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tbe Queen

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LEOPAfRA
THE

QUEEN

OF

KINCS

:,.

A,,114,.,, n,ousrnd:.i

flc(.r!l

slass drif

k!.e.trn

.l;,

LEOPA|RA
THE

QUEEN

OF

Vritten by
FroNl MncDoNALD
Illustrated by

CHnrs

MouN

A Dorling Kin dcrslel. Book

KINCS

Dorling

Contents

Kindersley

LONDON NEW YoRK SYDNEY, DELHI,

MU\lCIl

PARIS

and IOHANNESB LIRG

P.oj..1 Editor 5ue lldacloush


Art Fditor Cathcr ne Cddnnnh
Senior Edltd \1n.ic (,reen\ood
Sen,or Art Editor Carole

6
Clropnrna's

l)liv{

P(bhhing Manager layre |aLons

Cul]l'*
N.n,azle
lladoth
DTP Designcr

Manasins Art Editor iacqrLe

lla,lits
I).
,
|i.e
lacket Desisi..
Production Kak O lr.r,l.dnI la.oby
Consulta.i Dr Sa ) ,\fn Aslnot
Specialphotosrapiy 14\,\lcu er AIL{:tr Dun.
Pi.ture Rese!(hc. Frf!6ka

EGYPT

Fm,trv AT \(/AR
r

ird Nl.k Ni.hoL Irerei Hayam. J!hn Hr\. t..


D}e Kins Srrph.n O nc' L LEn.e l\rd* Tonl i,utd

Chrini Crah.nr

Arl(l

tl,na r lLr r.ofr

l6t

bv

prbltrhed rr loo

Ll! D!r]lns K'nder\ley


8r:

l.hr

aDe\

llrirll.d

Srrdil Lntri.,, \I'CrR

oRL

1.1{rlll09:il
(-urrrirht O 2Oal Dorli.g Krfd.rlc-v
All nsht!

ies d \. r)rn.t

Lrd , London

tlin p(bl.ation

be repr lced, rorcd ,n a tc eral slste.l


(irrntted ln inv t.rnr or b-v any mean!
.Lc.tor,. nuchDl.a nhoarcoovLng recorl;ng
.r orher{be, r"ltlhul t}. nn.
D.rnrisio. ot rhe (lprriqhl or!.r

m:]
or

A CIP .fulosue
trom

ie.o ior thl\ h..k rs av


dr lhrsh l,t,nl-r

lsB\

0 75

rr

rr91

Reprorluo,l by ( olourscu Sngaport


Pnilea a'id )on.d b-v L I C O lill

10

TUE suN GoD's


DAUCHTER

lible

12

TrrNacr

eUEEN

14

www.dk.com

I-trr tN cT-EOPATRA'S
ECYPT

16
INro rxrr-r

34
1B
CITvER AND CHARMINC

20
Rovar- BEAUTY

22
A povrRrul PRoTECToR

QurrN oF KINCS
36

Wan vzrru RoME


3B
THr elrrr-E oF

ACTIUT\4

40

Dnrgar AND DrsHoNouR

24

To carsan's RoME
26
Tnouslrs AT HoME

42

Tur otalu

on

CLEOPATRA

Arrrn

44
cLEoPATM

46

CleopatRa's sroRY
FACT AND FICTION

2B
AnRrvrNc IN srYLE

32
ANroNv aNo
CLEOPATRA

4B
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CI,FOPATRA

S ECYI]'I

Flvrr-v

AT \rAR

FRov nN EARLY AGE, CLEOPATRA


knew that her family was at war
- with the people it ruled, and

with itself. The people suffered under


the cruelty of Cleopatra's father Ptolemy XII - and they resented his

Pirnp.y i lOij 18 ll I wa!


oic of rhe n,.st brillianr
gc.crk of h s tlnre By
helpine Ptoleny Xllhe
hoped r0 in.reas. Ronrin

alliance with Rome. In 58 BC, the citizens


of Alexandria rioted, and chased Ptolemy out
of Egypt. Ptolemy fled to Rome,and Cleopatra's older sister, Berenice,
became queen. In 55 BC, Ptolemy returned to Egypt. Helped by Roman
general Pompe-r. he snatched back power from Bcrenicc, and ruled as pharoah
once more. Ptolemy then gave orders for Berenice to be executed
RIVALS FOR PO\(/ER
All Ptolemy XII's childrer hoped to rule, and this nlade
them rivals Cleopn!-as older si+er, llerenice IV, rulcd
mvstrioudy
tsercnice

had

{:nr\ri

hn

h(

lrth fu ht

,i' Irl.,r,l idtrih',o1r j liihJ -lir.,"rr


larr oor,irnJ Lou Ior,t;l,r rorl/ ra",i*

)urdered her

Ptoh,D XlI tr,,5 t h,,0,, ol

iwhq

At

1.r.,.," L " t." .-\pl-.-1. J,d


around this time drc tumour \ras thal

fu)rr

r$i aa-5ttt .!rl is 11ltt


ue, J,rlr[r] ly,, rrl,lrcts

th.

Ptolrnr

ia.,d

i,r.oli..tui l&r1y !,r.!

ielalLr tri

ri,ry ro Rori.
tl,t ll.

lirDI?dr IrDl.J

Ronar lraJrs

l-,rJ

Ptohflr

XIII

Ptol.

r XIY

CL.a]l lTR,\ s BRoTHERS


aildt;riri l,J t0o ro!,r0 briirs lori
ihJ Ptol.hr ,..r rrJ?,! ror,,'t !trno,

Tkr tut
n

Prol0r.)

rubt rJ Eql'l
Xlll rrJ Ptol.,yXIt'

i,ath ta b@1n

Buttt

Cbattt

TrylLro$

.46n,0.

Ptokry- hdt Jon ldrllrtr: Clr.t,rr1 ! ,nt,tr


un ,:altl Lnru l\/ Ckrttt Trytl,rdd Yl.
I lNror ll' 8r ri rr al$llntnt hatr ub'
dn. ,ntrr nili r lir lhro(,!dr, Aar,tu

Symbols of power
CTFeI,rrR,\'i rt rttt. drc Prolcmics introrlLrccd many changes
ro Eg-vpt One ol the mort rnrponant rr.ar thc usc oi c,:lrns
ior tradc Beiore the Ptolemles. coin\ r'ere almost unkno\r,n:
[gl ptian nrerchanrs ba.tered ierchanged goorls lnstcarl
( oins also carriccl a political nressage lrrages on rhc
Ptolrmics .orrs shorued Lherr as rich and porverlul

Portralt of Ptolcmr XII

lLd !r hav. r1,.,, f.,n n.incd


rn.ir.i Eg]fLran str"! crcrthrnghtrc. rerc
:tum Ih..riof,i rorthorC,ecre Th.r rarLeLl
r rlr th. 9 .a: F:ra,.rh- .L
:. linl Lh.ms.lv.i
lg!!ri trir 'lh..trr'.! r t|e Ten:FJe oL
I L.,rs rt idau !ro\- f'lolenrr \ll ..n!!.,if!

The I'toiennes

r.

Tf ' rert lni rrrrait sfor' a


l):,1era r qreen lle,enie
\i\rer rrd {,i. oi I\ol.Jri lll
11

,l

THI
\\'hlr

r,

ROMAN ENlPIRE

Lle PLolemlcs trccd problcms


,- FeypL the Ronar enplrc connqu.d
t! r\pard B-v 5t H( ihc Romar arm-r'
hrrl conruered lard rr norJrtrr ard
lL Lhen Flropc lr rorth .\trrca aLrd

,r

Lhe

r h,rn ore,lLr,:ng
an.lgrirf lllrtrlor

co, rL,cop

th trurr

realrh;rd ]ms]{,,o

Ir,. Nr",:',,r,,1 r.,... 1,,,


'i.iri,ir
1,r1.r,,r,.,:ir;,,,\1,r r rri,.,,il,
,fti
;.i.t
,
r,;;.r
.h,i
i,ri
.i
.1,.,
i,".1; lr Rrr
l,.,rtir,, ,r',:

-i

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,4,

.;*.Ll

hlirldlc Ea.t

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. ;/'

I
\

ii:f ,,.r , i,"i ti,r \ir. i)rril


'ri "r r ilr a ti, ia,i
li,iiri,j;!i i.rlN,I,i r. li,.l rl..
,,1 ,,, , ;i^.t.lr,i iri r,!,r

CLEOPA I RA'S ECYPT

Tur suN GoD

DAUCHTER

Ho,res for the sods


Trnrpl(s \'.r. bu,lr a\ h.nnes I0 the
gods Thc rr.*s ntr.le ollernss ol

i.rod drifl aid f.enr t. the I0l!


*arucs.YeN di! The n,ort imfon.nt
rEn,rler \.ei e lrei[]!! por..hLl
D,saii:a1rcn\ Th.y own.d iams

or.hrAs librri.s afd (..rksh.rr.


rnd c,nrl.ved mr.r' s.,1,an.

