Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 33
Class TABLE OF CONTENT PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY ATOMIC STRUCTURE CHEMICAL BONDING CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ACID BASE IONIC

Class

TABLE OF CONTENT

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

ATOMIC STRUCTURE CHEMICAL BONDING CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ACID BASE IONIC EQULIBRIUM CHEMICAL KINETICS OXIDATION-REDUCTION VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS MOLE CONCEPT CHEMICAL ENERGETICS ELECTRO CHEMISTRY SOLUTION AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY GASEOUS STATE SOLID AND LIQUID STATE SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE

AND LIQUID STATE SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE INORGANIC CHEMISTRY PERIODIC TABLE EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY s-

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

PERIODIC TABLE EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY

s- BLOCK ELEMENTS BORON FAMILY CARBON FAMILY OXYGEN FAMILY HALOGEN FAMILY TRANSITION ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS) COORDINATION COMPOUNDS

ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS) COORDINATION COMPOUNDS ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

9 - 10

11

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

17

18

18

- 12

19

20 - 21

21

21

GOC 22 ALKANES 23 ALKENES 23 ALKYNES 23

HALOGEN COMPOUNDS 23 ALCOHOLS 24 PHENOLS 24

ETHERS

CARBONYL COMPOUNDS 25 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 26 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS 26 CARBOHYHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND POLYMERS 26

CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 27

IMPORTANT REAGENT MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS SMELL OF SOME COMPOUNDS IDENTIFICATION TESTS

29

29

25

28 -29

30

www.inteliclass.com

Class 1 PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY ATOMIC STRUCTURE 2 2 2 n h æ n ö 1.

Class

1

PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

ATOMIC STRUCTURE

2 2 2 n h æ n ö 1. = = 0.529 A r ,
2
2
2
n h
æ
n
ö
1.
= =
0.529
A r
,
=
n
2 ´
r n
ç
÷
r 1
2
2
n
4 p mZe
Z
è
ø
2
PE
Z
2.
E
=
KE
=
=- 13.6
eV
T
2
2
n
2
4
hc
2
p
me
æ
1
1
ö
3.
D =
E
=
-
ç
÷
2
2
2
l
h
n
n
è
ø
1
2
1
é
1
1
ù
4.
2
7
-
1
v
=
=
RZ
-
,
R
=
1.0968
´
10 m
ê
ú
2
2
ë é
û ù
l
n
n
ë
û
1
2
n n -
(
1)
5.
Total no. of spectrum lines=
2
6.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
(Dx)(Dp)³ h / 4p
13.7
7.
Moseley's law :
v
=
a
(
Z
-
b
),
E
=-
eV
/
atom
n
2
n
8.
Nodes (n -1) = total nodes, l= angular nodes, (n – l – 1) = Radial nodes
1
2
9.
Photoelectric effect:
hv = hv
+
mv
0
2
h
10.
Orbital angular momentum:
l l +
(
1) 2
p

www.inteliclass.com

Class CHEMICAL BONDING 1. % ionic character Actual dipole moment = ´ 100 Calculated dipole

Class

CHEMICAL BONDING

1. % ionic character

Actual dipole moment

=

´ 100

Calculated dipole moment

2

2.

Fajan's Factors: following factors are helpful in including covalent character in ionic compounds

(a)

Small cation

(b)

Big anion

(c ) High charge on cation

(d) High charge on anion (e) Cation having pseudo inert gas configuration 2 6 10
(d)
High charge on anion
(e)
Cation having pseudo inert gas configuration
2
6
10
+
2+
2+
(ns p d
) e.g. Cu+, Ag , Zn
, Cd
3.
-DH = H +
1 + IE +DH
H
- E
f
S
EG
L
2 d
4.
M.O. theory:
1
(a)
Bond order
=
(
N
- N
)
b
a
2
(b) Higher the bond order, higher is the bond dissociation energy, greater
is the stability, and shorter is the bond length.
(c
)
Species
Bond order
H
1
2
+
H
0.5
2
Li
1
Magnetic properties
Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic
Diamagnetic
2
5.
Q =
1
2 [
V + SA- ±q
(
)
]
æ
ö
6.
Former charge = V-
L
+
1 S
ç è
2 ø ÷

7.

VSEPR theory

(a)

(b)

(LP – LP) repulsion > (LP – BP) > (BP – BP)

0

For NH Bond Angle 106 45' because H O molecule contains 2LP

3

2

and 2BP where as NH has ILP and 3BP.

3

8. Bond angle:

Decrease in bond angle down the gp is due to LP – BP repulsion (a)NH > PH > AsH (b)H O > H S > H Se

3

2

3

3

2

2

www.inteliclass.com

Class 3 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 1. K p = K c ( RT ) ? n

Class

3

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

1.

K

p

= K

c (

RT

)

? n g

where

D

n =n

g

p

-n

R

2. Free Energy change(GD )

(a)

(b)

(C)

If

GD=0

then reversible reaction would be equilibrium.

If

GD=(+)

ve then equilibrium will displace in backward direction.

If

GD=(-)

ve then equilibrium will displace in forward direction.

