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UNIT2

Cybersony and the secrets of *organizational behavior *

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Perception

Personality

&

Learning

Anubhav Sony

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Define:-

Cybersony and the secrets of *organizational behavior *

PERCEPTION

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The act or faculty of perceiving, or apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind; understanding.

Perception is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs.

from physical or chemical stimulation of the sense organs. Psychology defines:- a single unified awareness derived

Psychology defines:- a single unified awareness derived from sensory processes while a stimulus is present.

“In simple words we can say that perception is the process by which our brain makes calculations and makes us understand things easily on behalf of our attitude, experiences and knowledge”

The process of perception works on the model of

knowledge” The process of perception works on the model of Anubhav Sony Input  Process &

Anubhav Sony

Input Process & Output.

Let’s understand the Process of perception easily:-

the model of Anubhav Sony Input  Process &  Output. Let’s understand the Process of

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Cybersony and the secrets of *organizational behavior *

BARRIERS TO PERCEPTION

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Selective Perception:- Numerous inaccurate impressions and interpretations arise because of wrong perceptions. Selectiveness in perception can be one such wrong perception of reality. You have a natural tendency to accept information that is beneficial or is understandable and to reject information that you might not wish to assimilate. Information that is unpleasant or difficult to believe is automatically filtered and rejected. This tendency to filter out information that does not support your beliefs or views may result in the assimilation of inaccurate conclusions.

Example:- Here we see what we want to see, and hence can draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situations.

2.

Attribution:- “Explaining the cause of others as own”

3.

Stereotyping:- Perception can also be influenced by your background, upbringing, interests and attitudes rather than the actual reality stimulus. Such influence may cause you to stereotype or make generalizations about people and situations. Stereotyping is a shortcut used to judge individuals from a certain group or locality. Such generalizations and stereotyping may often result in wrong judgments and often lead to inaccurate conclusions. When you stereotype someone, you judge that person based on your preconceived notions rather than the individual's actions.

4.

Halo Effect:- The tendency of judging people on the basis of a single trait which may be good or bad, favorable or unfavorable. Ex:- a person acts bad with you at first meeting, you will consider him bad throughout your journey till he did something very promising to gain your belief.

5.

Projection:- We judge others by assuming that they are similar to ourselves/himself/person specified. i.e. all fat persons cannot dance. I like pink color, and she is also having pink colored accessories, we will be good friends. I love challenging work, all loves challenging work.

6.

Expectancy:- what do we expect from a person at first sight. I expect my class will work as per my guidance. PM expects clean nation through his new cleanliness movement.

7.

First Impression:- Another barrier to accurate perception is that of the first impression. The cliche "the first impression is the last impression" is a demonstration of a tendency to cling to the first impression you gained from meeting someone for the first time. No matter what the individual does in the future, the initial impression is impossible to erase. The prima-facie impression may not be an accurate one, but you may form the acceptance or rejection of someone based on your initial impression with no consideration of evidence or facts.

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Managerial Applications of Perception (why perception is needed to be studied):-

The manager’s job is to get work done by other people. In respect of this he also needs to understand what is going on inside the minds of his sub-ordinates, how they are reacting, what do they think about their job, work place, boss etc. etc.

Hence, perception understanding is also an integral part of the whole process and it can be done by undertaking following simple factors into mind:-

A. INTERPERSONAL WORKING RELATIONSHIP

B. SELECTION OF EMPLOYEES

C. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

a. INTERPERSONAL WORKING RELATIONSHIP:- As per the name suggests, interpersonal means the understanding among two or more than two people. In an organization we have people of different cast, creed, language, tastes, interests, hobbies, attitudes and perception. But organizations expect people to be having integrated behavior so that there will be lesser conflicts and greater well-being.

b. SELECTION OF EMPLOYEES:- “The attitude and Perception of people bring them good job” means; while hiring, many companies try to browse the background of the candidates which outlines their perception and hence on behalf of these test results it is decided whether he is fit for the goal or he needs perceptual training or is a negative candidate.

c. PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL:- This term means “performance development decision” and the perception of managers affect the career evaluation of any candidate due to:- His tendency to evaluate candidate better than others due to personal biasness.

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LEARNING

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o

Learning is the act of acquiring new, or modifying and reinforcing, existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, schooling, or training. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation.

o

Learning is an ongoing process including new & modified experiences, situations, observations and practices.

o

Learning is a relatively permanent change in the behavior or attitude of a person over time. For example when a child learns to read they are able to retain this knowledge and behavior for the rest of their lives.

o

Measurable and relatively permanent change in behavior through experience, instruction, or study.

o

Whereas individual learning is selective, group learning is essentially political its outcomes depend largely on power playing in the group. Learning itself cannot be measured, but its results can be. In the words of Harvard Business School psychologist Chris Argyris, learning is "detection and correction of error" where an error means "any mismatch between our intentions and what actually happens."