CLrop,qtRA \rAS No\r PToLEMY XII's


i oldest suryiving child. When he dled
she would become queen, as the wife
of her younger brother, Ptolemy XIII. This
was exciting, but also terrifying. Cleopatra
remembered what had happened to her sisters,
and feared that enemies might try to kill her
too. But Cleopatra lr.as clever. She made friends
with powerful courtiers. She prepared
herr.l[ [or governr])ent b1 learning nrany
languages including Egyptian (al1 the
other members of her family only spoke
Creek). She also rrsed rcligion to support her
claim to the throne. Clcopatra called herself
tl.re Sun Cod's daughter,

l,hich

u,as an

an.ient roval title


Tre

sacred bull of Buchis

Esyprians Lreli.!.d !1,at !h. srcrcd bulls ,n a temp e


r1 ll!.his wir.rh.nrn godAnri Re,r animal ilnr
Soon after she becane queen Cleop:Ln Lri'(llcd
dou the N,le $Lh a ne[l!.ho!!. BLr.1r6 hu]l
T. the Eljr pr,a. proplc rl. Lrulls n.rc a.ds trnd b!
ralinr. parr L. rh...r.n,.nr ( lc.ftrnr vas sh.\'ins
are peoDle rlul sh. r.$..r.d th.i, !.d\

Orly mcn

crs oi rhc ro-r,rl irnrl-r or


rn.srs and rne(esss.oul.l
ente, rhe Llark innerJ,rne ol cach
lemple \'hcre 1lr s!rl!. ,n rh. g.d

q,i.r

Cods and goddesses


I tKF AIt rHE Ptolcnics and their queens betore
her (.leopatra said praycrs and nade ollerrngs

o .,\,rl-",.1.

.1

j,.r'rc'.".oJrr.r-

Fgypt Traditlonally. lsis and HaLhor protectecl


Fgyptran queens irorr harm.

10

Ifujin i! rrl ,

,a,; l,,f.0J

l.llrfri irr r.,,

,,1,,1.

THF SllN

.,a)l)

S r)Aria,HrFR

6Th. Q.,..n, th.

Lady of the Two


Lands, the father-

loving goddess,
rowed the Bull in
the barge of Amon
to Hermonthis.g

PO\(/ERFUL

l ranslat.d

Cleoparra needed their


who belorged to r;ch, i
All priesrs .ecerved a sh
madc to rhc gods, and ot

l\sr+ l

tL-- 1j:

ir IPL[-

Fi

r.nrp c lr rds llrrsrspcnt


Lhcir templts and many served
oliicrals al court So CIeopaLra
!enerors slhs to the most lsrporrint
tcmplcs, to cncouragc thcir pri(sts.o
help her stay in power

l..r \rrr( FN_r He\IrDRrss


l,ii. Dtl,.r Pi.lln.i.,liid j
t ,,f.nn' t\rc r tdllLMSS.!;
.,l.toil li,ntr! i,rft,ol oJrL.

r.J1,r,,1,*,.r,,,liJlt

,r.1, t,,rofLd/,. a:/nl,olr d


rh adl,1,,ns lLnL.rrnJ I,nl

S0 t

ton,

*ele

. G!n,e nal]] at Henn.nthis


'j,l.
Gu. .oD.,l A",o..i.
'\l
ul

nrlliij rr qflr

,rmJ

1,,;:
11

a, an ofrri,o to tLr qoJs

utrem
A

NCIENT RECORDS INDICATE THAT CLEOPATRA RULED

A*uh

her lather lor a short time. And after his


death in 51 BC, 18-year-old Cleopatra was determined

:1:J;i;YJ;-' of the time, she married her 12-year-old brother,


Ptolemy XIII (Llke all the Ptolemies before her, she did not want
to marry outside the royal family, because that might weaken its
power.) In law, Ptolemy now had the right to rule, but his sister
said that he was too young. Cleopatra wanted to rule - alone.
However, Cleopatra knew that many nobles and royal officials
supported her brother's right to rule. And Ceneral Pompey,
her dead father's powerful ally,
had plans to govern Egypt for
66lf cl.oputra's nose
Rome. The young Cleopatra knew
had been shorter,
she would need to use all her charm
the whole face of the
intelligence to remain queen.
world would have
been chansed.

11

Blaise Pas.al (French

philosopher, conmeniinc
on Cleopat.a's legendary

A .arued relief in trndidonal Egyptia.


sryle at the Temple of liathor at Dendeia

beaury.Iron iis Pensies

tW
ts

,il,
\
\

:r.:

R')) \L

f(

)RTRllr

('lof ah a clearly

':' '

hdd,a
d1ttl

Pou,erJul

fdsctltititq

Persordlity, eou
vbet youtt1.
Throughout histot'y,
sbe hds ttlu,rtys beeu
Portrtr1'ed as ltea iJtl,
,ts h lhis nLarble heal
Howurer, noboly krcu.s Jor
stue what sltt actually looked like

TEENAGL

QUEEN

Lrru rx
CLEOPATRA,S ECYPT
Clgopnru

AND HER FAMILY LIVED IN

Alexandria, Egypt's splendid capital city.


The city had been founded by Alexander
the Great in 331 BC, and it had grown and
prospered over 300 years of rule by the
Ptolemies. Alexandria was one of the most
important ports in the ancient world, and
it was home to an exciting multicultr-rral
civilization, which blended Creek, Egyptian,

fhis be Ltii!l{all fa,ntifs slnr*\ i.


harn.s,.Ll lo a nr[;:D"i, ia rL.odcn
wa!(. rheelr As die or walk.d rouid,
lhc a hel turned liln.swatcrhonthe
Nile !o the f el,ls Ox.. st,ll full \ttel
$lr.ek in lsrpr lodrv

!r

and Middle Eastern ideas and beliefs. But to most


ordinary Egyptians, Alexandria seemed strange and
foreign - just like the Ptolemies themselves. In the
tirst t$.o years of Cleopatra's reign the Nilc failed to llood.
There rvere crop failures and farnines, and many ordinary
people starved. As mler of Egypt, Cleoparra nceded to
help the people and win their support
but she also needcd to please the

66 ro. by nature
the land produces
more fruit than do
other lands, and
still more when

watered...

))
I

conhisticated cirizens of Alexandtia


i
i

TRAVELLINC
BY BOAT
modcl oi a
Thrs
"ooder
boar $,ar iood in a tomb

L$ptrans volrld ha!e

ur and doirn Lhe


Nil. to tike.rops ro

sarled

Frcr

file

. Thc N,le is are.vorkl's loisc*


ivcr k !trn! Ior 6.69! kn, il 160

D,lesj froh *r. highlafds ol Cedrral


AiriLa 10 the \l.dite,E.ean Sea
. T.day the Nile i\ darnncd at

A$! i. hrt

in Cleopahs nnre lt
fl.o.leLl n lunc bccause.f ,aintr ater
ir. ried lrom thc hiehlands The
lanll beside rhc ivcr rernained
NLle,nGr unnlAueust or Spt rber
. Alrer th. tloods, the lanLltras
Love(n rn d,,ck. fertile dud It was
tlry cnousl, to ploq.jh b Novcn,ber,
thc sra,t of rhe Enptian fame$'r,e

\.,,i,rar

.!l,rr ti,. , ({, u,,

lot,ir .uJ .tooJ, . r rii ir


rnil5h,r,:i,;,ilvl,!ru

ri,,r t.

tlir

l1

I-]II]

Th n ir

dt

is i la.g. ir.. ,rf l.\ lrnrg land in rh. d.rlrt oi


f.trh.m Fglpi, $rro,dr.g a ii!+ wa!!r lah! Th. ro:l ,s
ieriile aid rhc Iak! frcvrLl!-s qir.r ior growng c,ors Llfd.i
rhe ,uE of the l\olem,es nafy (-,,..k sc(].,s n,.'.d th.(
add ,r Nis a brsy id pn)sfen$ rretr

Th. lavun,

'1:,'

i.,.

nu \ihd

'!-t:

',-..'..;' :
!: ]

Ir.igation wnternrg the Iand


lisr'flu iannG ilsc lsed r.l,,l I a bu.leL iiren !r a l!,rs
r!oden trnn, t. l,ft nit.i i,. n th! riv.i r. inr!rre rh.,r
lanLl The fuleoles introdLr.ed a n,ichine n, lifti,rs va(er

...

S ICYI''I

bdty;tlreh bn
ta hait
"at
tn:6d ut hN tk Elri'titti
n.4r. ft rllooJi
-

r.r::- _Jl :
t)ii]l

crcP:

IN CLEOPATRA

-;

.,:..:-i.ri

C.

Fl

More winel
.

Br.FL)lir. THE

t
i

BESIDE THE NILE


Nlosr Es)Trlaf families Llved in
country tov'ns and \.illa8es beside
rhe swrling watcrs ot thc Rlver
Nilc Thq. \,orked as iariners
builders, traciers, ard crahworkers,
as thelr anceston had done lor

T1LLLL

of thc

Ptolemies wine l,as rare


and expensile, and nost

Igyptians drank beer The


(,rccks prelcrrcd r'.rne so
they brought neri, ri-inemakirg skills io Fgl,pr

P{.,0, s , r.ra! .,rl ,r?tdl!n,r]r,,iitr,imin. .l,oir.'


u,IrnJ,li0,., ldlPl .