3. (a) n K unit ® (moles/li) D c (b) D n K unit ®
3.
(a)
n
K
unit
®
(moles/li) D
c
(b)
D n
K
unit
®
(atm)
p
(c)
Total molecule at equlibrium =[total initial moles +Dn]
(d)
Time required to establish equlibrium a 1 / k
c
(e) If in any heterogeneous equilibrium solid substance is also
present then its active mass & partial pressure is assumed 1.
4.
Le chatelier's principle
(i)
Increase of reactant conc. (Shift forward)
(ii)
Decrease of reactant conc. (Shift backward)
(iii)
Increase of pressure (from more moles to less moles)
(iv)
Decrease of pressure (from less moles to more moles)
(v)
For exothermic reaction decrease in temp. (Shift forward)
(vi)
For endothermic increase in temp. (Shift forward)
cTime Total

www.inteliclass.com

1.(a).

(b).

1.(a). (b). Class ACID BASE Lewis Acid (e pair acceptor) ® CO , BF , Alcl

Class

ACID BASE

Lewis Acid (e pair acceptor) ® CO , BF , Alcl , Zncl , Fecl , PCl ,Sicl ,SF , normal cation

-

2

3

3

2

3

3

4

6

Lewis Base (e- pair donor) NH , ROH, ROR, H O, RNH , R NH,R N, normal anion

3

2

2

2

3

2. Dissociation of Weak Acid & Weak Base

4

(a). 2 2 Weak Acid ® K = Cx / (1-x) or K = Cx
(a).
2
2
Weak Acid
®
K
= Cx
/
(1-x) or K
= Cx
a
a
(b).
2
2
Weak Base
®
K
= Cx
/
(1-x) or K
= Cx
b
b
3. Buffer solution:
Acidic
® pH = pK
log{
salt
/
Acid
}for Maximum buffer action pH = pK
a +
a
(a)
Range of Buffer pH = pK
± 1
a
(b) Alkaline
®
pOH = pK +log {Salt/ Base} for max.
b
Buffer range for basic buffer = pK
± 1
b
Moles/lit of Acid or Base Mixed
Buffer Capacity =
(c )
Change in pH
dCBOH
dCHB
B =
=-
dpH
dpH
-
+
4. Necessary condition for showing neutral colour of Indicator pH = pKln or [HIn] = [In ] or [InOH]=[In ]

www.inteliclass.com

Class IONIC EQULIBRIUM 1. Relation between ionisation neutral constant Ki = a 2 a 2

Class

IONIC EQULIBRIUM

1. Relation between ionisation neutral constant

Ki =

a

2

a

2

C

=

(1-

a

)V

(1-

a

)

(Ostwald's dilution law)

(

K

i

)

& degree of ionisation (

a

): -

5

It is applicable to weak electrolytes for which

a

< < 1 then

a

=

K V i
K V
i

=

K i C
K
i
C

orV

­

C

¯

a

­

2. Common ion effect : By addition of X mole/ L of a common ion, to a weak acid (or weak base)

a

becomes equal to

K

a

X

X

æ

ç è

or

ö

÷ ø

K

b

X

[where

a =degree of dissociation]

3. (A) If solubility product = ionic product then the solution saturates. (B). If solubility
3. (A) If solubility product = ionic product then the solution saturates.
(B). If solubility product > ionic product then the solution is unsaturated
and more of the substance can be dissolved in it.
(C ). Id ionic product > solubility product the solution is super saturated
(principle of precipition).
4. Salt of weak acid and strong base:
pH
= 0.5(
pK
pK
+
log
c
)
w +
a
Salt of weak base and strong acid
pH
= 0.5(
pK
-
pK
-
log
c
)
w
b
Salt of weak acid and weak base:
pH
= 0.5(
pK
pK
-
pK
)
w +
a
b

www.inteliclass.com

Class CHEMICAL KINETICS 1. Unit of Rate constant: K = mol 1 -D n lit

Class

CHEMICAL KINETICS

1. Unit of Rate constant:

K

=

mol

1

-D

n

lit

D -

n

1

sec

-

1

2. First Order reaction:

K

[

A

=

]

t

2.303

=

[

t

A

]

0

log

- kt

e

10

a

a

-

x

&

t

1/2

0.693

=

K

3. Second Order Reaction:

6

When concentration of A and B taking same. 1 æ x ö K = ç
When concentration of A and B taking same.
1 æ
x
ö
K
=
ç
÷
2
t
a a
(
-
x
)
è
ø
When concentration of A and b are taking different-
2.303
b a
(
-
x
)
K
=
log
2
t
(
a
-
b
)
a b
(
-
x
)
4. Zero Order Reaction:
a
-
a
K =
0
t
t
a
0
x
=
kt
&
t
=
1/ 2
2 K
5. Arrhenius equation:
-
E
- E
/
RT
a
K
=
Ae
a
&
slope
=
2.303
RK
- E
/ RT
whenT
®¥
,
thenk
=
A
(
\
e
a
=
1
)

6.

log

æ

ç

è

k

2

k

1

ö

÷

ø

=

E

a

2.303 R

æ

ç

è

T

2

-

TT

1

2

1

T ö

÷

ø

www.inteliclass.com

Class OXIDATION-REDUCTION 1. Oxidant itself is reduced (gives O ) Or Oxidant → e (s)

Class

OXIDATION-REDUCTION

1. Oxidant itself is reduced (gives O ) Or Oxidant e (s) Acceptor Reductant itself is oxidised (gives H ) Or reductant e (s) Donor

-

-

2

2

2. (i) Strength of acid α O.N (ii) Strength of base α 1/ O.N

3. (a) Electro Chemical Series:- Li, K, Sr, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Mn, Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni, Sn, Pb, H , Cu, I , Hg, Ag, Br , Cl , Pt, Au, F