Nature of Learning:-

1. Change in behavior: - If you learn something, it will slightly\heavily change your behavior. “Example: - If a person lives in Haryana for some years there will be a slight change in his language accent.” The change may be good or bad. Like learning smoking or learning swimming. It is not necessary that change in behavior always comes with improvement over previous behavior. But most of the times it does change previous ones.

2. Reinforcement: - The practice of learning is usually reinforced by other factors in order to make it happen. You will never opt for fashion-designing until and unless you are motivated by something, like the rewards associated with it or the curiosity and interests towards it.

3. Change in behavior must be based on some Experience, Practice or Training

4. Change in behavior must be relatively permanent:- Temporary changes may be reflective and fails to signify any learning. All changes do not mean learning. To constitute learning, changes should be relatively permanent.

THEORIES OF LEARNING

1. Classical Conditioning Theory:- First described by Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus (which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response) with another previously neutral stimulus (which does not normally evoke the response). Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a

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conditioned response. The classic example is Pavlov and his dogs. Meat powder naturally will make a dog salivate when it is put into a dog's mouth; salivating is a reflexive response to the meat powder. Meat powder is the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the salivation is the unconditioned response (UR). Then Pavlov rang a bell before presenting the meat powder. The first time Pavlov rang the bell, the neutral stimulus, the dogs did not salivate, but once he put the meat powder in their mouths they began to salivate. After numerous pairings of the bell and the food the dogs learned that the bell was a signal that the food was about to come and began to salivate when the bell was rung. Once this occurred, the bell became the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation to the bell became the conditioned response (CR).

salivation to the bell became the conditioned response (CR). 2. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical

2. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (or respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the reinforcement and punishment to change behavior. Operant behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its antecedents and consequences, while classical conditioning is maintained by conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors, which are elicited by antecedent conditions. B.F. Skinner (19041990)

of reflexive (reflex) behaviors, which are elicited by antecedent conditions. B.F. Skinner (1904 – 1990) Anubhav

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3. CONGNITIVE LEARNING: - Gestalt views of learning have been incorporated into what have come to be labeled cognitive theories. Two key assumptions underlie this cognitive approach: that the memory system is an active organized processor of information and that prior knowledge plays an important role in learning. Cognitive theories look beyond behavior to consider how human memory works to promote learning, and an understanding of short term memory and long term memory is important to educators influenced by cognitive theory. They view learning as an internal mental process (including insight, information processing, memory and perception) where the educator focuses on building intelligence and cognitive development. The individual learner is more important than the environment.

4. Social Learning theory:- Social learning theory integrated behavioral and cognitive theories of learning in order to provide a comprehensive model that could account for the wide range of learning experiences that occur in the real world. As initially outlined by Bandura and Walters in 1963 and further detailed in 1977, key tenets of social learning theory are as follows:

Learning is not purely behavioral; rather, it is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context.

Learning can occur by observing a behavior and by observing the consequences of the behavior (vicarious reinforcement).

Learning involves observation, extraction of information from those observations, and making decisions about the performance of the behavior (observational learning or modeling). Thus, learning can occur without an observable change in behavior.

Reinforcement plays a role in learning but is not entirely responsible for learning.

The learner is not a passive recipient of information. Cognition, environment, and behavior all mutually influence each other

Managerial applications:-

Planning and implementing learning strategies for training and development.

Understanding human behavior.

Controlling the gap between expected and actual performance.

Framing strategies for future.

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Personality

"Personality" is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences their environment, cognitions, emotions, motivations, and behavioral science in various situations. The word "personality" originates from the Latin persona, which means mask(Speak\present). In the theatre of the ancient Latin-speaking world, the mask was not used as a plot device to disguise the identity of a character, but instead was a convention employed to represent or typify that character.

Personality can be defined as consistency in a person’s way of being that is, long-term consistency in their particular ways of perceiving, thinking, acting and reacting as a person. Organised patterns of thought and feeling and behaviour.

the set of emotional qualities, ways of behaving, etc., that makes a person different from other people

Attractive qualities (such as energy, friendliness, and humor) that make a person interesting or pleasant to be with.

Personality is made up the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique. It arises from within the individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life.

Personality is a wholesome package, which constitutes a blend of attitude, heredity, looks, behavior, culture, experiences, knowledge, etc etc-----------------------------------------------C.Sy.