'l
Thr. rall pa,nrinrr \l,Ns l.uh NorkeLs
hirrnms irtrl (cadns !nD.s

TEENACE

QUI]EN

Ixro EXrLE
FOR THE FIRST

T\/O

YEARS OF HER REICN

Cleopatra managed to keep control of


Egypt, but she had many enemies. One
of the most powerful was Pothinr-rs, her brother
Ptolemy's chief advisor. He did not like the way
Cleopatra made many important government
decisions without consulting him. Also Ptolemy
XIII was nearly 16 years old, and was demanding his
share ol power. ln 48 rr . Cleoparra d:*g*ygisdd&

Youns PLolcmy Xlll relie,l


heivrl) oi a.lYi.e sivrn bt n4)
.ffl.hl Porhinus and l\'adeE oi
r

nal sroips .i.oLles at

Ptolemy and Porhinu* were plotting Lo tend.oldiers to


kidnap her, and guessed that they plannedto ki1l her.
Cleopatra knew that she must leave Egypt. She set sail

dre

ior Syria. There, Cleopatra hoped to rccruit an army,


to help hcr rvin back her throne from her
broLhe,' r, ho had nor' .erzed .hc thtorte
SEEKINC SUPPORT
Lo go to Syria becatrsc
rhe Prolemrcs had once,uled thcrc Thc

Cleolatra chose
Clc.ntrrra ancertd
his {pporLets urth

l't,rl.n\

XIII tr.Ll

d,snl a ol ier

our po,rcr,l,kc ths bLon:c corn,


sLnrck

culv ,n

her rergn It

curcs

h.r po,.ait ai.ld0es no! shoa her

aholiiin,

fir,

r'i.

looii

kins ol S)na $.as also an enem| oi Rome


Llkc (ileopaLra, he fearcd that hrs orvn
country v,ou d be taken over by Lhe
nighLy Roman cniprre

inrr lI sr"'i,,i,r, !,n, .1.,d.


irr Tin u;5l,ni] r. rri..t

d,rL

l,. l,n,i l'tol.n ), u,l frtL'ur;


nrFil,ar./ r. jhl ttrnor

.l , r ,ao

irlnr.r

BATTLE FOR PO\TER


,lulius Cae*r and Ponpev had
once betn clc,se comrades but
rn .1S N{ rhey becanre rilals
Ior suprene porier rn Rome
Then clash led to irshtine

belveen rival Ronan


arnies, enr1rns *rth the
llittle of Pliai\al!r at
*ttch lulius Caesar

MED]TERRANGAN

Ph'rdls:, Palnt.y sdtd

l'$tly

ta

Elytt

C.esdr

A TREACHEROUS ACT
Cleopatra sought help
'4. V'hile
rn Syria, hrr guardran lronpe!

hunrrd to EgypL where he


KLPL\L v,\Tc i
td.ld(r! l.rrrit.lJDr

ii,Jt, rl, r,,J.J,f,lj

hoped

lhnr Plolemv and Cleopalr-a would


olier hr more-v ard soldiers Bur
Ptolenrl's supporters murdered Pompey
as qoon:s hc lardcd ln Alcx:rrlrla

po,rne!

fEEN]\CE

QUF, I]N

ClrvrR AND

voice
.

CHARIVIINC

voice. As if her
CAESNR ARRIVED IN ECYPT IN 48 BC,
just four days after Pompey was killed.
was an instrument of .
many strings, she could When Caesar landed at Alexandria,
pass from one language
ptolemy XIII,s supporters offered him
to another ... and she
rl

--i;t,

" {f

' ,,, -":;;::":1,' /

Ee
-"...
"r{ :' '"'-!d'

iil;ll';;l,llii; a
l:li:i i:ili,, ftr
il,,lri

1
rr
However, Lhe wantedl
by this brutal1 murder.
to keep the peace - he had come to Egypt to
collect a huge sum of money that he claimed

"

Cleopatra's father had orved hrm. So he ordered


Cleopatra and Ptolemy to meet rvith him to discuss
a peace treaty. Cleopatra did not trust her brother,
and knew that there was a real dar]ger that she would be
killed if she came face to face t ith any of his advisors.
She knew that she needed Caesar's protection.
Onc night (ileopatra had herself smrrggled into
(laesar's

roorr

she rtas about to use all her-

charm and intelligence to $,in his support.

HtDDtN

r: \r\ \

Courase and lo-valry


A oerchanr called Apollodonts ms
FeruarleLlb! Clcopurr t ,i;k his
l,le 1. nnusgl. h.r ift., the
heallr :uarrlcd ralace

A C]FT FOR CAESAR


oltcn scnt rich grits
to powrrlul people So Cacsar u.ould not
hrvc btn nrLprised x,her Clcopatras
RLrlcrs Lke Cleoparra

scnrnr brouehL hin a beaurltul .arpct


(llcoprtra q!rcklr' ga,red Caesars
qtPpon bur she \1il1 had erenri.s in

Alcxandria CarsaL wfo had arivcd


wrth onlr a sna I army ol mcn was
happy Lo f,nd ar ally in such a hostile c,Ly

(. I FVFR

\N1)

CHAR

IIN.,

I.ri ,,tri,?r. ri..r,r,


.1,ir ii.r r,t J. ri,r r'l]'
r

/\.r,,i,, triL,li i,,r,

PLOT ACAINST CAESAR


Irothinus Irto enrrs .fi.t advlsri iound c,rL Lhat C'leopalla
ror Caesars surrport he flottcd asaLrsr him Cae\ars l,arb.r

\Y hcn
hacl

hcrrcl Porhrnus. plars ard Pothlnus v,as txccurtLl \ltanlhrle


\srnoe csc;ped r,om rhc .lry ro toin lorccs uiLli Crntra Achillas
and rLe Eq'pLran

aml arairsr

Cacsar

C eopatra rsed l,er krorlrdgc md


lnrell,red.r L! !1a! ,f !o\'!, l'h.I\.1e., es
helped ro rk. Al.\aidrii ,nnr a grear Lrntrt
oilc:m,rg lr Clcopams t ne the j,bnr. ras

l,ir,ri!ii i,r rli,.!rr,;,,


-,i,rr il lit;; l;rnl
,n;ili,) lnr
... Lf ri ni,,l.r

th grc:tcst,r

rhe

Nrld

!i rhe rhtt hnlurgls


rsrJ,n E$f r,n Cl.ofatras
rnlr.ad be ie.n on t1,.
Ii.t!rta Sr,rr. h,crogh fh\
!s!d in, ,oril de.iees aid
Texr.

ir'rG de!.ti.
rr tter s mnl,lieLl iotr
h,eilsh pl,sr and a,(.t

r.lrgr.us
a
01

rongnei Cleopx,a ws
fin,oo. n)r her kn.r ledcc
ol thev l:rsuages dd

Iir lcrii Strt ii,, ilrb

PTOLLNlY'S FURY
\\']len

Prolcm-v

Xlll

hea,d

LhaL

(ileoparra was wrth Cresar he ran


out.t rbe palac. and thir\ dow
hrs crol\r in a tcrriblr iagc
The paLace tas nou
Er1?tlan ann)

I\olemy to lea',t thr

ci.,

an.1 oin htr sisrer

4..1r".,.,1 C,...ral

Ach,llas Divs aiter


the *,ar rn Alerandria
rnded Plolemys l,ody
was tound rn the harbour

Roval

BEAUTY

Clropnru

m,f..s \fere nade


0{ hishly polbhed erals
so

The handle ol tlrtr drnror


shap.d l,k. a sc[iir si,l
wc ii i lotus ilo\.er

KNE\(/ THAT LooKINC

good was important. An impressive


appearance helped her to get her own
way - with Caesar, and with the Egyptian
people too. She chose what she wore for
each occasion with care. It is thought that
for official public duties, Cleopatra wore
Egyptian costume - a long, pleated linen shift
decorated with beads and embroidery. In the
privacy of her palace, Cleopatra probably preferred
Creek-style robes of soft linen or smooth silk.
Vhatever the occasiolr, Cleopatra knen that
she must appear impressive,

powerful, and in control.

KFEPINC CI,FAN
A1l Lgyprans Iiked to feclclcan and
fresh Vcalthy EgypLrans, likc

CleopatLa woulcl have had


baths, *,hilc orclina,r'
the Rive. Nile

lnd mincrls Nlalacl,ite

ilea.lorel and iron or e


lLeie lround uD a.d n,rcd

w,rh waler !o nak. colourings


for cvcs lps ard chceks

Fragrances and flovers


The lgypt;ans valued the
*.rnl |.tr,K il.\rr f.n

ROYAI

BEAUTY

LOOKINC L]KE A QUEEN

Images of Cleopatra

tore

Wr oo Not knorv ruhat Cleoparra looked like

Vrirh her rraditional Eglprian sosn CIeopalra

a heavy wig. She also wore rhick make-up,


eyeLlds vere coloured.

Eetpran st),le Her

all the portraiis that have suwir.ed look very


different The fearures and hairstl,le of this Roman
head rratch her coin portraits, bu! Cleopatra rn,oLrld

her eyes were outlined, and her

cheels uere rcL,oed

t)$t

i.rtl

a'.a1.1-a,, u,,'n ".1'"u

1' .r ,r-

lglPL

a_

poftraits sho\{ Cleopatra as a goddcss, and rvcre


not lntr.ndcd to he lile like

Traditio.al Egyptiar

FINISHINC TOUCHES

(ilcopatra ivore beautituI lerveLlery,


elaborate make rp and rich pertume
Somctimes, her nails and the palms

of hcr hands v,ere de.orared

wirh patte.ns in lrenna

ftr!,r.J A R,i. r
Jair, tldd,Jrid
fu Ril$l.'llf hillh,l d n
1;rr

!lol,r]t,

striking that it stunned


the onlooker, but she
made an inescapable
impression on people
around her ... the

intelligence of all that


she said and did,

4oJJ.sr 11/,,lld uLo tr!tr

W::W
ww,ru ru

W:

w;:m W,,,,w* w;:^h;w;:m'w:


OR THE FIRST TIME IN YEARS, CLEOPATRA

felt secure. Her enemy Ptolemy XIII and

Jur-rr-rs Clr.srn
Laesrtr was a

brilliant artny
commander and
anbitious nLler
oJ

his advisors were dead, and Caesar promised


to protect her and her new husband - her
surwiving brother, 1 1-year-old Ptolemy XlV.
Vith Caesar, she sailed down the Nile, to
meet her subjects and impress them with her
power. Rumours said that Cleopatra was
pregnant with Caesar's child. When Caesar
returned to Rome, he left 15,000 men
to guard her.

Ronc.