2

2

2

2

2

­ ¯ ¯ ¯
­
¯
¯
¯

(b)As we move from top to bottom in this series

(1) Standard Reduction Potential

(2) Standard Oxidation Potential

(3) Reducing Capacity (4) Ip (5) Reactivity

­

-s

4. (a) Formal charge = Group No. – [No. of bonds+ No. of non- bonded e ]

(b)At A node Oxidation, Cathode Reduction

No. – [No. of bonds+ No. of non- bonded e ] (b)At A node → Oxidation,

www.inteliclass.com

7

Class VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS 1. Equivalent weight of element = Atomic wt of the element n

Class

VOLUMETRIC ANALYSIS

1. Equivalent weight of element =

Atomic wt of the element

n factor

2. Equivalent weight of Compound =

Formula wt of the compound

n factor

3. Equivalent weight of an ion =

Formula wt (or At. Wt.)of ion

its valency

8

4. The law of dulong and petit Atomic wt.´ specific heat » 6.4 Number of
4. The law of dulong and petit
Atomic wt.´ specific heat » 6.4
Number of equivalents of solute
5. Normality (N)=
Volume of the solution in liters
6.
Molarity (M)= Volume of the solution in liters
Number of moles of solute
7. When a solution is diluted
´
V
= N
´
V
N 1
1
2
2
(before dilution)
(after dilution)

8. Common acid- base indicators

´ V = N ´ V N 1 1 2 2 (before dilution) (after dilution) 8.

www.inteliclass.com

Class MOLE CONCEPT 1.Mole concept GAM º 1gm atom º 6.02 ´ 10 GAM º

Class

MOLE CONCEPT

1.Mole concept

GAM

º 1gm atom

º

6.02

´

10

GAM

º 1gm molecule

º

6.02

N =6.02

A

´

10

23

23 atom.

23

´ 10 molecules.

2.Moles (gases)at NTP=

volume L

(

)

22.4

3.Molecular mass=2´ vapour density

9

CHEMICAL ENERGETICS 1. First Law: D E= Q + W Expression for pressure volume work
CHEMICAL ENERGETICS
1. First Law:
D E= Q + W
Expression for pressure volume work W = -P V
D
Maximum work in a reversible expansion:
V
P
2
1
W = -2.303n RT log
=-
2.303
nRT
log
V
P
1
2
2. Enthalpy and heat content:
D
H =
D
E + P
D
V
=q
+
D
n RT]
D
H =
D
E +
D
n RT
[q (p)
(v)
g
g
[
D
n
=
n
-
n
]
g
p
(
g
)
r
(
g
)
3.Kirchoff's equation:
D
E
=D
E
+D
C
(
T
-
T
)[
cons
tan
tV
]
T
v
2
1
T 2
1
D
H
=D
H
+D
C
(
T
-
T
)[
cons
tan
tP
]
T
T
p
2
1
2
1

4. Entropy(s): Measure of disorder or randomness

D

S=

å

S

p

-

å

S

R

D =

S

q

rev

T

=

2.303

nr

log

=

V

2

V

1

=

2.303

nr

log

P

1

P

2

5. free energy change:

D

D G > 0(non-spontaneous) [+ve]

-

D

G= H-T

D

D =

G

G < 0(Spontaneous) [-ve]

D

G = W(maximum) -P

D

V

D

0(

S

equilibrium

)

www.inteliclass.com

Class 10 www.inteliclass.com

Class

10

Class 10 www.inteliclass.com

www.inteliclass.com

Class ELECTRO CHEMISTRY 1. M = Z. I.t 2. 3. Degree of dissociation: a =

Class

ELECTRO CHEMISTRY

1. M = Z. I.t

2.

3.

Degree of dissociation:

a

=

l

eq

l

¥

eq

=

Kohlrausch slaw D

'

:

0

m

0

= xl + yl

A

4.Nernst Equation

Equivalent conductance at given concentration equivalent conductance at infinite dilution

0

B

11

0 0.0591 [Pr oducts ] é nFE 0 ù 0 0 0 E = E
0 0.0591
[Pr
oducts
]
é
nFE
0 ù
0
0
0
E = E
-
log
& E
=E
+E
& Keq = antilog
ê
ú
10
cell
anode
cathode
n
[Re
ac
tan
ts
]
0.0591
ë
û
0
0
D
G = -nFE
&
D
G
= -nFE
cell
cell
æ¶D ö
G
0
0
-
D
G
=
2.303
RT
log
K
&
W
=+
nFE
&
D =D +
G
H
T
c
max
ç
÷
è
¶ T ø
p
5. Calculation of pH of an electrolyte by using a calomel electrode:
E
- 0.2415
cell
pH =
0.0591
SOLUTION AND COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES
1. Raoult's law
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
p
=
p
+
p
=
p
X
+
p
X
=
(1
-
XB p
)
+
p
X
=
(
p
-
P
)
X
+
p A
A
B
A
A
B
B
A
B
B
B
A
B
P
-
P
n
P
-
P
w m
.
0
S
0
S
=
&
=
P
n
+
N
P
W M
.
0
0

2. Colligative

Properties

a Number of particles

a Number of molecules (in case of nonelectrolytes)

a Number of ions (in case of electrolytes)

a Number of moles of solute

a Mole fraction of solute

3. Depression of freezing point,

DT = K m

f

f

www.inteliclass.com

Class 4. Elevation in boiling point with relative lowering of vapour pressure D T b

Class

4.