” -----------------------------------------------C.Sy. Determinants of Personality:- Heredity:- The ultimate

Determinants of Personality:-

Heredity:- The ultimate explanation of an individual’s personality is the molecular structure of the genes located in the chromosomes. It includes physical structure, facial attractiveness, gender, temperament, muscle composition, energy level, biological rhythms etc.

Environment:- A per the name suggest environment means the surroundings around us. Hence the personality of any person is also affected by the social life, situations handled, family and their culture.

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Cybersony and the secrets of *organizational behavior *

Can personality be measured?

of *organizational behavior * Can personality be measured? Yes, now science offers a number of tools

Yes, now science offers a number of tools and techniques by which we can estimate personality in quantitative and qualitative standards. Ex:- TAT, Inkblot test, interviews, MMPI, etc.

Theories of Personality

1.

Big five theory.

2.

Psychoanalytical theory.

3.

Lewis Goldberg proposed a five-dimension personality model, nicknamed the "Big Five":

1. Openness to Experience: the tendency to be imaginative, independent, and interested in variety vs. practical, conforming, and interested in routine.

2. Conscientiousness: the tendency to be organized, careful, and disciplined vs. disorganized, careless, and impulsive.

3. Extraversion: the tendency to be sociable, fun-loving, and affectionate vs. retiring, somber, and reserved.

4. Agreeableness: the tendency to be softhearted, trusting, and helpful vs. ruthless, suspicious, and uncooperative.

5. Neuroticism: the tendency to be calm, secure, and self-satisfied vs. anxious, insecure, and self-pitying

The Big Five contain important dimensions of personality. However, some personality researchers argue that this list of major traits is not exhaustive. Some support has been found for two additional factors:

excellent/ordinary and evil/decent. However, no definitive conclusions have been established

Psychoanalytic theories explain human behavior in terms of the interaction of various components of personality. Sigmund Freud was the founder of this school of thought. Freud drew on the physics of his day (thermodynamics) to coin the term psychodynamics. Based on the idea of converting heat into mechanical energy, he proposed psychic energy could be converted into behavior. Freud's theory places central importance on dynamic, unconscious psychological conflicts.

Freud divides human personality into three significant components: the id, ego, and super-ego. The id acts according to the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification of its needs regardless of external environment; the ego then must emerge in order to realistically meet the wishes and demands of the id in accordance with the outside world, adhering to the reality principle. Finally, the superego (conscience) inculcates moral judgment and societal rules upon the ego, thus forcing the demands of the id to be met not only realistically but morally. The superego is the last function of the personality to develop, and is the embodiment of parental/social ideals established during childhood. According to Freud, personality is based on the dynamic interactions of these three components.

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Why managers need to understand personality:-

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1. Helps them classifying task in accordance of personality.

2. Choosing the best fit talent for the job.

3. Helps in setting goals of teams or groups in respect of different personality types.

4. It makes the workplace worthy as different personalities add different qualities to the task assigned.

5. It tells the level of endurance\physical and mental strength of people working under him.

6. It also plots the different other talents available at workplace.

7. Understanding personality is a crucial aspect to handle organizational conflicts and workforce stress.

8. The results of personality tests determine a line of control, so that the organizational plans should not go beyond that line otherwise the once controllable factors may become uncontrollable.

9. Managers must be well aware of values of different personalities, because we cannot just ignore the set of attitudes, behaviors and perception of any employee that might bring the whole pie into dump.

10. Understanding personalities regulates a flow of proper communication at workplace.

11. Develop trait profiles to use in the selection process that help maximize department and company performance by improving the accuracy of candidate selection.

12. Link identifying job competencies with targeted job profiles.

13. Identify traits and behaviors of team members and discuss optimal interactions (relationships) to improve individual and team performance.

14. Help managers identify different motivations and belief systems of their staff members so they can manage to the individual, not the group.

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Attitude

Readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way

JUNG.

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Attitude is an Evaluative process, where a human being quickly makes judgments about a product, people or event. They reflect how they feel about something. When I say I don’t like the curtains of this room, I am expressing my attitude about the interior designing.

An attitude is generally defined as a way a person responds to his or her environment, either positively or negatively.

As far as we know; there are three components on which the whole Attitude theory depends:-

1. Cognitive Component.

2. Affective component.

3. Behavioral Component.

Component. 2. Affective component. 3. Behavioral Component. 1. The cognitive part comes from your own opinions

1. The cognitive part comes from your own opinions and beliefs. This represents our thoughts, beliefs and ideas about something. Typically these come to light in generalities or stereotypes, such as 'all teenagers are lazy,' or 'all babies are cute.'