Th

aalls were decorated


witb cdruel relieJs. Hu4e po*raits
oJ (,leopatrd antr ber sor
C,tesarion (Caesar s cbild)
temple

were later c,troed here.

Ptolemy's sons beiri


dead, Caesar settled
the kingdom Lrpon the
youngest, in conjunction-"
with Cleopatra, the elder
of the two sisters, who
always continued
' had
under his protection

guardianship.)
\i/ritcf
The temple ol Hatho., Dd,dera CleopatR
maI have lniied rhc tmple on her Nile
.ruise witir Cacsar to nrake offeinlrs t.

bv one

oflL'tu

otli.cL, from Tl,e


i,._4lsx d"m vr r7 Bc l
Caesar s

A POVERFUL

PRO'IECTOR

To CAESAR,S

ROME
Arren

TAKTNG coNTRoL IN ECYPT,

Caesar returned to Rome in 46 BC where


he was welcomed as a hero. Cleopatra
soon hurried to join him. She claimed that
she was negotiating a peace treaty between
Egypt and Rome, but she also wanted to
make sure of Caesar's protection. Cleopatra
brought her son Caesarion and teenage
pharoah Ptolemy XIV with her. She did not
want her brother or his advisors to try to seize
power in Egypt rvhile she rvas away. Many Romans
were shocked by the relationship between Caesar
and Clcopatra. They wer.e afraid that Caesar rvould
name Cacsarion as his heir that
Cleopatra's son n ould become
rurler of Rome.
A',i'
!1

o.r. r art]Jli iivo,rl,

.x r.lr,,, i, tdlr.l.,

tl,

iL,r,

rd..ni,',t. 41,6,r!
fnro,n!,r r, d Lrr tt,i.rl r/ltr.

t,!hi

,rai. ,mt

{r

rr. rr,J Tr':irI

Th it.r.,,, l..r,l. ri.oLtriir,r rd!,!. t. i,iMij,ir,1.rn ii. rr]'

lJ tl,1r,:r,i,lri io rr tit'.
!l:;r, i. i(l 11,,, ,r,r' .r,tri L,.i
CAESARS
TRIUNTPH

Cacsar cclcbrared hrs


vicrorics bv paradrns his
.aprivcs rhtuuglr the ill..ts
ot l{omr Cleopirn-as ristcr.

Anrroe. r'ho fad

Lcd drc
EAyDrlar aftnv aeainst Ciesar
was draggcd through rhe sLreeLs
harefcadcd and ,n chans IL uas a
disgracc lor a rcman to appear rn
pub|c rhls wa-r' ir r.a, rhc (ulron lor
Ron,ar rorer ro ircar a long cloak and
!erl oulside rheir homcs. Ho*,cvcL ALsin,:,e
iras 1uc[-v urlikc othcr crpto,cs, she vas not
ki led Cacsar icarcd LhrL rhe Romans mlg)rt
dor if rhcv law a prin.ess publlcl-v trccurcd.

Tl,rs sccnc. irom a I lollyrrrd nlm callen


I-i.oliri! nade if r96i, shora Cle!patri

Irlavcd b) El,uaheth Taylo,) ari..ins ro


Rome w th he, \on C.esar(rn

TRtLt\11.H

Li..ih,r I.$i,o, r, ll iil.


i0,'i J to Ro,ri,l
J,n,s I a i,rr1L d|mrl ,,,1tr,r.(l
Ui. ,rrJ,ri,*il)

CAESAR S RoN1 E

'.ik

"#r'].r.fl{6( t t.,,ut. the queen ...


although the gifts
she promised me were
of a literary nature
and not beneath
my dignitv

Temples and tributes


To

for his victory a! the baitle


built a nev remple
in Rome dedrcated to Venus Cenctrix iVenus
the 'Crra! Nlother"l Caesar also paid for a
Lreautiflrl sta!ue c,l Cleopatra ro be prrt on
drspla), in the tenple it shorved her as a
morher holding Caesarion in her arms.
(-,IVE TH.\NKS

c,l Pharsalus,.lrrlius (laesar

11

R. ,an \Ldte' Cice,o, altcr


aleopatrr off.rcd htu bools
tne ]\lcra"d"a library hofi
l-etr.i{

\:

ro

Ati.us, at

Bc

Thb

Cle.pah nay.d in oi..f aae*rs splendtl vrlhs


n Ro r. Sh. hcld..uii theie idy,tL.g l.adiis

.llen !j thlm i.h s,fr!


$n theii liie.LlJnp and iuflnir

f,.ru!

sh.lrs thc ,oins oi the

Romrn forun inu,leL square and


neer nc pl..el qh.i! Ca.sir built
his renplt 1,r V..us ai.ncriir

The goddess oi love


ll,lnc Caeirs iamil!.l.imcd
.le\.rdl i.om V(nus So ii \rs

gr.at h.n.ui ior CkopaLr. o


|av. hei ( r. in rhe !.mp].
a

Ro,nans nr vtr,t her an,l

Sh. hop.d to

THE DEATH OF CAESAR


As a rovarcl ior his vrctorics the SeDale made
'sole rulcrl tor the ntrL ten
Caesar drctalor
years rn.16 u(: Tivo |cars latcr, he.uas
nra.1e dr.tator lor liic tluL some Ronars
iearecl that (lacsar was be.onnns roo
poeerturl and that he $.anled to be

kinS Abour slxty con\pirarcrs


dc.ldcd he nnbt be killed

I,ri!, L;rrr tr/\,i,1,hJ r, J,,ri.


lal!! r l;!.t, naiiri t 1t-J'

A POVI,RIUI-

PROTIICTOR

TnousLES AT

HOME

AprEn Cnesnn vAS N4URDERED


in 44 BC, the shocking news spread
like wildfire round the Roman world.
Cleopatra - who was in Rome when
the murder happened - lost no time in
hurrying back to Egypt. Now that Caesar
,

1 /

her prot.ecLor. wat dead. her kingdom


was once more in danger. Manv
hostile countries saw Egypt as a rich
prize, and hoped to conquer it. Cleopatra

kept her son Caesarion close by her side,


because she feared that he might be murdered
by Caesar's enemies. Ptolemy XIV disappeared
Lile ba.L in Es!pt $as nol rasy l,i Cleoparia
Sie r,1ed ro $i. {ppon l.om Al.rrndian
.obles br oilen.s thern ri.h r.\r.rds Sh.

.!rp.a..d ,n a qindoir oi .udicicc

rlal

Nalacc and

thr.(

drc

eiirs to the c,or.d

O,!'jon ral.rrrr,r,

But nmy people stillsaw her as a rnitor


becarse oihe, l,ie.Ll\hip rilh Ca.qi i.d

her

mystcriously, and pcoplc said that Cleopatra had


poisoned her br.other, so that she could ru1e Egypt
ruith hcr young son.
r_l;dr, rhl) r,,,']i ln l
,1,5r.r,

ntr irh,ai ri 1r i,,

IL lula,, r(,,ir i+r h.rr,


."..t,,, L,r i,rr!.r ro;ri,lr

lons\i!i1to R.m.

Rich rewards
TRADITIoNALIy, tHAR(lAHs AND qucens ol
Egypt rervarded loyal scrvicc with rich gifts of
necklaccs madc lrc,nl gold Like earlier

r' ,/ 't r.)val nrlcrs thc Ptolemv dvnasLv


h",l r-,.-.,, ,rg,.l irL'.
''..!.
and othcr treasures rvhich had bccn

given to past pharoahr as tribute honl


cc,nqucrcd pc,,p1cs, or paid as taxcs
Th,s nc.klac. i, .all.d

a.d s mad. f.dn

ors

.ollar oi honoor
oi gol.lring!

Thousrnds oi-vcars reo nlas grv.. to n.


afcicfr l s-vfnan fobli N a Evaid

26

i. t.*1,1,,r.'

"",r,4

r.t,,,

'I ROtJBl. l,S

r\l

HOMI]

FAN,IINE AND DISEASE

Iior two ) ears dlo lns Cleopatra s rersn, thc Nilc floods
iailed Therc vas not rnough $,aler in rhc rivci to sPread
Lrch md ovcr the frclds or 1rl iraisar. them As a
resulL farmer c,ops and arrmals dlcd and
many ordirarl fanrlies suiiered fron,

Ihe l..l,le tlood rvr<r {ere veo i poita.!


to Lh! l$"tians mnivali th.y m.Nued
$c kvcls careiLLll] e!e4 y(ir l_h.-! baill
nrersrri.!j de!,.cs .allcd Nilonrerers along
rhe bankr ol rh. fler, n, rhat rle-'.ould
.hr.l. ho{ frst t|. il.od \atets ('er. ri!ins
or Llrrinnrg rqav The sreps and drr'mar*s
on Ll c rvalls oi the Nllouct.E vcre Lsed nl

m.ir r( the nire, le'tls \\ l,cn the iloorls


iar'et the ilelds Lrakcd fard,n nre hot *r
an,1 ,Lo na,s could srov

IooJ
r'

.I-R,OUBLENlAKERSI

r\ij ( j.ir.

i'ril.,i rl {.rt

.,i

lo0,.l

,nir,

rilii,l

rldr I,,,,1,6

r,! r r.,,r lir


rJa.,

On rer rerLrn ro [g-r'pL, Cleopatra tound ouL


rhar her !lster Arsrnor wa\ plottin8 q.!rh
Cae,ars enemics, ancl h,:,ped ro scizc conlrol
ol F rylt wldr therL hell lvianv nobles rr
Cle.paoas court supportccl Arsinoe ard

ioin.d Li hrr.ontpiraq asainst Cleopatra

,ri,r"1

tl,ns.uj ol.,ri,

,rrrlr tiirr

l.li

aioli,!,IJ

a*
ror

rL.-1,,,( n.rn,s ln,i,,

frrrtio. ni 1r'ri/
rii,,nr,". rh Row,,,,!il
Il,n r,. rcdxtr.lv r.

