● Home networks  Used to be single system, then

Used to be single system, then modems

Now firewalled, networked

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Compu Compu ting ting Environme Environme nts nts (C (C o o nt.) nt.) ■

CompuComputingting EnvironmeEnvironmentsnts (C(Coont.)nt.)

ting ting Environme Environme nts nts (C (C o o nt.) nt.) ■ Client­Server Computing ●

Client­Server Computing

Dumb terminals supplanted by smart PCs

Many systems now servers, responding to requests generated by clients

Compute­server provides an interface to client to request services (i.e. database)

File­server provides interface for clients to store and retrieve files

provides interface for clients to store and retrieve files Operating System Concepts – 7 t h

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files Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan 12, 2005 1 . 3 7

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P P ee ee r r ­t ­t o­P o­P e e er er C

PPeeeerr­t­to­Po­Peeerer CCoommpuputintingg

r ­t ­t o­P o­P e e er er C C o o m m pu

Another model of distributed system

P2P does not distinguish clients and servers

Instead all nodes are considered peers

May each act as client, server or both

Node must join P2P network

Registers its service with central lookup service on network, or

Broadcast request for service and respond to requests for service via discovery protocol

and respond to requests for service via discovery protocol ● Examples include Napster and Gnutella Operating

Examples include Napster and Gnutella

protocol ● Examples include Napster and Gnutella Operating System Concepts – 7 t h Edition, Jan

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We We b­B b­B a a se se d d Comput Comput ing ing ■

WeWeb­Bb­Baasesedd ComputComputinging

We We b­B b­B a a se se d d Comput Comput ing ing ■ Web

Web has become ubiquitous

PCs most prevalent devices

More devices becoming networked to allow web access

New category of devices to manage web traffic among similar servers: load balancers

Use of operating systems like Windows 95, client­side, have evolved into Linux and Windows XP, which can be clients and servers

into Linux and Windows XP, which can be clients and servers Operating System Concepts – 7

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