Elevation in boiling point with relative lowering of vapour pressure

D

T

b

=

1000 K

b

æ

ç

è

p

0

-

p ö

÷

ø

M

1

p

0

(

M

1

=

mol wt ofsolvent

.

.

)

5. Osmotic pressure (P) with depression in freezing point

6.

P

=D

T

f

´

dRT

1000 K

f

i Normal molar mass

=

Observed molar mass

=

Observed colligative property

Normal colligative property

fTD

1.

2.

3.

4.

i Observed osmotic pressure

=

Normal osmotic pressure

degree of association(a) = (1-i)

Actual number of particles = No. of particles for no. ion isation n i -
Actual number of particles
=
No. of particles for no. ion isation
n
i - 1
& degree of dissociation(
a
)=
n
-
1
n
-
1
0
1/3
N
0

NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY

Radius of the nucleus: R = R A

0.693 = l
0.693
=
l

1/2

(initial amount)

The amount N of the radioactive substance left after 'n' half lives =

Half-life period t

2

n

Rate of disintegration:

dN

-

dt

=

l

.

N

&

l

=

2.303

t

log

10

N

0

N

orN

=

N e

0

- l t

5.

Average life (t

AV

) =

Total life time of all the atoms

Total number of atoms

=

¥

ò tdn

1

0

=

N

0

l

= 1.44 t

1/2

www.inteliclass.com

12

Class GASEOUS STATE 1. Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Class

GASEOUS STATE

1. Ideal gas equation: PV = nRT

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

R = 0.0821 litre atm. K

R = 62.4 liters mm Hg K

R = 8.314 * 10

R =2 cals K R =8.314 J K

-1

-1

-1

7

ergs K

-1

-1

mole

-1

mole

mole

-1

-1

mole

mole

-1

-1

2. Velocities related to gaseous state

13

3PV 3P RMS velocity C = = = M d Average speed = 8RT &
3PV
3P
RMS velocity C =
=
=
M
d
Average speed =
8RT
& Most probable speed =
2RT
pM
M
Average speed = 0.9213 * RMS speed
MPS = .816 * RMS; RMS = 1.224 MPS
MPS : A. V. speed : RMS = 1: 1.128 : 1.224
1
3. Rate of diffusion a
density of gas
4. Vander Wall's equation
æ
n
2 a
ö
P
+
(
V
-
nb
)
=
nRT for n moles
ç è
V 2
÷ ø

5. (compressibility factor)=

Z

PV

nRT

;

Z =

1for ideal gas

www.inteliclass.com

Class 14 SOLID AND LIQUID STATE 1. Available space filled up by hard spheres (packing

Class

14

SOLID AND LIQUID STATE

1. Available space filled up by hard spheres (packing fraction):

Simple cubic =

p

6

=

0.52

bcc =

p 3
p
3

= 0.68

fcc. =

p 2
p
2

8

6

hcp =

p 2
p
2

=0.74

diamond =

6

=0.74 p 3 =0.34
=0.74
p
3
=0.34

6

2. Radius ratio and co-ordination number (CN)

3. Atomic radius r and the edge of the unit cell: Pure elements: a Simple
3. Atomic radius r and the edge of the unit cell:
Pure elements:
a
Simple cubic =r = 2
3a
2a
bcc r =
fcc =
4
4
4. Relationship between radius of void (r) and the radius of the sphere (R ):
r (tetrahedral) = 0.225 R; r(octahedral) = 0.414 R
5. Paramagnetic : Presence of unpaired electrons [attracted by magnetic
field]

6. Ferromagnetic: Permanent magnetism [

­­­­]

7. Antiferromagnetic: net magnetic moment is zero [

­¯­¯]

8. Ferrimagnetic: net magnetic moment is there[

­¯¯­­]

www.inteliclass.com

Class 15 SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE 1. Higher is the valency of active ion,

Class

15

SURFACE CHEMISTRY & COLLOIDAL STATE

1. Higher is the valency of active ion, the greater is its coagulating power.

2. Emulsion: Colloidal soln. of two immiscible liquids [O/ Wemulsion,

W / O emulsion]

3. Emulsifier: Long chain hydrocarbons are added to stabilize emulsion.

4. Lyophilic colloid: Starchy gum, gelatin have greater affinity for solvent. Solution Can be easily
4. Lyophilic colloid: Starchy gum, gelatin have greater affinity for
solvent. Solution Can be easily prepared by bringing in contact with
solvent and warming.
5. Lyophobic colloid: No affinity for solvent, special methods are used
to
prepare sol. [e.g. As S , Fe(OH) sol]
2
3
3
6. Preparation of colloidal solution:
(i)
Dipersion methods
(ii)
Condensation method.
7. Properties of colloidal solution:
(i)
Tyndall effect
(ii)
Brownian movement
(iii)
Coagulation
(iv)
Filtrability

www.inteliclass.com

Class 16 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY PERIODIC TABLE 1. General electronic configuration (of outer orbits) s- block

Class

16

INORGANIC CHEMISTRY

PERIODIC TABLE

1.

General electronic configuration (of outer orbits)

s- block

p- block

d-block

f- block

1-2

ns

ns np

(n -1)d

2

2

1-6

1-10

6

ns 1-2

10 1-14

f

(n-2)s p d

(n-1)s p d

2

6

0

or 1 ns

2

6 ns 1-2 10 1-14 f (n-2)s p d (n-1)s p d 2 6 0 or

3.

4.