Like:- “My pay is high” this is a description & segment of the fact set in a person’s mind.

2. The affective component comprises of emotional feeling segment of an attitude. This component deals with feelings or emotions that are brought to the surface about something, such as fear or hate. Using our above example, someone might have the attitude that they hate teenagers because they are lazy or that they love all babies because they are cute.

Like: - “I am happy over the wages I am being paid”

3.

The behavioral component simply refers to an intention to act\react in a certain way towards someone or something. It centers on individuals acting a certain way towards something, such as 'we better keep those lazy teenagers out of the library,' or 'I cannot wait to kiss that baby.'

library,' or 'I cannot wait to kiss that baby.' 11 Like:- “I don’t want any other

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Like:- “I don’t want any other job because they may underestimate me”

Anubhav Sony

Cybersony and the secrets of *organizational behavior *

Factors affecting attitude:-

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1. Personal experience. In order to be the basis of attitudes, personal experiences have left a strong impression. Therefore, the attitude will be more easily formed when personal experience involves emotional factors. In situations involving emotions, appreciation will be more in-depth experience and longer trace.

2. Culture. B.F. Skinner (in, Azwar 2005) emphasized the influence of the environment (including culture) in shaping one's personality. No other personality than a consistent pattern of behavior that illustrates the history of reinforcement (reinforcement, reward) owned. The pattern of reinforcement from the public to the attitude and behavior, rather than to the attitudes and behavior of others.

3. Other people are considered important. In general, the individual being conformist or the direction of the attitude of the people it deems important. The trend is partly motivated by a desire for affiliation and the desire to avoid conflict with the people considered important.

4. Media. As a means of communication, the mass media such as television, radio, has a major influence in shaping people's opinions and beliefs. There is new information on something that provides the foundation for the emergence of new cognitive attitudes towards it. Suggestive messages that carry information, if strong enough, will provide basic affective in assessing something emepersiapkan and forming attitudes toward certain.

5. Educational Institutions and Religious. As a system, educational and religious institutions have a strong influence in shaping attitudes because they lay the foundation of understanding and moral concepts within the individual. Understanding the good and the bad, the dividing line between something that can or cannot do, is obtained from the center of the educational and religious activities and teachings.

6. Emotional factors in them. Not all forms of attitude is determined by environmental circumstances and personal experiences. Sometimes, a form of attitude is a statement that is based on emotion which serves as a sort of channeling frustration or transfer form ego defense mechanisms. Such an attitude is temporary and goes away so frustrating was lost but could also be more persistent attitude and more durable. Example form attitudes based on emotional factors are prejudice.

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Job Satisfaction

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A pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences”

“It is simply how content an individual is with his or her job”

simply how content an individual is with his or her job” Why do we need to

Why do we need to measure this?

Very general question, and the answer is more simple.

1. To know what workforce felt about organization, boss and job.

2. Problems faced in performing job.

3. Knowing more about your employee’s personal life so as to take corrective remedial actions.

4. Need of motivation\reinforcement\communication required.

5. Gives strong idea about the requirement of Training\ checking compensation\ framing promotions.

6. It also helps in finding out the causes of conflicts\absenteeism\behavior etc.

7. All above points gives strong determinants to modify work environment and conditions at job.

HAPPY WORKERS ARE PRODUCTIVE WORKERS

Outcomes of job satisfaction:-

1. Job satisfaction and job performance.

2. Job satisfaction and Organizational citizenship behavior.

3. Job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. [in service industry they meet customers] (eg-school)

4. Job satisfaction and Absenteeism. (new york v/s Chicago)

5. Job satisfaction and turnover.

6. Job satisfaction and Workplace deviance. [if they don’t like it, they will react somehow] (stealing at work, unionization, undue socializing,

Managers often don’t get it too.

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Leadership Styles:-

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A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.

Different types of leadership styles exist in work environments. Advantages and disadvantages exist within each leadership style. The culture and goals of an organization determine which leadership style fits the firm best. Some companies offer several leadership styles within the organization, dependent upon the necessary tasks to complete and departmental needs.

1. Autocratic_Leadership Style:-

The authoritarian leadership style or autocratic leader keeps strict, close control over followers by keeping close regulation of policies and procedures given to followers. To keep main emphasis on the distinction of the authoritarian leader and their followers, these types of leaders make sure to only create a distinct professional relationship. Direct supervision is what they believe to be key in maintaining a successful environment and follower ship. In fear of followers being unproductive, authoritarian leaders keep close supervision and feel this is necessary in order for anything to be done.

