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IntegumentarySystemLabReport

SloanSpringfield
Mrs.Lafferty
AnatomyandPhysiology
October28th2014

Theskindoesalotforthebodynotonlydoesitprotectyourorgans,veins,arteries,and
nervesitalsohelpskeepyoucoolwhenyouareexercising.Anexampleiswhensomeonego
outforarunandstartsweatingyourmusclesareworkingovertimeandcreateheat.The
bodystartstocreateasteamthatrisesoutthroughtheporesoftheskinsandturnsinto
water.Sweathelpscooldownthebodyandbringsitbacktohomeostasis.

Figure1.Theseareapictureofmylips.Thelipswere
Cheilitisasyoucanseefromallthemarionettelines.

Figure2.Thisisthethumbprint.Thethumbprintis
differentfromeachfinger.Eachfingerhasitsown
identityandthatiswhyeveryfingerprintisdifferent.

Sensorypathwaysconsistofthechainofneurons,fromreceptorsorgantocerebralcortex,
thatareresponsiblefortheperceptionofsensations.Eachsomatosensorypathwayisnamed
afteramajortractornucleusisthepathway.Consciousperceptionofsensorystimulirequires
theinvolvementofneuronsinthethalamusandcerebralcortex.Electricalstimulationofa
structureinpathwaysconnectingmusclesandjointreceptorstothecerebellum.Typesof
pathwaysareposteriorcolumnmediallemniscal,mainsensorytrigeminalspinothalmic,spinal
trigeminal,andmedialpathway.Forexample,iftheposteriorfuniculusweresectioned,
sparingtherestofthespinalcord,discriminativetouchandproprioceptionwouldbeaffected
butnotpain,temperature,orcrudetouch.Dougherty(2014)Chapter4Somatosensory
Pathways.

Figure3.Graphofnumberoftouchreceptorsoncertainbodyregions.

Figure4.PhotoofHomunculusDrawing.Thisdrawing
showshowmanytouchreceptorsIhaveoneachregiononmybody.Thelargerregions
meanIhavelesstouchreceptors.ThesmallerregionsmeanIhavemoretouchreceptors.

Byosmoticdiffusionmakesthebodysweat.Sanctoriuscountedthechangeinbody
massduetosweat.Sweatglandsareexposedduringthermalenergy.moresweatpourson
theridgesofskin.Humanskinhasmoreglandsthatsecretewateryfluidsdirectlyontothe
skinsurface.EccrinesweatglandsoftenattributetoitalianphysiologistMarcelloMalpighi.
Sweatglandswerediscoveredin1833byaCzechphysiologistJohannePurkinje.Dutch
microbiologistAntonieVanKevevenHoekalsowroteaboutsweatingandtheporesofthe
hands.FrenchhistologistLouisAntoireRanviergroupedthearteryglandsoftheskininto
secretion:Theholocrineglandsandthemercorimeglands.Theformeroccursvia
transepidermalwatervapourdiffusionandsecretionfromtheeccrinesweatglands.Taylor
NA,MachadoMoreiraCA(2013).Regionalvariationsintransepidermalwaterloss,eccrine
sweatglanddensity,sweatsecretionratesandelectrolytecompositioninrestingand
exercisinghumans.10.1186/2046764824.Homeostasisreferstothebodysabilityto
maintaininternalconditionswithinthenarrowlimitsthatareoptimalforthecontinuationof

metabolicprocesses.Thedermaltissueinfluencebodytemperaturebyeitherallowingor
divertingthebloodisaccesstothesurfaceoftheskin.Whenanareaisexposedtothecold,
smallarteriolesinthedermisconstrict,allowinglessthannormalbloodflowtothatareaand
protectingcorebodytemperatureExposuretoheatcausesbloodvesselstodilateallowing
heattodissipatefromtheskinssurfaceandresultinginaflushedorredappearance.
Vascularityiscontainingmorebloodvessels.Thehumanskintemperatureismaintainedat
approximately33degreesCelsiusor91degreesFahrenheit.

Figure5.VascularityChartfrom
puttingiceonthebodyregionsand
whatthetemperaturewasafter
120seconds.

Figure6.VascularityChartfromexercising
andwhatthetemperaturewasafter120
seconds.

Figure6.SweatGlandchartthatshowshow
manysweatglandsareinthebodyregion


Inconclusion,IhavelearnedthatIhaveadifferentdistanceintouchreceptorsondifferent
partsofmybody.Ialso,havelearnedthatIhaveadifferentnumberofsweatglandsinevery
differentbodyregion.Forexample:Myrightanteriorforearmhad154sweatglandsandmy
rightposteriormedialmanualhadonlyzero.Ihavealsolearnedmoreabouthomeostasisand
vascularityonskintemperaturerecovery.Ihavelearnedthatifyouputiceonyourskinfor
thirtysecondsthatyourbodytemperaturewilldropandafter180secondsitstartstoriseback
tothenormalbodytemperature.Thisisbecausewhenyourbodyisunderoroverthenormal
temperaturehomeostasistriestogetyourbodybacktothecorrecttemperature.Theselabs
havehelpedmelearnmoreaboutanatomyandIameagertolearnmore.

Johansson,R.S.,&Vallbo,.B.(1979).Tactilesensibilityinthehumanhand:relativeand
absolutedensitiesoffourtypesofmechanoreceptiveunitsinglabrousskin.TheJournalof
physiology,286(1),283300.

Gardner,E.P.(2010).Touch.eLS.

Bierman,W.(1936).Thetemperatureoftheskinsurface.JournaloftheAmericanMedical
Association,106(14),11581162.

CoolingoftheHumanBodyHyperPhysics.RetrievedOctober28,2014,from
http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/thermo/coobod.html.

Taylor,N.A.,&MachadoMoreira,C.A.(2013).Regionalvariationsintransepidermalwater
loss,eccrinesweatglanddensity,sweatsecretionratesandelectrolytecompositioninresting
andexercisinghumans.ExtremePhysiology&Medicine,2(1),130.