IP a

EA

1

a

Metallic character

1

Reducing character

a

1

a

size

neclear charge

a

1

a

Basic Nature of oxide

1

Basic nature of hydroxide

Second electron affinity is always positive. Electron affinity of chlorine is greater than fluorine.

5.

The first element of a group has similar properties with the second element of the next group. This is called diagonal relationship.

www.inteliclass.com

Class 17 EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY 1. Floatation is a physical method of separating a mineral from

Class

17

EXTRACTIVE METALLURGY

1. Floatation is a physical method of separating a mineral from the gangue depending on differences in their wettabilities by a liquid

2. Roasting is the process of heating a mineral in the presence of air.

3. Calcination is the process of heating the ore in the absence of air.

4. Electrolytic reduction: Highly electropositive metals are extracted by the electrolysis of their oxides and hydroxides.

s- BLOCK ELEMENTS + + + + < K < Rb < Cs
s- BLOCK ELEMENTS
+
+
+
+
< K
< Rb
< Cs

1. Atomic radii: Li < Na < K < Rb < Cs

2. Ionic radii: Li

+

< Na

3. Electronegativity: Li > Na > K > Rb < Cs

4. First ionization potential: Li > Na > > K > Rb > Cs

5. Melting point: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs'

5. Melting point: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs' 6. Density: Li >

6. Density: Li > Na > K > Rb > Cs

7. Colour of the flame Li- red, Na- Golden, K- Violet, Rb- Red, Cs- Blue, Ca- Brick Red, Sr- Blood red, Ba- Apple green

8. Rb and Cs show photoelectric effect.

9. Stability of hydrides: LiH > NaH > KH > RbH > CsH

10. Basic nature of hydroxides: [LiOH < NaOH < KOH < RbOH < CsOH]

www.inteliclass.com

Class BORON FAMILY 18 1. Stability of +3 oxidation state: B > Al > Ga

Class

BORON FAMILY

18

1. Stability of +3 oxidation state: B > Al > Ga > In > Tl

2. Stability of +1 oxidation state: Ga < In < TI

3. Reducing nature: Al > Ga > In > Tl

4. Basic nature of the oxides and hydroxides:

B < Al < Ga < In < TI

5. Relative strength of Lewis acid : BF < BCl < BBr < BI

3

3

3

CARBON FAMILY

3

1. Reactivity: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb 2. Metallic character: C
1. Reactivity: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb
2. Metallic character: C < Si < Ge < Sn < Pb
3. Acidic character of the oxides:
CO
2 > SiO
> GeO > SnO
> PbO
2
2
2
2
Weaker acidic
(amphoteric)
4. Thermal stability and volatility of hydrides:
CH
4 > SiH
> GeH > SnH
< PbH
4
4
4
4
5. Reducing nature of hydrides:
CH
4 < SiH
> geH
> SnH > PbCl
4
4
4
4

6. Reducing power , covalent nature of Hydrides: NH < PH <AsH < SbH < BiH

3

3

3

3

3

7. Stability of trihalides of nitrogen: NF > NCl > NBr

3

3

8. Ease of hydrolysis of trichlorides NCl > PCL > AsCl > SbCl > BiCl

3

3

3

3

3

3

9. Lewis and strength of trihalides of P, As and Sb

PF

> PCl

3 3

> PBr

3

> PI

3

10. Lewis acid strength among phosphorus trihalides

PF

> PCl

3 3

> PBr

3

> Pi

3

11. Bond angle, among the halides of phosphorus

PF

< PCl

3 3

< PBr

3

< PI

3

www.inteliclass.com

Class OXYGEN FAMILY 1. Melting and boiling point of hydrides H 2 O > H

Class

OXYGEN FAMILY

1. Melting and boiling point of hydrides

H

2

O > H Te > H Se > H S

2

2

2

2. Volatility of hydrides H O > H Te > H Se > H S

2

2

2

2

3. Thermal stability of hydrides

H

2

O > H S > H Se > H Te

2

2

2

4. Reducing nature of hydrides

19

H S < H Se < H Te 2 2 2 5. Covalent character of
H
S < H Se < H Te
2
2
2
5. Covalent character of hydrides
H
O < H S < H Se < H Te
2
2
2
2
6. Bond angle & dipole moment of hydrides
H
O > H S > H Se > H Te
2
2
2
0
0
0
2 0
(104 )
(92 ) (91 )
(90 )
7. Ease of hydrolysis of hexahalides:
SF
> SeF > TeF
6
6
6
8. The acidic character of oxides (element in the same oxidation state)
9. Acidic character of oxide of a particular element(e.g. S)
AO > SeO > TeO > PoO
So > SeO > TeO
2
2
2
2
3
3
3