Authoritarian leadership styles often follow the vision of those that are in control, and may not necessarily be compatible with those that are being led.

Examples of authoritarian communicative behavior: a police officer directing traffic, a teacher ordering a student to do his or her assignment, and a supervisor instructing a subordinate to clean a workstation.An authoritarian style of leadership may create a climate of fear, where there is little or no room for dialogue and where complaining may be considered futile.

2. Democratic_Leadership Style:-

The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality.

This style of leadership encompasses discussion, debate and sharing of ideas and encouragement of people to feel good about their involvement. The boundaries of democratic participation tend to be circumscribed by the organization or the group needs and the instrumental value of people's attributes (skills, attitudes, etc.). The democratic style encompasses the notion that everyone, by virtue of their human status, should play a part in the group's decisions. However, the democratic style of leadership still requires guidance and control by a specific leader.

3. Paternalistic_Leadership style:-

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The way a Paternalistic leader works is by acting as a father figure by taking care of their subordinates as a parent would. In this style of leadership the leader supplies complete concern for his followers or workers. In return he receives the complete trust and loyalty of his people. Workers under this style of leader are expected to become totally committed to what the leader believes and will not strive off and work independently. The relationship between these co-workers and leader are extremely solid. The workers are expected to stay with a company for a longer period of time because of the loyalty and trust. Not only do they treat each other like family inside the work force, but outside too. These workers are able to go to each other with any problems they have regarding something because they believe in what they say is going to truly help them.

The leader encourages organization because they allow the workers to complete tasks so that they can stay on top of their work. The workers complete tasks this boosts self-confidence and it makes them work harder to reach a goal and exceed the goal to prove to their boss they are working hard. Having this style of leadership can also help implement a reward system. This system will allow their workers to work even better because there is something for them at the end of the tunnel.

4. Free-Rein or Laissez-Faire Leadership Style

The laissez-faire leadership style is where all the rights and power to make decisions is fully given to the worker. This was first described by Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938, along with the autocratic leadership and the democratic leadership styles. The laissez-faire style is sometimes described as a "hands off" leadership style because the leader delegates the tasks to their followers while providing little or no direction to the followers. If the leader withdraws too much from their followers it can sometimes result in a lack of productivity, cohesiveness, and satisfaction.

This is an effective style to use when:

Followers are highly skilled, experienced, and educated.

Followers have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own.

Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used.

Followers are trustworthy and experienced.

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PLANNING

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Planning is the process of thinking about and organizing the activities required to achieve a desired goal.

Planning involves the creation and maintenance of a plan. As such, planning is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior. This thought process is essential to the creation and refinement of a plan, or integration of it with other plans; that is, it combines forecasting of developments with the preparation of scenarios of how to react to them.

An important, albeit often ignored aspect of planning, is the relationship it holds with forecasting. Forecasting can be described as predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.

Ex:- Before making purchases we future forecast and decide whether the product should actually be in cart or not.

Planning is a basic management function involving formulation of one or more detailed plans to achieve optimum balance of needs or demands with the available resources.

The planning process (1) identifies the goals or objectives to be achieved, (2) formulates strategies to achieve them, (3) arranges or creates the means required, and (4) implements, and monitors all steps in their proper sequence.

Anubhav Sony

What needs to be accomplished?

When is the deadline?

Where will this be done?

Who will be responsible for it?

How will it get done?

How much time, energy, and resources are required to accomplish this goal?

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CONTROLLING

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Controlling is one of the managerial functions like planning, organizing, staffing and directing. It is an important function because it helps to check the errors and to take the corrective action so that deviation from standards are minimized and stated goals of the organization are achieved in a desired manner.

According to modern concepts, control is a foreseeing action whereas earlier concept of control was used only when errors were detected. Control in management means setting standards, measuring actual performance and taking corrective action.

Controlling means to compare and find out the gaps between Expected and Actual performances, and then

taking suitable remedial actions to bridge those possible gaps

C.S.

In 1916, Henri Fayol formulated one of the first definitions of control as it pertains to management:

Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its object is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring. [1]

According to EFL Breach:

standards contained in the plans, with a view to ensure adequate progress and satisfactory performance.

Control is checking current performance against pre-determined

According to Harold Koontz :

to make sure that enterprise objectives and the plans devised to attain them are accomplished.

Characteristics

Controlling is the measurement and correction of performance in order

Control is a continuous process

Control is a management process

Control is embedded in each level of organizational hierarchy

Control is forward looking

Control is a tool for achieving organizational activities

Control compares actual performance with planned performance*

control point out the error in the execution process

control helps in achieving standard

Control is closely linked with planning Controlling is an end process

Controlling helps in minimizing cost Controlling saves the time

Process

Setting performance standards.

