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Fig. 5.1.1 Position of filter in the system

The filter being designed is positioned after the mixer which produces the 2100MHz signal in the
synthesiser. This signal is the local oscillator input to the downconverting section of the receiver.
Since the filter follows a well tuned PLL synthesiser, it does not have to filter out any large
amplitude noise.


At microwave frequencies, lumped element filters are impractical because of the large area they
occupy. Distributed element filters are of the following types:
1. Stripline filters
2. Microstrip filters

Stripline filters have their metallic coupled sections sandwiched between two ground planes,
making them difficult to fabricate (and hence expensive). Therefore the filter will be a microstrip
filter, keeping in line with the rest of the system layout which is fabricated using a single ground.
The filter can be designed as an edge-coupled Microstrip filter about which plenty of literature is
available [2].

Fig.5.2.1 A parallel coupled stripline filter simulation on Sonnet (software)

However each resonator here is /2 with each coupled section being /4. So for a filter of order
five (say) the length of the filter becomes
L= x5=

x 5 = 0.7143m

This length for one filter cannot be handled by the small satellite. The width of the filter on the
other hand is very small, within 1 mm. The aspect ratio is therefore very large.
The hairpin filter is a folded version of the parallel couple filter. The folding prevents the
cascaded effect of the sections resulting in a small aspect ratio component of within 2cmX2cm at
The filter required is a bandpass filter centered at 2100MHz, with attenuation characteristics as
shown below.

Fig.5.2.2 Attenuation characteristics of a bandpass filter

The available low pass filter prototypes are:


Chebyschev filter
Butterworth filter
Bessel filter
Elliptic filter

Fig. 5.2.3 Various filter type responses

From the figure a good roll off with favourable in-band characteristics are shown by the
Chebyschev filter.
Hence a bandpass Chebyschev microstrip hairpin filter will be designed here.


Centre frequency
Fractional bandwidth
Pass band ripple
Minimum stopband attenuation
Insertion loss in the passband
Return loss in the passband


The final optimized S parameters are:

1. S11 (return loss) = -34.5dB at 2.1Ghz
2. S21 (insertion loss) = -0.45dB at 2.1GHz
A 3dB bandwidth of 169.33MHz i.e. 0.08% was achieved. These meet the required