l.n

I i,

a'd Caesarion
Cleopalras r.,n atresarlon ras r r.ddle,
rh.n shc hi.ll.! n him ba.k to lgyfr hr
Cleopat.a

Clc.p E pa,Ll ior Ll,6 caning

tu

E,e

nnJ.

of them Loselhcr Shc rvanttrl to remnd


rll Es],pr ot drcir roval Forer

A PO!(ERf

UI

PRO'IEC'IOR

AnruvrNG rN
STYLE
CAESAn,S MURDER LED

To

THREE

terrible years of civil war in Rome,


as different groups of Roman
senators and members of leading
Roman families struggled to take
control. The rival armies were led by
three powerful men, and each hoped to
take Caesar's place as ruler. Their names
were Octavian (Caesar's nephew), Marcus

Ro.rars Iighting Ronans


O.1a!ian Ad1..r' and l.pid!s.a.I
hid rh.i, .\n larse trrnis ni l.rval

Antonius (Antony), and Marcus Lepidus. Finally,


in 42 BC the Roman lands were divided among
them. Antony took control of the whole eastern
Mediterranean region, which included Egypt.

x.llr,ained nrldieL They :ll ioushL


aga,.sL ea.h.rher,n a tinet of b,n..
bardrs L.arl..s ot dr.

ai.nr

fl.t

ro kill

alto f,ruglr!,n tlris sttugsl.


for rhr rght to rulc Ron,c

rl.m'r.r

LU,

.rrrorr

,*s&

ii'+

rorr, r,J

THREE RULERS
FOR ROME
In order to win thc struggle for

powcr Octavran, AnLony, and


Lepiclus agrecd to Iisht logrlher
asainst Lhe arnlrrs lcd br BruLus
ard Cas,us iLhe leader rn the
p or ro murder Caesarl

.12

N(

Arionr.s army, deleated Brrtus


in.] (lassus ar rh. llattle oi
Irhil!pp! Octavrar Antony,
ancl Leprrlus thcr dr* up a
prace

treatl agrtlng

Lo

ur,,ui.i,.lt,

th

al.ri,in, lL trd!, rorrll


,rtl,lr;;,oirl,r,r,i i,, l,a,i ur,
trr,,1 ,r,01 r, ,r,ttri lol R.rr

mle

Romc lo,ntly for fivc vears


ljecause Antony had won a grcat
lictory at lrhllippi he was able
to claim a grcater share of the

I{onan enprre. and the lrsht to


conlrol Eg!p1 $a\ a rch pri:e

28

..1ih,r.loi Od,rr(,
l'. r l,f;,, .h,il

Cleopatra
Lrp the river Cydnus in
a barge with a gilded
poop, its sails spread
purple, its rowers urging
it on with silver oars to
the sound of the flute
blended with pipes
*',u.,", and lute

))

ftr,r L o* r.r|..l,rl! a rrr ll


I1r,, r-1,,, Prti 4, (..
o rr it Lu;0L rrlu,'r tl.$ lrii

nxit.iDJ,

AN URCENT

SUN1N1ONS

Antonv had conLrol ol Esrnt bur hc nccdcd CleopaLras


s!Fpor1, and he feared iliar shc might strlc $ith hrs

- p..:'

io keef conrrol oi his,hare oi the empire, and E$prs


Braln to ic.d his mcn AnLonl vrote to (ileopatra and
rvher she did not rcplr he sunl oted her to orc.t him

NO HURRY TO

'.:,i
:lr,

REPLY

Cleopata *.as rr no hurr-r'to

An!.rI Instcad she


dcliberatelv took her timc She
rcspond 1o

kneu

Lhar

Arror-r'nccded LgypLs

sold and lr renm shc planned


lcl ask ior his frotcction She
also varred hls hclp to krll
her enenrlcs including
h.r si*e, Arnn.e

ANTONY
\(/AITS
As

Antonr v,artcd iol

nev.s oi laLge cr,:,wds

sarhe ns ro {ltness
an ama:rns

sishr

,",..

...1
.'

29

"

.'{.

f!:il.

Mystery and Majesty


Antony had summoned Cleopatra to meet him in Tarsus
(in Turkey), where he was getting ready to fight the warlike
Parthians who lived to the east of Roman lands. Cleopatra
knew that this meeting would decide Egypt's future. She had heard
that Antony was a tough soldier, who loved pretty women and
exotic luxuries. So Cleopatra planned a dramatic arrival, in a richly
decorated boat, to impress him with her mystery, majesty, and chatm.

Lhol,rtrl nrrl la,:.;, r|


iiijr r rl?r,dt tr,.i,] 0r]r
,,;rllrJ pru1 ir rrsrJ iLri

ARRIVING IN TARSUS
Thc story of ClcopaLras arrlval in Tarsrrs has rnspucd
atisrs drroushoul historr This painting by Claudc
Lorrarn shows Cleopatra bcins srceted by Anron)
-l'he

r]l 4./1,,,

.11i,tu1,

r,

dLJ

.k iry ot q aui: i:ttt,tii.

buildinss and ships are shown as Lhey would havc


loolied ii rhe 17rh ccoturr nor as rhy a,orld halc
been in Cleopatra\ tinre.

Music and dance


Nr F(i pr.rr

(rri ( rLL( .elcbialr.n \.as .onrplcrc u'itlrout nmn.


Harps and lLrtcs wcre favourtes for banqucts and part es, but
palace nnri.iars al!. fla\ed ly,res obocs .fd tanrb(tuines
CleopatLa and ho guests tould havc bccn

ert.!taincd

Lrv

sifse( re*ers,

dances

N4ACICAt, L]GHTS
Alrer Cleopana

s specra.rlar
arrival rn Tarsu\, Anton-v in\.irccl
her Lo drne $,irh him Brt (ilcopatra
relused Instead she insistcd that he
come to her ro-r'al bargc She took

great care !drh hcr preparanons


she irantcd Antony to be rLLghLed
astoni5lred, and nrosr imporlantl!
lmpressed Shc arranged for hel
b,arge to bc dccorrtcd urth
thousands ot trny oillanps

in slrtkriog, ili.lerrns

30

ARRT\']\C

$..

]\

i tE nra u .u.ou)

.,t

spread that
Aphrodite had
come to revel with
Dionysr-rs for the
happiness of Asia.

l.r
:j,

:.

L]KE A CODDESS

(
Trrsus

Lo discuss thc tcrns oi Lhtir all,anct CltopaLra ch,:,rt


ro Jress Lkc,\phroriLtt thc C,tk godLlts oi loit She
lr Lreece hororred
otirrtrl llLonr crowns oi
'rnt lea'es
gur.Ls tet oiLer q rcr garlan,ls
oi ilur ers llLtlrr lcavcs

a'o.

ahii.,i,., ! iri( ,i:,i u.,,.i


iir.rrii...i I ,.i ifrl .1rrl, ,r
ta'r rr,lJ i ri,ir, r,,ii.

F,.mlrd Arront $ar rccorilrgro ltgcnrl' Irrus ras Ll,e


plecc rht,c Dion-r'sus d,\phrodrtc mcr ancl irli rr lore

A PO\I'IRI]UL

AxroxY

PRC)

AND

CLEOPATRA
CLEOplrRq's DARINC PLAN \(/ORKED.
Her dramatic visit to Tarsus had won
Antony's slrpport in her strrrggle to
remain ruler of Egypt. Antony forgot his
war against the Parthians and hLrrried
to Egypt. Antony and Cleopatra
spent the wrnter of ,11 uC together
in Alexandria, and Cleopatra hardly
left Antony's side. Shc rvatched
Antony exercise r'vith his iroops and
took him on splendid boat trips dorvn
the Nile. Shc ilatLered him, listencd to l.ris
battle sLories, and cnteltained him at iabulous
fcasts Cle,-rpaLra also became pregnant \\-i!h
L\\,ins. Anton)'u,as their iatlrcr', but tre clid not ,see them born. Earl-v in .10 Bt-. Antony had
to rctul n to Ronre bccausc his
rvile. Frrlvia, rlas leading a
rebell ion against f)ctavian

r! I

L,';r

.ir.,
lrno

fu

i,,.x,i.l

l,

IL,,il,! .,
r,L

'

Jrir,rir {u, allorr ti,,


ir. , !,.,]J ri 1,, n,,,"r ar
1,, Juri ,(,,"n il, l!LrJ
ro tlrn.,,ri r', ttr,, ,|,n,,r

.r,r,r

r,ir.,i, Hr i l.i t,,


iirir ir,r l,u ,l.i I a',.r

,,1:,i.r'

L\!'LN\l! D lk .lalF(

rr. arrLri.l
r,:L
i,' ,,.r

rr

FABLILOUS FEASTS
CLcoprrrr aransed larsh harolcts
ro rrrtrLarr AuLou Crcck and

llonrr r rLro's Lold hor'(ilcopatra

orclcrcJ 1."e1'r boa,s ro bc coolcd


orc artcr rhc oLl,rr o thar onc oi
rlcm rrould br ready ar rhe rlmc
Arto,ry chosc Lo caL Thel a <r

claimcrl rhaL r\nLoni ard C copatrr


drcsscil up as selanLs ard thcn r'tnt
our iiLo rhe \Lre.rs ot 41.\andria
ailer dirl flating fli(k, on Fciple

.{*.
,_,"4

ANTONY
i

Gkr"

Ctrl

rrrlJ d,

.o!.Ld ,i bti."l

rRl\xlNa lNlr

.ryl: Tlrr rorll


!4tdt Ml taith

tL

:) 1\-alNa

lLr.rl,4 tl.rdrti,, u,j

n",1 Ronar

Ih" ar

(]I-E(]PATRA

A\D

i,

{lilisr,(,(l if ,1 i,,1r,or,

lrrj

rl,,
1,i,1

rl.r

rlr

r,.l.iar:

rr,r

rlrir. i].. t.r,,lif

n,

r.!]i.N,,, rla Pirl.r ir!