10. Stability of dioxides

SO > TeO

2

2

> SeO > PoO

2

2

www.inteliclass.com

Class HALOGEN FAMILY 1. Bond energy of halogens: Cl > Br > F > I

Class

HALOGEN FAMILY

1. Bond energy of halogens: Cl > Br > F > I

2

2

2

2

2. Bond length in x

2

molecule: F

2

> Cl

2

> Br

2

> I

2

3. Solubility of halogen in water: F > Cl > Br > I

2

2

2

4. Oxidizing power: F

2

> Cl

2

> Br

2

> I

2

2

5. Enthalpy of hydration of X ion: F > Cl >Br > I

-

-

-

-

-

- - - - - > Br > CI > F
-
-
-
-
-
> Br > CI > F

6. Reactivity of halogens: F > Cl > Br > I

7. Ionic character of M – X bond in halide

M – F > M – Cl > M – Br > M – I

8. Reducing character of X ion: I

9. Thermal stability of hydrides: HF > HCI > HBr > HI

10. Acidic strength of halogen acids: HI > HBr > HCI > HF

-
-

11. Conjugate base strength of halogen acids I < Br < CI < F

-

-

-

12. Reducing power of hydrogen halides HF < HCI < HBr < HI

13.Dipole moment of hydrogen halides HF > HCI > HBr > HI

14.Oxidising power of oxides of chlorine

Cl O > ClO

2

2

> Cl O6 > Cl O

2

2

7

15.Acidic character of oxyacids of chloride HCIO < HCIO <HCIO < HCIO

2

3

4

20

16.Strength of conjugate bases of oxyacids of chlorine

CIO > CIO

-

-

2

> CIO

-

3

> CIO

-

4

www.inteliclass.com

17.

18.

19.

17. 18. 19. Class HALOGEN FAMILY Oxidizing power of oxyacids of chlorine HCIO < HCIO <

Class

HALOGEN FAMILY

Oxidizing power of oxyacids of chlorine HCIO < HCIO < HCIO < HCIO

2

3

4

Thermal stability of oxyacids of chlorine HCIO < HCIO < HCIO < HCIO

2

3

4

Stability of anions of oxyacids of chlorine

CIO > CIO

-

-

2

> CIO

-

3

> CIO

-

4

21

TRANSITION ELEMENTS (D-BLOCK ELEMENTS)

1.

2.

1.

2.

The element with exceptional configuration are 24 5 1 29 10 1 Cr [Ar] 3d
The element with exceptional configuration are
24
5
1
29
10
1
Cr
[Ar] 3d 4s , Cu
[Kr] 4d 5s , Pd
[Ar] 3d 4s
5
1
46
10
0
Mo 42
[Kr] 4d
5s
47
10
1
78
14
10
0
Ag
[Kr] 4d
5s , Pt
[Xe] 4f 5d
6s
79
14
10
1
Au
[Xe] 4f 5d
6s
Ferromagnetic substances are those in which there are large number of
electrons with unpaired spins and whose magnetic moments are aligned
in the same direction.
COORDINATION COMPOUNDS
Coordination number is the number of the nearest atoms or groups in the
coordination sphere.

Ligand is a Lewis base donor of electrons that bonds to a central metal atom in a coordination compound.

3.

4.

5.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

Paramagnetic substance is one that is attracted to the magnetic field, this result on account of unpaired electrons present in the atom/molecule/ion.

Effective atomic number EAN = (Z – Oxidation number) + (2 * Coordination number)

Factors affecting stability of complex

Greater the charge on the central metal ion, greater is the stability.

Greater the ability of the ligand to donate electron pair (basic strength) greater is the stability.

Formation of chelate rings increases the stability.

www.inteliclass.com

Class 22 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY GOC 1. 2 The order of decreasing electro negativity of hybrid

Class

22

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

GOC

1.

2

The order of decreasing electro negativity of hybrid orbital's is sp > sp > sp

3

2.

Conformational isomers are those isomers which arise due to rotation around a single bond.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

A meso compound is optically inactive, even though it has asymmetric centers (due to internal compensation of rotation of plane polarized light)

An equimolar mixture of enantiomers is called racemic mixture, which is optically inactive Tautomerism is
An equimolar mixture of enantiomers is called racemic mixture, which is
optically inactive
Tautomerism is the type of isomerism arising by the migration of
hydrogen.
Reaction intermediates and reagents:
Homolytic fission
Hetrolytic fission
® Free radicals
® Carbocation and carbanion
Nucleophiles – electro rich
Two types :
1. Anions
2. Neutral molecules
With lone pair of electrons(Lewis bases)
Electrophiles: electron deficient.
Two types :

1. Cations

2. Neutral molecules with vacant orbitals (Lewis acids)

8. Inductive effect is due to

s

9.

9.

electron displacement along a chain and is permanent effect.

+I (inductive effect) increase basicity, - I effect increases acidity of compounds.

10. Resonance is a phenomenon in which two or more structures can be written for the same compound but none of them actually exists.

www.inteliclass.com

1.

2.

Class ALKANES
Class
ALKANES

Pyrolytic cracking is a process in which alkane decomposes to a mixture

of smaller hydrocarbons, when it is heated strongly, in the absence of

oxygen.

Combustion is a process in which hydrocarbons from carbon dioxide and

23

O (l) when they are completely burnt in air/O . H 2 2 ALKENES 1.
O (l) when they are completely burnt in air/O .
H 2
2
ALKENES
1.
In
dehydration and dehydro halogenations the order for removal of
0
0
0
hydrogen is 3
> 2 > 1
(Saytzeff's rule)
2.
The lower the
Dhh
(heat of dehydrogenation) the more stable the alkene is.
3.
Alkenes undergo anti-Markonikov addition only with HBr in the presence
of peroxides.
ALKYNES
1.
All o and p-directing groups ring activating groups (expect – X)
They are: -OH, -NH , -X, R, -OR etc.
2
2.
All m-directing groups are ring deactivating groups.
They are: -CHO, -COOH, -NO , -CN, -NR etc.
2
3

HALOGEN COMPOUNDS

1.

