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Trigonometric Identities

The Six Trigonometric Functions



sin  =
=


 
cos  =
=



tan  =
=
 

Pythagorean Identities
sin  + cos  = 1


Reciprocal Identities
1
csc 
1
cos  =
sec 
1
tan  =
cot 

=



sec  =
=
 
 
cot  =
=



tan  =

Sum or Difference of Two Angles

sin 2 = 2 sin  cos 


tan 2 =

2 tan 
1 tan 

Half-Angle Formulas
sin

tan


1 cos 
= 2
2

= csc  ./
2

1 cos 

tan = 1 + cos 
2


sin 
tan =
2 1 + cos 
 1 cos 
tan =
2
sin 

Complex Numbers

2 30 = cos  + 4 sin 
2 31 = cos  + 4 sin 

2 $31 = 4 cos  4 sin 

cos
cot

sin  sin  =

sin  cos  =
cos  sin  =


1 + cos 
= 2
2


= csc  + ./
2


1 + cos 
tan = 2
1 cos 


sin 
tan =
2 1 cos 
 1 + cos 
tan =
2
sin 

5
cos  = 62 31 + 2 $31 7
5
sin  = 362 31 2 $31 7
31
$31

2 2
tan  =
42 31 + 2 $31 

Law of Sines

sin G sin H sin J


=
=

I
.

cos  cos  = 

cos 2 = cos  sin 


cos 2 = 2 cos   1
cos 2 = 1 2 sin 


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sin 
cos 

cot  =

cos 
sin 

Product to Sum Formulas

sin  = sin  cos  cos  sin 


cos  = cos  cos  sin  sin 
tan  tan 
tan  =
1 tan  tan 

Double Angle Formulas

csc  =

Quotient Identities

sec  = 1 + tan 
csc   = 1 + cot  


1
sin 
1
sec  =
cos 
1
cot  =
tan 

sin  =

csc  =

!"#$%& !"#&%


 !"#$%$ !"#&%


"'(#&%&"'(#$%


"'(#&%$"'(#$%


Sum to Product Formulas


sin  sin  = 2 sin +
cos  + cos  =
cos  cos  =

#%
#%
, cos +  ,

#&%
#$%
2 cos +  , cos +  ,
#&%
#$%
2 sin +  , sin +  ,

Co-Function Identities
sin +  $1, = cos 

csc +  $1, = sec 

tan +  $1, = cot 

cot +  $1, = tan 

cos +  $1, = sin 

sec +  $1, = csc 

Even-Odd Identities
sin = sin 
cos = cos 
tan = tan 

Expansions
sin  = 

89
:!

tan  = 

89

cos  = 1

8
!
:

8<
=!

8 <

8C
D!

5=

csc = csc 
sec = sec 
cot = cot 

8>
?!

8E
A!

5?8 >
:5=

sec  = 1 +

?8 9

8


+ cot  = 8 :

Law of Cosines

.  =  + I  2 I cos J
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:58 <

csc  = 8 + A + :AB + 5=5B +

or

=8 C
D

58 9
D=

A58 E
?B

8 <

FD=

J = cos$5 +

K  &L $M 
,
KL

Trigonometric Identities & Formulas

NOP Q

In terms of
NOP Q =
RSN Q 
UVP Q 

RSU Q 

RSN
RSN Q

UVP Q

sin 

T1 * cos 

T1 * sin 

cos 

RNR Q 
NXR Q 

Each trigonometric function in terms of the others

sin 
1 * sin 
1
sin 
1




* sin 

1
1 * sin 

sin 

cos 

1 *
cos 
1

cos 

1 *
1
cos 
cos 

1 * cos 

RNR Q

tan 
1  tan 
1
1

 tan 

1
csc 



tan 

csc   * 1
csc 
1
csc   * 1

1  tan 
tan 

T1  tan 

NXR Q

1
tan 

csc 
csc  

sec 
sec  * 1
sec 

*1

Tcsc   * 1




Tsec  * 1


csc 

sec  * 1
sec 
1
sec 

RSU Q

1
1  cot  
cot 
1  cot  
1
cot 

T1  cot  


1  cot  
cot 
cot 

sec  * 1

Geometric Constructions of Trig Functions

Unit Circle

A
D

cccc
Circle with radius Jb
cccc
cccc
bd sine
be cosine
cccc
cccc
JG cosecant
JH secant

ccccc tangent
bH
cccc cotangent
bG

Trigonometric Val
Values for Common Angles
Degrees
0
30
45
60
90
120
135
150
180
210
225
240
270
300
315
330
360

Radians
0[
[ 6
[ 4
[ 3
[ 2
2[3
3[4
5[6
[
7[6
5[4
4[3
[ 2
5[3
7[4
11[6
2[

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sin 
0
2
1
2
22
3
32
1
3
32
2
22
2
1
0
*1
12
*
22
*
32
--1
*
32
*
22
*1
12
0

cos 
1
32
22
12
0
*12
*22
*32
-1
*32
*22
*12
0
12
22
32
1

tan 
0
33
1
3
undefined
*3
-1
*33
0
33
1
3
undefined
*3
-1
*33
0

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csc 
undefined
2
2
233
0
233
2
2
undefined
-2
*2
*233
0
*233
*2
-2
undefined

sec 
1
2
33
2

2
undefined
-2
*2
*
*2
33
-1
*2
33
*2
*
-2
undefined
2
2

2
33
1

cot 
undefined
3
1
33
1
*33
-1
*3
undefined
3
1
33
-1
*33
-1
*3
undefined

Trigonometric
Trigonomet Identities & Formulas