Measurement of actual performance

Comparing actual performance with standards.

Analysis deviations.

Taking corrective measures.

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Principles of management

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1. Division of labor - Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.

2. Authority - Managers must be able to give orders. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised.

3. Discipline - Employees must obey and respect the rules that govern the organization. Good discipline is the result of effective leadership.

4. Unity of command - Every employee should receive orders from only one superior.

5. Unity of direction - Each group of organizational activities that have the same objective should be directed by one manager using one plan for achievement of one common goal.

6. Subordination - The interests of any one employee or group of employees should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole.

7. Remuneration - Workers must be paid a fair wage for their services.

8. Centralization - Centralization refers to the degree to which subordinates are involved in decision making.

9. Scalar chain - The line of authority from top management to the lowest ranks represents the scalar chain. Communications should follow this chain.

10. Order - this principle is concerned with systematic arrangement of men, machine, material etc. there should be specific place for every employee in organization

11. Equity - Managers should be kind and fair to their subordinates.

12. Stability of tenure of personnel - High employee turnover is inefficient. Management should provide orderly personnel planning and ensure that replacements are available to fill vacancies.

13. Initiative - Employees who are allowed to originate and carry out plans will exert high levels of effort.

14. Esprit de corps - Promoting team spirit will build harmony and unity within the organization.

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Management by objectives (MBO), also known as management by results (MBR), is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization in order to achieve them. The term "management by objectives" was first popularized by Peter Druckerthe system of management by objectives can be described as a process whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members.

Some of the important features and advantages of MBO are:

1. Motivation Involving employees in the whole process of goal setting and increasing employee empowerment. This increases employee job satisfaction and commitment.

2. Better communication and coordination Frequent reviews and interactions between superiors and subordinates help to maintain harmonious relationships within the organization and also to solve problems.

3. Clarity of goals

4. Subordinates tend to have a higher commitment to objectives they set for themselves than those imposed on them by another person.

5. Managers can ensure that objectives of the subordinates are linked to the organization's objectives.

6. Common goal for whole organization means it is a directive principle of management.

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Organizational

Behavior

“Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and organizational structure have on behavior within the organization, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizational effectiveness”

“the study and application of knowledge about human behaviour related to other elements of an organization such as structure, technology and social systems (LM Prasad).

Stephen P Robins defines “Organizational behaviour as a systematic study of the actions and attitudes that people exhibit within organizations.”

It has been observed that we generally form our opinion based on the symptoms of an issue and do not really go to the root cause of the happening. Science of organizational behaviour is applied in nature. Disciplines like psychology, anthropology and political science have contributed in terms of various studies and theories to the field of organizational behaviour.

Contributing Fields to Organizational Behaviour

Psychology: Psychology is an applied science, which attempts to explain human behaviour in a particular situation and predicts actions of individuals. Psychologists have been able to modify individual behaviour largely with the help of various studies. It has contributed towards various theories on learning, motivation, personality, training and development, theories on individual decision making, leadership, job satisfaction, performance appraisal, attitude, ego state, job design, work stress and conflict management. Studies of these theories can improve personal skills, bring change in attitude and develop positive approach to organizational systems. Various psychological tests are conducted in the organizations for selection of employees, measuring personality attributes and aptitude. Various other dimensions of human personality are also measured. These instruments are scientific in nature and have been finalized after a great deal of research. Field of psychology continues to explore new areas applicable to the field of organizational behaviour. Contribution of psychology has enriched the organizational behaviour field.

Sociology: Science of Sociology studies the impact of culture on group behaviour and has contributed to a large extent to the field of group-dynamics, roles that individual plays in the organization, communication, norms, status, power, conflict management, formal organization theory, group processes and group decision-making.

Political science: Political science has contributed to the field of Organizational behaviour. Stability of government at national level is one major factor for promotion of international business, financial investments, expansion and employment. Various government rules and regulations play a very decisive role in growth of the organization. All organizations have to abide by the rules of the government of the day.

Social Psychology: Working organizations are formal assembly of people who are assigned specific jobs and play a vital role in formulating human behaviour. It is a subject where concept of psychology and sociology are

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blend to achieve better human behaviour in organization. The field has contributed to manage change, group decision-making, communication and ability of people in the organization, to maintain social norms.