(a)RI > RBr > RCl > RF (b)Ally halide > Alkyl halide > Vinyl halide

(c) Alkyl halide > Aryl halide

The order of reactivity is

2. S

N

0

1 reaction: mainly 3 alkyl halides undergo this reaction and form

racemic mixture. S 1 is favoured by polar solvent and low concentration

of nuclephile.

N

3. S 2 reaction:Mainly 10 alkyl halides undergo this substitution. S

N

N

2

reaction

is

preferred by non-polar solvents and high concentration of nucleophile.

www.inteliclass.com

Class ALCOHOLS 24 1. Alkenes are converted to alcohol in different ways as follows Reagent

Class

ALCOHOLS

24

1. Alkenes are converted to alcohol in different ways as follows

Reagent

dil H SO

B H

2

4

6

and H O

2

2

2

Oxymercuration demercuration

Types of addition - Markovnikov - Anti- Markovnikov - Markovnikov

2. Oxidation of

1

0

alcohol

®

aldehyde (with same no. of C atom)

®

carboxylic acid (with same no. of C atom)

(with less no. of C atom) (with less no. of C atom) PHENOLS
(with less
no. of C atom)
(with less
no. of C atom)
PHENOLS

Salicyaldehyde (Reimer- Tieman reaction)less no. of C atom) (with less no. of C atom) PHENOLS 2 ketone carboxylic acid

2 ketone carboxylic acid (with same

alcohol

no. of C atom)

3 ketone carboxylic acid

alcohol

(with less no. of C atom)

3 ketone carboxylic acid alcohol (with less no. of C atom) 1. C H C l

1. CHCl3/OH

Phenol

0

0

2. Phenol

CO 2

D

Salicyclic acid (Kolbe reaction)1. C H C l 3 / O H Phenol 0 0 2. Phenol CO 2

3. Acidity of phenols

(a)

Increase by electron withdrawing substituents like

-NO , -CN, -CHO, -COOH, -X, -

2

NR 3

(b)

Decrease by electron releasing substituent's like -R , -OH, -NH , -NR , OR

2

2

www.inteliclass.com

Class ETHERS
Class
ETHERS

1. 2ROH

Al

2 O 3

Class ETHERS 1. 2ROH Al 2 O 3 250 0 c R - O - R

250 0 c

R - O - R + H 2 O

2. RONa + X – R'

ROR' + NaX (Williamson's synthesis)

D

3. ROR + 2 H 2 SO 4

4. ROR + H 2 O

(conc.) dil. H 2 SO 4

2 SO 4 4. ROR + H 2 O (conc.) dil. H 2 SO 4 D

D

2RHSO 4 + H 2 O

2ROH

1 0 alcohol 2 0 alcohol
1 0 alcohol
2
0 alcohol

3 0 alcohol

CARBONYL COMPOUNDS

Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis

1. Formation of alcohols using RMgX

(a)

(b)

Formaldehyde + RMgX

Aldehyde + RMgX

using RMgX (a) (b) Formaldehyde + RMgX Aldehyde + RMgX (other than HCHO) Hydrolysis (c)Ketone +

(other than HCHO) Hydrolysis (c)Ketone + RMgX

+ RMgX (other than HCHO) Hydrolysis (c)Ketone + RMgX Alkali 2. Cannizzaro reaction (disproportionation) Aldehyde

Alkali

2. Cannizzaro reaction (disproportionation)

Aldehyde no a H-atom

Hot conc.

Alcohol + salt of acid

Aldehyde no a H-atom Hot conc. Alcohol + salt of acid 25 Crossed- cannizzaro reaction gives

25

Crossed- cannizzaro reaction gives alcohol with aryl group or bigger alkyl group.

3. Aldol condensation:

Carbonyl compound+dil.alkali b (With a H-atom) 4. Benzoin condensation ethanolic Benzaldehyde Benzoin NaCN
Carbonyl compound+dil.alkali
b
(With
a H-atom)
4. Benzoin condensation
ethanolic
Benzaldehyde
Benzoin
NaCN

-hydroxycarbonyl compound

www.inteliclass.com

Class 26 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS 1. The rate of esterification decrease when alcohol, acid or both

Class

26

CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

1. The rate of esterification decrease when alcohol, acid or both have branched substitutents.

2. Ortho effect: All ortho substituted benzoic acids (irrespective of type of substitutent) are stronger than benzoic acid. As this group decrease outer resonance of ring towards acid which increase acidic nature.

NITROGEN COMPOUNDS

1. Order of basicity: (R = -CH or C H )

0

2 > 1

0

> 3

0

> NH 3

3 2 5 1 0 amine
3
2
5
1 0 amine

2. Hofmann degradation

Amides

Br 2 /KOH

3. The basicity of amines is

(a)

(b)

Decreased by electron withdrawing groups

Increased by electron releasing groups

4. Reduction of nitrobenzene in different media gives different products

Medium

Acidic

in different media gives different products Medium Acidic Basic Neutral Product Aniline Azoxy, Azo and finally

Basic

Neutral

Product Aniline Azoxy, Azo and finally hydrazobenzene Phenyl hydroxyl amine

CARBOHYHYDRATES, AMINO ACIDS AND POLYMERS

1. Carbohydrates are polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketenes.

2. Oligosaccharides are simple sugars, containing three to nine carbon atoms.

3. Polymer is a chemical species of high molecular weight made up from repeating units of low molecular weight.

www.inteliclass.com

Class 27 CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Homologous series Type of reactions (a) Alkanes

Class

27

CHARACTERISTIC REACTIONS OF DIFFERENT ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