Il,!tri;,rii ,iri.,ir, .

J,1rMl.r1.rn,rJ rL4j1t,r

ab.u.l aFour Cleopatr.s


Thi! 18th c.nu-a
p.inLmg ras ntsptr.d |y rhe {.r1
Snn es

e\Lrava!,,an.e

rhar t.lls hn\' all.,rl,a.a d,ssolve.l a

f,i..l!'$ f.iri r. \.ine ind .lnLrk,r


iact Derls

i/.

are nor harned by

In

"lnc

5{l

Drhknrg cup
Alcr.nd.ia aas fan,oui

fd pnal!.ins
ich

hcaurlhrllv decor ateLl sla sswa rc


a\ rhls pre(\ drnrkn,s cut)

al.rfrrtu,t.,[] rJ.rfrtr.

lrrJ. . ,rqta,r, df,l


r10r.rtr ,,rsI0 irr r(,rJ
t.

tu,JE,.,ti,4 l!,u r,i"r.i

o,v.Ji| ili lrrtlii,ir


olro,

:.i.i

mrrr IrJ.,tr],1a,,i

Ths..^,iie shovs a Ron,r.


rr.ddn,e c.reN.n\ Lat. in.10 f.
,\nr.nr s \Llf. |rl!ia dirLl A.hnv
nade a pta.e 1r..1! {nh ().tir an
an.l s a tign ,rf h,(ndshF he
iiim.d ().tirian\ !\te, O.r ra

IIRO

A PO\Y'I]RTLIL

-\

or
Qurrx
KINCS

#CleoPotraeRrairot\us
Regon Filorum Regotn

To Cleopatra,
Queen of Kings
and her sons

_;.r-

Clroparnq coNTINUED To

RULE EGYPT,

but Antony did not return for nearly


33 for-rr years. When he sailed back in 36 ec
iatln los.'iprion Ircrr or,cia!

who are KinCs

after a disastrous defeat in Parthia, Cleopatra


n,elcomed him. She needed a strong ally to
help her keep Egypt independent. Antony
was bold and ambitior-rs, and he had hr-rge
armies of loya1 soldiers n ho n,ete ready to fight
lor him. Antony planned to \eL up an empire irt

Ant.nrs .;
!dc( rr s'
/

.oins nridc o.

\:.r.
":Li

\.,,.,,..',-...,,;,"'J

North Africa and the l\liddlc East to challenge his


rivals in Romc, and Cleopatra supportcd his plans
because the1, would incrcase her ov,n powcr. In 35 BC
Cleopatr a anci Antony l.rad a thi d chlld, a son utom rhe y'
Mrrr0s r, rleLenLll!1fc
ard keep torLri oi rlrc \lridle Edsrcn ii.d!
+rr i..l,litufv. ain,en n pd oi Ll,L,r
'h;r
enDir
Skllled lsvfrar sh DhrLlLlers rscd
rinher rLom tl,ddl. [tr\rer. l:nds spcc r11t
S\ri.i L..ofsru.t tr n,irhr! lle.t
C ecpaLn netdcd

ROYAL TITLES
(ilcoprtra

rrilSrLory

n thcrr
rrrlers

garc roval trrles

Iounr chrldren Lhel r'crc

'

namerl as

\rFlrlTlRRINtAN

.),
.-i,r4

i,i'

'r

named Ptolemy,Philadelphus. Earll-in 3-1 uc, Antonl.


rnvaded Armenia and rcturnecl to Alexandria in triumph. In
nragnihcent cerenron-v Cleopatra u,as crowned "Queen of
Klngs", and all her children \,"'ei.e givcn speclal ro-va1 titlcs.

-i . i]. l l

ie&l['

' 1,,.;
"Iff';-o'"

rJ. Qitrr,,1

14

Lr

.,D r rtri

QUEEN OF KINCS

li al,&
,

.l K,i,jli aiir,.,i,, rrtr

rr.,,,,, tr,i ]] 11,,.

rl,.l.ur

n i6

i,ei,ri

f.

IrrNrr.,!,, rh..i.n, ,LJ

CREAT ANlBITIONS
\Iirh Anlon1 1rl help her Cieopalra hopcd

to nrale

E8)pt the ri.h. cnili:ed, and suc.essturl emrire ir had


bccn irhcn thc lirst Ptolenics ruled alDosr 300 ),caE
beiore Clcopatra planncd to rcclaim thc lancls that

frrl onr e r onlolleJ o,,r,rle


Eg-rlr r\lany oi thcse irclLrcling

tLe T)rolemles

S,rria Lebanon irhoenicia, and


parts oi Asia Nlinor were

grrtn to

lrt bi \rr 'nr

l. i.1:i( Aft.iv had sl ve, .o ns


marle vhich shorerl Cl*,parai
portlait and rhe lns.riptnnl
!l Kings'on,ne nde
A.lo.ys porlr!,r on rh.

Qreen
and

orhcr Itwas

Cler,'rn!
a

ngn o1

rcm,ndcr of

,cyal pover

anLl

thenr.,.t idrlnonf

hcn Ocralian hcard

Aftuf! afd Cleoratias


trnbitl.us rlans he nrade
poxeriul spee.hes ,n rh.
ab.ut

"i

N)

\\,*NM

N.NW
-*$*ot) RoNIAN poLITICtANs IFD tsy CAFSAR'S
$. nephew Octavian, were shocked by reports
of Antony and Cleopatra's bid to set up an
empire of their own. They were also angry
that Antony had divorced his Roman wife.
Late in 32 BC Octavian led a procession
to Rome's temple of Bellona, goddess
of war. Hurling a blood-tipped
spear through the air, he declared
war againsL Cleopatra - and all
Egypt. Octavian knew that Antony
still had supporters in Rome. But he
felt sure the Romans would unite

ambitious queen.

This paintin,: of tie Battle ofActium (in th.


stlt of Eugen S.hoen) is fron Prnn ri

Lri

lJ

Hr,J,^ b\ M. R<\no"d

A Ddn(ty ol \t)tdpot1s

i,, .
iui

Dere tse

dt this time. Wbile Egyptian


sold rcrs Jou4ht w ith battle-axei'|
and hatcbets, Roman soldiers
u'ed

lbre, wttl Dedbovs

Y'#ti:?:*;i"v,
I

I I o'.''

r{ri, i\$

Antony bore witness tif


Caesarion that he was
sprung from Caesar...
gave enormous presents

to his children by the


Egyptian queen... and
ordered that his body
be buried by her side.)

\\'A R \\'IIH

RO\IL

-:2

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OF ACTILINi

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--:= 21_ \- > =.,4;
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\{AR

V'ITH

ROMI

Drruer AND

DISHONOUR
Dtprar

AT THE BATTLE oF ACTIUM


plunged Antony into despair. He
hid away on Pharos, an island in
Alexandria harbour, and refr-rsed to
see anyone. But Cleopatra bravely made plans
to continue as Egypt's ruler. Her spies told
her that Octavian did not have enough gold
to pay his armies, so he could not attack

Afrcr thc Batrlc oi Actrrr Clcopatra


sa,l<d back ,nto Alcrandra harbour
n th flass fl-v ng u li she had rvon
n sreat

Ylcr.q

e.rnrrs hishr
,fro th( ciry,i
had

lten

She was afrald her


noL let herba.k

th.-v k.cw lhat sh.


defeated br Octaran

immediately. But Cleopatra knew Octavian


would attack sooner or later, because he needed
Egypt's u.ealth. In time, Antony came out of hiding,
and once again splendid banquets were held jn the

palace. Almost a year after Actium, the nervs came the


Romans r.ere on their way. Cleopatra sent a message to
Octavian, offering to give up her throne if he would let her
children rule. But Octavian did not reply - it ri,-as clcar that
Octavian wanted to rule Eg-vpt himself, for Rome. ,Antony
rallied his arm)r and rode out of the city to face Octavian.
To the shores of the Red

Sea

To protect he, ileet from the


Ronans, Cleopatra ordend that
her warship! te hauhd overladd

Iro,! (ie Nledirendean


Red Sea tsor one

Lo rlre

0l Cle.rparas

rerghbours anrl enemes thc


Kng ol Nabatca. sei frre to the
warshrps and de*royed then all

S oNF
SL,llrJ

a...Rv

rc

storur!rr uorlJ

Jrrr uo,hJ

on

akop,tn s roril

TLry J.Fn,r,J rh ol,inr. tr,tL

birnhl lsin: ,:ani

$1a

MAGNIFICENT
MAUSOLEUM
CleopaLra knew that her future
was uncertarn rl Octavian
invaded Egypt She began to

erperiment wirh poisons and


gave c,rders that work on her
mausoleunt (laree ronb-chamber
was completed as soon as possrble

th

COI,D AND IE\flELS


As soon as her mausoleum was completd, Cleopatra
gave orders for her trcasurs to bc rtored there
She believed that her spirit $ould 5rnive aher
death ro enioy then ,\lore importardy, shc
*aited ro kecp hcr gold andlewels saie