Anthropology: It is a field of study relating to human activities in various cultural and environmental frameworks. It understands difference in behavior based on value system of different cultures of various countries. The study is more relevant to organizational behaviour today due to globalization, mergers and acquisitions of various industries. The advent of the 21st century has created a situation wherein cross-cultural people will have to work in one particular industry. Managers will have to deal with individuals and groups belonging to different ethnic cultures and exercise adequate control or even channelize behaviour in the desired direction by appropriately manipulating various cultural factors.

And Others.

Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.

Motivation results from the interaction of both conscious and unconscious factors such as the (1) intensity of desire or need, incentive or reward value of the goal, and expectations of the individual and of his or her peers. These factors are the reasons one has for behaving a certain way.

An example is a student that spends extra time studying for a test because he or she wants a better grade in the

the act or an instance motivating, or providing with a reason to act in a certain way:

ex:- I don't understand what motivation was for quitting job.

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in a certain way: ex:- I don't understand what motivation was for quitting job. Anubhav Sony

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Theories of Motivation:-

Maslow's hierarchy of needs

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Content theory of human motivation includes both Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Herzberg's two-factor theory. Maslow's theory is one of the most widely discussed theories of motivation. Abraham Maslow believed that man is inherently good and argued that individuals poses a constantly growing inner drive that has great potential. The needs hierarchy system, devised by Maslow(1954), which is a commonly used scheme for classifying human motives.

is a commonly used scheme for classifying human motives. Maslows Hierarchy Pyramid The American motivation

Maslows Hierarchy Pyramid

The American motivation psychologist Abraham H. Maslow developed the hierarchy of needs consisting of five hierarchic classes. According to Maslow, people are motivated by unsatisfied needs. The needs, listed from basic (lowest-earliest) to most complex (highest-latest) are as follows:

The basic requirements build upon the first step in the pyramid: physiology. If there are deficits on this level, all behavior will be oriented to satisfy this deficit. Essentially, if you have not slept or eaten

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adequately, you won't be interested in your self-esteem desires. Subsequently we have the second level, which awakens a need for security. After securing those two levels, the motives shift to the social sphere, the third level. Psychological requirements comprise the fourth level, while the top of the hierarchy consists of self-realization and self-actualization.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory can be summarized as follows:

Human beings have wants and desires which influence their behavior. Only unsatisfied needs influence behavior, satisfied needs do not.

Needs are arranged in order of importance to human life, from the basic to the complex.

The person advances to the next level of needs only after the lower level need is at least minimally satisfied.

The further the progress up the hierarchy, the more individuality, humanness and psychological health a person will show.

Herzberg's two-factor theory

Frederick Herzberg's two-factor theory concludes that certain factors in the workplace result in job satisfaction, but if absent, they don't lead to dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The factors that motivate people can change over their lifetime, but "respect for me as a person" is one of the top motivating factors at any stage of life.

He distinguished between:

Motivators; (e.g. challenging work, recognition, responsibility) which give positive satisfaction, and

Hygiene factors; (e.g. status, job security, salary and fringe benefits) that do not motivate if present, but, if absent, result in demotivation.

Herzberg concluded that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction were the products of two separate factors:

motivating factors (satisfiers) and hygiene factors (dissatisfiers). Some motivating factors (satisfiers) were: Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth. Some hygiene factors (dissatisfiers) were: company policy, supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations, salary, status, job security, and personal life.

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Cybersony and the secrets of *organizational behavior * 2014 The name “ hygiene factors ” is

The name hygiene factorsis used because, like hygiene, the presence will not improve health, but absence can cause health deterioration. Herzberg's theory has found application in such occupational fields as information systems and in studies of user satisfaction such as computer user satisfaction.

Motivation further explained:-

Many people know motivation as the driving force behind an action. This is probably the simplest explanation about motivation. Motivation can be considered the state of having encouragement to do something.

Why do people do what they do? Why do we go on everyday, living our lives and trying to find justification for our existence? Some people think that they can find purpose in the things that motivate them. Others just see the motivation and react automatically.

There is no one thing that motivates people to perform certain actions. People are different, so it follows that their motivations have to be different. Here are some types of motivation:

1) Achievement -

This is the motivation of a person to attain goals. The longing for achievement is inherent in every man, but not all persons look to achievement as their motivation. They are motivated by a goal. In order to attain that goal, they are willing to go as far as possible. The complexity of the goal is determined by a person's perception.

To us, the terms "simple" and "complex" are purely relative. What one person thinks is an easy goal to accomplish may seem to be impossible to another person. However, if your motivation is achievement, you will find that your goals will grow increasingly complex as time goes by.