Homologous series

Type of reactions

(a)

Alkanes

Substitution (Mostly free radical)

(b)

Alkenes and alkynes

Electrophilic addition

(c) Arenes

(d) Alkyl halides

Electrophilic substitution

Neucleophilic Substitution

(e) Aldehyde and ketones Nucleophilic addition Test to differentiate: 0 0 0 1 , 2
(e)
Aldehyde and ketones
Nucleophilic addition
Test to differentiate:
0
0
0
1 , 2 , and 3
alcohols
Lucas test
Victormayer's test
0
0
0
1 , 2 , and 3
amines
Hinsberg test
0
0
0
1 , 2 , and 3
nitro compounds
Test with HNO and KOH
2
Aryl halides and alkyl halides
Test with AgNO solution
3

Aldehydes and ketones aromatic

Aldehydes and aliphatic aldehydes

Tollen's test/ Fehling's test

Fehling's test

www.inteliclass.com

Class IMPORTANT REAGENT 1. DiH 2 SO 4 [or Cons. H 2 SO 4 +

Class

IMPORTANT REAGENT

1. DiH 2 SO 4 [or Cons. H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O

Use

(a)

(b)

4 [or Cons. H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O U s e (a) (b)

CH 2

Dehydrating agent (+HOH) dil. H 2 SO 4

CH 2

(b) CH 2 Dehydrating agent (+HOH) dil. H 2 SO 4 CH 2 CH 3 C
(b) CH 2 Dehydrating agent (+HOH) dil. H 2 SO 4 CH 2 CH 3 C

CH 3

C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5

dil. H 2 SO 4

2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 d i l . H 2 S O 4

2C 2 H 5 OH

CH 2

OH

2. Alc. KOH or Nanh (Use

2

-Hx

alc. KOH

CH 3 CH 2 Cl

-HCl

0

ald, 2 0 alc

CH 2 2

KOH C H 3 C H 2 C l -HCl 0 ald, 2 0 alc CH

CH 2

" ketone, 3 0 alc
"
ketone,
3
0 alc

3. Cu or ZnO / 300 C

1 0 alc

"

2 CH 2 " ketone, 3 0 alc 3. Cu or ZnO / 300 C 1

"

2 CH 2 " ketone, 3 0 alc 3. Cu or ZnO / 300 C 1

alkene (exception)

2 CH 2 " ketone, 3 0 alc 3. Cu or ZnO / 300 C 1

www.inteliclass.com

28

Class SnCl 2 / HCl C 6 H 5 NO 2 6H C 6 H

Class

SnCl 2 / HCl

C 6 H 5 NO 2

6H

Class SnCl 2 / HCl C 6 H 5 NO 2 6H C 6 H 5

C 6 H 5 NH 2

10. Lindlar's catalyst = pd / CaCO

3

+ in small quantity(CH COO) Pb

3

2

2 - butyne + H 2

"

COO) Pb 3 2 2 - b u t y n e + H 2 "

Cis - 2 - butene

(main product)

11. Ziegler- Natta Catalyst (C H ) Al + TiCl Use – In additional polymerization

Propene

"

– In additional polymerization P r o p e n e " 2 5 3 4
2 5 3 4 Poly propene MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS
2
5
3
4
Poly propene
MAIN USE OF COMPOUNDS
P r o p e n e " 2 5 3 4 Poly propene MAIN USE

SMELL OF SOME COMPOUNDS

P r o p e n e " 2 5 3 4 Poly propene MAIN USE

www.inteliclass.com

29

Class IDENTIFICATION TESTS (a) Unsaturated compound (Bayer's reagent) Decolorizing the reagent (b) Alcohols (Ceric

Class

IDENTIFICATION TESTS

(a)

Unsaturated compound (Bayer's reagent) Decolorizing the reagent

(b)

Alcohols (Ceric Ammonium nitrate solution) Red coloration.

(c)

Phenols (Neutral FeCl solution) violet/deep blue coloration.

3

(d)

Aldehydes and ketones (2, 4-D.N.P.) orange Precipitate

(e)

Acids (NaHCO solution) Brisk effervescence (CO is evolved)

3

2

(NaHCO solution) Brisk effervescence (CO is evolved) 3 2 (f) 10 amine (CHCl + KOH) Foul

(f)

10 amine (CHCl + KOH) Foul smell (isocyanide)

3

(g)20 amine (NaNO2 + HCI) yellowoily liquid (Nitrosoamine)

(CHCl + KOH) Foul smell (isocyanide) 3 (g)20 amine (NaNO2 + HCI) yellowoily liquid (Nitrosoamine) www.inteliclass.com

www.inteliclass.com

30

Class Address Delhi / NCR Intelivisto Consulting India Private Limited C-131, Sector 2 NOIDA- 201301,
Class Address Delhi / NCR Intelivisto Consulting India Private Limited C-131, Sector 2 NOIDA- 201301,

Class

Address

Delhi / NCR Intelivisto Consulting India Private Limited

C-131, Sector 2 NOIDA- 201301, INDIA Mobile:- +91-9582000102, Phone:- 0120-4314666

Mumbai Intelivisto Consulting India Private Limited

Aekveera Regency, Mr. Aggarwal Residency Shankar Lane, Kandivli (West), Mumbai - 400067 Mobile:- 9870976534 Phone:- +91 22 65305201

Mail Address info@inteliclass.com

Join us on www.facebook.com/inteliclass

www.inteliclass.com www.inteliclass.com