( '.ot q,'d
" 'o -. "J .' .e '. lo ." r '
rnausolcur and destro', the reaslre

rhe
rf the Romar army narched on Alerandria
Lo

All swore
their lives together,
and until that time
they charmed
their days with
a succession of
or10us

Ott.ru,.rllrrrj,/

I!)it

Lr:aar

Lr

1i

) )

'.]r,!. d,!,ior.s rrJ n.iiil'


rrrL a; i,r;,r,;L fl,J aolJ

m#J

,olJ Ir ,! ,{.'t.J rl,, L, L,J,liCn,!,r,, !


tra,nft d.lkJ,1.i!r e rl,.,rl,, o!1J mdl,

rni:r l,arrtrlui t,rrlLo'

DIONYSUS
{ 1,opnt,n,

ldil

n] ri,r
rL. i,r' i, .l

ur;

Anlon-v belleved thar

p'oi..r!11

"rmLrr
fiilft
i6 rr?1nn,r.D n,,i'
Ai.r,,,l]., ri,r Grir f;i

nd6ih ,,. ,rm,r, i,,1"r

ro

ii.lor,,l

he was protectcd by
B..(tiful t.,rh,

ur

Tl,o rn, l,o,l,

i,,

the god Dionysus


Somctlmes fe lelL he
had becone !he god

m,i,orifl

Tlre Creek historian

thcl

j']lutarch rells a.hillins


story the night belorc
O{ raYian mar.hed on
Alexandrra, the cltlzens llcard
fie sound ot laughter and
ioo6reps lcavnrg the cit!

The)'said thrs sho$ed that


I)ion)sus had deserted Anton)

The death of Antony


ANTo\y \\'rs foRCED to llee lrom ()ciavians
armv vhen most,ri his soldiers rcfuscd to
fight Antony rvas disgraced
and ashamecl, and he
blamed Cleopatra Atraid
of his anger, Cleopatra
lockecl hcrsell in her
mauvrlcum and sent a
message sayirg she
rvas c1ead. In despair,
Antony stabbcd
htmself Vhcn she
heard the nervs.
Cleopaira sent
her senants to

,,.*,

her, and he cled

\.AR

\'ITT]

RO 1F

Tur DEATH oF

CLEOPATRA

\(/ITHIN VEEKS OF ANTONY,S SUICIDE


in 30 BC, Cleopatra was dead, and Egypt
was governed by Rome. Cleopatra was
the last independent rr-rler of Egypt, and her
death marked the end of over 3,000 glorious
ye ars of Egyptian civilization and Egyptian
power. Although she did her best to defend

Carings and columns


I'his rin,.ril st.l. .rned urriehr

,er sA,es

r. dea.frrest\'le.f

buildins"r in the Lime o1 the Plolenne\

Thc doo&,iv o Clc.faqis


m:rK.lc !nr mtr\ h:'c l.nrLc.l l,Lc

iri(

Then somebody sai


in anger: "A fine deed,
this, Charmion!"

"lt is indeed most fine,"


she said, "and befitting
the descendant of
,1. so many kings." !

\{*.'1.

"

a,

F ,o .h

hL,m h

L,i. o, var_ai a

her country, clever, charming Cleopatra could


not dely the might of Rome. After Antony died,
Roman troops surrounded Cleopatra's rrausoleum, and
kept her prisoner there. But Octavian treated her well.
He allorved Cleopatra to arrange Antony's funeral, and
to take part in thc ceremon-v. But, he would not agrcc to
let Cleopatra's childrcn rrrlc Egypt on bchalf of Rome. So
Cleopatra decided she must die. She could not bcar to Lvc
while loreigner.s ruled her land. At her deatl.r, Egypt lost its
most

famous

and possibly its

A FINAL FEAST
ft,s

sard thar befue her deaih Cleopatra


ordered a splendid tcast She thcr
askerl onr of hcr scrrrnt< to
smlrrsl. in r poisonous srakc 1n
a baskcr ot tiss Ahcr Clcopatra
had catcn. shc scnt a notc to
Octa\ian askiis ro be buricd
wth Antony Alarned
Ocravian \enl guards to
Ir.d her blr lt (as too

Cuardlan goddesses
Thn Da,nti.!r.. a rr.oDhigus

isrore..iii. \h.}is rie

sod.les Iss an.lheL rsLer

\cphth!! \aL.hing or.r

drel b.d! In E.$pnan


lcgcrds thcy Lroueht
a

41

greatest

queer.l

THF DEA I H OF (]LEOPATRA

A mvsterrous end
a

Ct.toPATtL{s

roDr llAs ncvcr

been discovered. so

hrstorians do not knorv cxacrl), ho\, she died. There


arc \iorics that rhe experimen!ed vith poiso s, and
that she even tested sone oi rhenr on slavcs.

l,.i,,r,r, t

lir,iar.4i.

-inr,,l .lr,:.1 rr.l rh,,ri i,r,,lr

tr

ll!+ rnlol.t

!rl'Lr,.l

i1

ThenrosLpopul:, sory:bout Cleorarasdcarh str\s rh r1,.\.as


birte. Lr! . !!all poLo.ous srake callerl an *F lut:n asp v ld
..t lravc b..n rbl. o brrc LI(opa(i a!d he, tr r seli.r\

li.l.,irr ,i{!r r. ll l,4i,,l i,ri.lrl

I,,r.,,rrr r.l rl,'


ii., r,,r,id, ,i,, ,i,,

E|1ti,,,

',rl
f,]r.tr.,1,, i,,J

.1. tr';,!

rlr,.rJ' .l
ritri,i

'

Flneral cereft)nv

hnl.rirr d. n!r k.o\ \hetre, her tmeialn,llov.d


C<ck o Eg. pLL.:n raLl,r c,,s Ilcrere C eo;:ra
rorsh,fped nuny [s_!F1ai g.d! i ]r,s rr.|i6l(
rl,ir h.. hn.Lal lollon eLl[]rrpria i .ad riofs rr,s
k.lr't. 1,ir. b... a !'nple.erenor hecause
O.ti,ra r \.,,1d 1,ar. r'a.1e,l L\e Forple r1 tr, r,,
ro iorreL rhe r .rreef a.d r...!r hln is Lh.,r tuler

ArrEn

CLEOPATRA
-1-

h< dcath ol Cleopatra made it ea'y lor Ottavran rnd


rhe Roma,r armv to completc theit tonqtte.t ol fgypt
In 30 BCt, Octavian declared himself to be thc nerv pharoah
of Egy,pt. To show that they were now in control, Roman
soldiers defaced ancieni Egyptian monuments and destroyed

In 18 tu ltomn lerdo

official documcnts - including most of those created while


Cleopatra was in power. For the r.rext 500 years, Egypt became
part of il're Roman empire, ru1ed by governors appointed by Rome
Alexandria continued to be a great centre of learning and trade,
but elsewherc Egypt's polr,er and prosperity began to decline
CLEol,qrn.q's cHILI)REN
Hrstorlans thrnk that ClcopaLra's
vounscrchildren Cle,rpatra
Sclcnc, Alexandcr Helios, and
Ptolcmy Philadclphus ruere
,'i sent t(, liv vith Anton! s
\vitc O.rlvia in R.nne
-fhc
bovs wcrc rcver

hcanl c,l aga

HONIA(,E

,\ito

,,,1.

nre I

:r r $.rdi

nr.rn 'Ls!pr.iflurcd
to ..nnrmonl. rlF
death ol a olltra aid
Anr! ! md r. .elebnl.

To A IiERo

Ocravian had completed his


cooqucsr oi Egypt, hc wtnt to !.i!ir thc

romh oi Alerandcr d1c Crea!


Clcoparra

ii

Vll

Alcrandria

ard the

Ptolcnrl dynasty itamily.


u crr descendcd lront

orc oiAlexandcr the

CrcaLs generals \ihen


Octalian r,r. arked
i1 h vantcd to vlslt

Bur

married Klng-luba
oi \laurrranii (a

rhe romhs oi the


Prolcmrcs he said
he had come to

hc,rour a hcro not


ro see dcad krngs

Cleopatra s pla(. in historr

Cl.opalra\ {l|.tlr n]aili.f t t .f.!.t


i glo o!\ r{ rr Lr}Dnar 1!{.r-r'

#
i

i,i,l-li*'f'fu

!i

1lill

5>..',

t8,,,
-,t!

44

AFTER CLEOPATRA

OcravraN rN TRruMpH
A year after Cleopatra died,
Octavian staged a huge triumph
(victory procession) to celebrate
his conquest of Egypt. Antony and
Cleopatra's children were probably
made to march in the procession,
alongside Cleopatra's
fabulous treasures.
Cald and siloer trusures

mt

held ht1h

Wealohs, ahfio r,
trophies

uffe

DeJeated nlers

tre ntarchetr

oman

ltLt

oll to *c

Ju
n

o
tbeir

d olher

dkplay

Laurel leaves
It was traditional for
victorrous Roman
generals to be crowned
with a larrrel wreath

Janilies

alo4 it chdir.

tgypt

The Julian Calendar

ArtEn Ecypr lrzls conquered by Rome, it


was known as the "Cranary (grain-store)
of the Roman empire". The empire needed
huge amounts of wheat to feed Rome's vast
army and the people who lived in the fastgro\aling cities, especially Rome. Other
Egyptian products were popular in Rome,
such as fine linens, papyrus, and perfumed
oils. Egyptian scholars, poets, scientists, and
gladiators were famous throughout the
Roman world.