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2) Socialization -

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Some people consider socialization to be their main motivation for actions. This is especially evident in the situation of peer pressure. Some people are willing to do anything to be treated as an equal within a group structure. The idea of being accepted among a group of people is their motivation for doing certain things.

3) Incentive motivation -

This motivation involves rewards. People who believe that they will receive rewards for doing something are motivated to do everything they can to reach a certain goal. While achievement motivation is focused on the goal itself, incentive motivation is driven by the fact that the goal will give people benefits. Incentive motivation is used in companies through bonuses and other types of compensation for additional work.

By offering incentives, companies hope to raise productivity and motivate their employees to work harder.

4) Fear motivation -

When incentives do not work, people often turn to fear and punishment as the next tools. Fear motivation involves pointing out various consequences if someone does not follow a set of prescribed behavior. This is often seen in companies as working hand-in-hand with incentive motivation. Workers are often faced with a reward and punishment system, wherein they are given incentives if they accomplish a certain goal, but they are given punishments when they disobey certain policies.

5) Change motivation -

Sometimes people do things just to bring about changes within their immediate environment. Change motivation is often the cause of true progress. People just become tired of how things are and thus, think of ways to improve it.

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NON-FINANCIAL methods of MOTIVATION

Job rotation

Where workers switch from one job to another. So a worker is doing different jobs on different times. Usually these jobs are of the same type and do not involve any extra responsibility or skills. The idea is to give variety to the worker.

Job enlargement

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It involves increasing the scope of a job or broadening the task assigned to the worker. More variety in the job carried out by the worker leads to more job satisfaction.

Job enrichment

Where employees are given greater depth to their range of tasks rather than simply a wider variety of tasks of a similar level. They take part in decision making and problem solving. They help set targets and accept responsibility for the organisation and the quality of their own work.

Team working

This is where a group of workers is given responsibility for a particular process, product or development. The group is free to decide the way the job is done and how to organise the job. Each worker is involved in decision making and is responsible for the results. This creates a sense of purpose and commitment to the job at hand thus leading to greater job satisfaction.

to the job at hand thus leading to greater job satisfaction. Children education on firms products

Children education on firms products care facilities vehicle accommodation for clothing and food travel allowance facilities

Recognition: - To be recognized and appraised at work place, triggers employees to do their best.

Participation:- Involving employees in decision making, crucial tasks and at important functions tends to increase the morale of employees.

Status:- raising the bar of employees, giving them special status and position also imbibes the sence of motivation among employees within. And again it’s non-financial in nature.

Financial motivators

Pay

Pay can be given in two ways

Wages

Often paid every week, sometimes in cash or sometimes into a bank account. It is a common way of remuneration for manual workers those who work in factories and warehouse. It can be calculated in two ways:

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Piece Rate: this is where the workers are paid depending on the quantity of products made. The more they make the more they get paid. This system of wages is followed where the output can be counted.

Time Rate: This payment by the hour. The longer you work the more you get paid. This system of wages is followed where the output cannot be measured.

Salaries

Salaries are paid monthly. It is common for office and administrative staff.

Additional methods of financial motivation:

Commission: It is often paid to sales staff. The certain percentage of commission is paid to sales person who exceed a certain level of sales. It motivates the sales staff to sell more.

Profit Sharing: Employees receive a share of the profits in addition to their basic salary.

Bonus: Extra amount is paid to workers once a year or at intervals during the year as an appreciation of their hard work.

Performance related pay: Employee pay is linked to their performance in work. An Appraisal is carried out for the employee and they get paid according to their appraisal.

Share ownership: As a gesture of appreciation for the hard work of the employees a business might offer stock options to its employees. This motivates them to worker even harder because they are also the owners of the company.

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Motivation is concerned with inspiring the man to work to get the best result. Motivation may be of two types:

§ Positive

§ Negative

Positive motivation

In real sense, motivation means positive motivation. Positive motivation induces people to do work in the best possible manner and to improve their performance. Under this better facilities and rewards are provided for their better performance. Such rewards and facilities may be financial and non-financial.

Negative motivation

Negative motivation aims at controlling the negative efforts of the work and seeks to create a sense of fear for the worker, which he has to suffer for lack of good performance. It is based on the concept that if a worker fails in achieving the desired results, he should be punished.

Both positive and negative motivation aim at inspiring the will of the people to work but they differ in their approaches. Whereas one approaches the people to work in the best possible manner providing better monetary and non-monetary incentives, the other tries to induce the man by cutting their wages and other facilities and amenities on the belief that man works out of fear.

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Students are requested to please go through books and other sources of information for better explanation and understanding. This is just an outline for your syllabus.

Thank You

Cybersony

Good Luck with that

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