In 46 uc, Roman leader Julius


Caesar made changes ro the
Roman calendar, Ltsing scientific
ideas first discovered by Creek
and Egyptian astronomer,
working together in Cleopatra's
capital, Alexandria Under the
rule of the Ptolemies, the city
became a grear centre of
learning, and visitors Iike
Caesar carried Egyptian ideas
and discoveries back to Rome.
The calendar that is used in
most countries today is based

Tllts locket \ultdial


uses

sbadau,s cast

tnn lpoh
Atrctt t E4yrt
the

Jirst ta ,se

by

erta

Dere
the

noaemetls oJ the sun

on these;deas.

FORCOTTEN HERO2

Fine

Most of Mark Antony's statues were


destroyed on Octavian's orders, but
a wealthy Alexandrian paid to save

papers \

Cleopatra's statues. Antony may


have been forgotten in Egypt, but
his image has survived on many

S$.flrffi)

Roman coins, and he was grandfather

MARK ANToNY

AD 324 ROMAN EMPEROR


CONSTANTINE DECT,ARES
CHRISTIANITY THE OFFICIAL
RILICION OF THE ROMAN
EMPIRI, INCLUDINC EYCPT

17 BC-AD t4
OC'TAVIAN

(cAEsAR

^ucusTus)

AD 395 ROMAN EMI'IRE DIVIDFD,


\Y4-fI'I \GSTERN EMPIRE BASED IN
ROMI ND E STERN EMPIRE BASED
IN CONSTANTINOPLE, TURKEY

c. 600-900 AD
MUSLIM SOLDIERS AND
SE'I'TLERS FROM THE MIDDLE
EAST BRINC ISI-AM TO FCYPT

AD 476 !i'/ESTERN ROMAN


EMPIRE COMES ']'O AN END

T FINDER

ClnoperRA's sroRY

l,rLi',,.li.ri rir

iL

rr

r,,1

FACT AND FICTION


/-leoo:rra Vll i, one ol the no't iatnou'
L,'o..n rn ho ha' ever ltred. Hq tiorl
has inspired poets, dramatists, and artists for
over 2,000 years, and still fascinates us todal'.

But, in fact, rve know very little about her. The


details of her life have been lost, or are shrouded
in mystery. Only fragments of offic;al documents
dating from her rcign have survived to tell us about
her thoughts and deeds, and onl1, a feu'carvings
and scr-rlptures remain to shorv r-ts what she looked
like. Nlost of our knowledge of Cleopatra comes
from Creek and Roman rvriters u'ho were loyal
to Rome, and did not approve of her.
aleoFitrl!.ilnc \roull

\r(.n

trnfs L.!rplrar

bLerrg ynls Lrrcrures ard

",

md

otl

i,

,./ir 'n

'i.i

Somc sculpnrrcs lrsc,ibed .arvcdl with rhc


ramc (-leopatra' have suryllcd Bul !hrc
wcrc at leasr scvct queers namcd Cleopatra
,n rhe Ptolemalc cl'nasn irulLns Iamilvrand
( lcopatra VII was dre last

tl*tr r,troturs Ih. .!,n.

(:l..pina' tLnr S. h.r


betf
,n

ri c,cc.

VHrcH ct ropatnl2

S,n,.l\olan. ( .u..ir
rfrlLLd!.g Llerf ir \ill

ArexrNont,q u-\DFR THE sLA

.r!rC.r

$riicLl

Cr..t ldttr 6 h.r.

,\lexandr a Ls a big modern cLty Lc,day but thc roral qtrarto u'here
Clec,pala \rll jived ri,as iloodcd alLer an carthqrake in rhc llrh
cenrrrry 'rn Ir 1!r9l French archaeologlst [ranck Coddlo ancl a Leanr
of dncrs srarLed lcl erDlorc the site Thcl ha't iound a ''arreLr oi
srarircs and arteiacrs a.d h,rpe to flfd tht lost palacc oL Cleopala

46

TORY

FA

Plurarch lc rL)j0 ttt dcs.ibcd Clcotarrc


*or:',r
of \1ark Antony Plurarch startcd to
iliic
rrirc his storics almost a hrrdrcd rcars altcr Clcopatrr llvccl Hc
based hrs vork on evcwnncss accounrs collcctcd bv his rrandtatho
larnprias, and on documenrs whlch no Ionger
) srNl!.e r.rlav li ii diifl.!li to rell !,hcth.r
his stories about Cleopatra are tme
TFrF (,LlFF( Hi\

L(

nu\

in hrs biosraphy

H,\ L1,.i,r . ,i.i,,rd:r

rs

...

.t i !., es oi rrts ir \tL.h


lil( .ii.oi,,pird C,rek

IIFArrrr-LIL TANTASY

\;itrs

aftists and, Iater iiln.makers have

beelr nrspired

L,_v

Cleoparra rhrc,ughout

hislory Allisr Sll Lawrence Alna T:rdema


i1815 1911. pai.red iinasr.ar! scener iLonr
Ancient

Ronre Here, he ilnagine!


r"aited lor Anto.l, in Tarlus.

Eg_r,pt and

Cleopatra

as she

ANTONT' l\t) c.LtoPATI1A


alvcr I -i0ar )car! aficr lluinr.h
dicd. Ifslish playvighr \Yrrllram
Shakespe.rc I I55.1 i6l6l rlis
rnsprred hy Plurarc)rs stones ro
n riLc a rlav about (-le.patri.od

hci lo!. k,r

rn)fv

C.lnnv ox ct

-l^hc

t-cr

lcscrd oi Cilcoprla nsplrcd comcdy as


vcll as tragccly Thc l9li5 comic illm l-rrrl or

' ,'J

'' to bc quccn
powcrtul brn rolcallv suitabTc
Throushout hisrory pcoplc har.c ofrcn
rcfLrscd to takc rt,mcn rulos scr ounv
PLlv rctt tcto.tv

\\:illt:n

l"'
fr {', t.
@'/i
ri l\!,

'. T,8

,!'4t

'

'4"

:E
-E
i-

*F,:

HoLLyu clctLr tsLocKBusrER


In l!61 Hollyutxrl lilm-rnakers conrpletecl a icreen pi. aboLrt

(.lcoparra and A,,Lony l!


a real'liie couple Elizabefi Ta-vlor
and Ri.hi Llurlon Lrur ir'Lirrled
rias nor hisroricallv accUratc This sccnc
i,on ( lrol.u,; shor's a lavrsh feast

Shakespeare

play Arhry rrj ( iroprrrr, fll.


bril artly br<,usht thc 1-,i
laSlc lovc srorl ol
Cilcopatra and Anron,v

to

llic Porna,vlng.

likc Clcopar a ls a
.hallcf {c r.lrslr.d b},
mary acacsscs In this
sccrc irom rhe pla1.
*ascd i,r Lo.don in
Clcopatra ls play.cd

by

'".

lnrcmatrrnal
H.1.,

lll,'",

Index

HI

16

34

11 75

4.1

17

40

32

10, l,42,

13

ST

l5 l8 l2

,IL
4,1

,15

DE

17,

li

C
sod.31,3:. al
nr Egypt,

16,

)7

t8

l8-19 1l

tt 1l

11 14

NlN

'11

)1
,15

FC

v\(/

1l
23 l1

Nr. l.l l5

l0 l1

23

71

14,

.10

.11 1l

ll
L)

.10.12

15

11

11.17

lt

1t

11

15

33

1i

ll li

Acknowledgments

AKC Londoi 1!rr

aimlnphfL!

rl It

Sste 1rt \luseffr

Tl,e fLhlhher {ould like to thanli

Br!r,Rn ar,..prru D^..1'?! r,.


/).rl {ntor S.6.Dovins rrtr

Dnrr lrlrriLl. .,

AnLicr(

R:.rell]rLt!,J SilL H iilrn

SLI,M

l)

p rture rtrrlll
\ir.d f.r edtr.,rlhrlp

d aLl

Lngmtr Ilr !irl!,.,nnls

arJ aL,tr Lunicin L!r

Ll,c

liLle\

Tlrc fublnher would lik. to thtrnk


rhe follosi,rs lor their kind
pennksion to reproduc. thcn
a=aLr."e 6=b!1.,r

. !dtr. I

lelr

& dr.l,ite.tu'e

C.lle.tior lrhr a5.6 1.u

l)r S (-.vn.9LL a- T Ci,'r! t,l


R.naLd Sh.rJri ).1 i,l lr.r rrt
Dr Srlly Ann Ashln, rnr
Bildrr.h Pr!uRn.herKultu$esitz
An![enDLseuD l.]uno.s

litny
icn..llm

London/Nc" Y.rk

Lle.oa

Si, L-

rl

Periomng

Briti!h Museum, London


re.r 10.1i llia lrrt lrL. l-rn

l6bl -rlLr ri.ri ii.,L:-n

A A,i.,onl{Ll
Vrnrar. a.rtLl. drLl. Clirz-r rl,l
vin.inD \tL!! C'rgDrnn.

Mtrry Evtrns Pi.tue L,bRrr

S.iei.. Nluselr rlbr 1t.

Clr!!,itri Lrtr.iL.,r.,,l laru\

\Irerner Forman

Ar.hie

H rnl

l.iL.aiy r,

s.ala Crouf S p

rk.r

Ao.ienr

At & lr.hite.nrc

Bildarchiv PrcuBn.her Kulturbesnz

aLc. re.r

Cr

Eerl,. 2oo0 :irk.nnuruil


l,,l,rin- ! rureinus trotri.Ll

lvenler|

( entury Lor 11tr r,-l.l

rlLsrr CrtL.rir..

Itonald (nant Archiv.

Lrrn fr

]\

i:

Inllnu riLr L{rrr hi,i.r

Erll,lrrr Rr!r, \
l']r.d(.ft 17(r (:..0r a lgar a)

S.ala Croup S

p.A Vat.ri.
FeL:D

ln.k

!r

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