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Mathematics in Education: A

Guide to Intervention
Jaime Haas
Victoria Sheppard
Brianna Murray
Heather Creary

Table of Contents
Introduction to Mathematics... 4
Response to Intervention......... 6
Introduction. 6
Assessment.............. 6
Tier System. 9
Evidence-Based Practices..... 10
Decision Making... 10
Vital Roles in RTI............. 11
Response to Intervention in Mathematics. 13
Math in Tier 1... 15
Math in Tier 2... 16
Math in Tier 3... 17
Numeracy.. 19
Making Numerals.. 21
Big Top Twelve 24
Computation. 28
Reciprocal Peer Tutoring.. 30
Domino Facts 37
The Sum What Dice Game... 41
Fluency.. 44
Boost Fluency Through Explicit Time Drills... 46
Flash Cards... 48
Taped Problems.... 51
Problem Solving... 57
Help Students Avoid Errors with the Individualized Self-Correction Checklist... 59
Fast Draw.. 61

Resources.67
Websites.. 67
Kindle Applications (Apps).... 75
Ipad Applications (Apps).... 76
Additional Resources.. 77
About the Authors78

Introduction to Mathematics
A major concern for educators today is the amount of students who are demonstrating
poor achievement in mathematics (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Specifically, the National
Assessment of Educational Progress report confirmed that as of 2007, 81% of fourth graders
with disabilities and 92% of eighth graders with disabilities did not attain a basic level of
proficiency in math (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). The societal impact of lacking math knowledge
is demonstrated by the fact that 78% of adults are unable to explain how to calculate interest on a
loan, 71% of adults are unable to compute the miles driven per gallon of gasoline used, and 58%
of adults are not able to compute a 10% tip when eating out (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
In addition to this, a plethora of research has found that struggling with math in
kindergarten is predictive of struggling with math in higher elementary years. Specifically,
students who enter or exit kindergarten while scoring below the 10th percentile (at both of those
time points) have a 70% chance of also scoring below the 10th percentile by the end of the fifth
grade (Clarke, Doabler, Baker, Fien, Jungjohann, & Cary, 2011). Expanding on this, a metaanalysis of longitudinal data found that the correlation between early and later math proficiency
exceeds that of reading achievement (Clarke et al., 2011). Similar to reading, it is imperative to
identify students struggles in math early so that educators can ameliorate the issues before they
develop into long-term problems. For this reason, it is critical to prevent or remediate poor
performance from occurring. Thus, it is necessary to understand the sequential chain of math
concepts. In response to low achievement in mathematics and the importance of early skills,
schools are working to implement various preventative and early intervention strategies
(Riccomini & Smith, 2011).

Sources:
Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Jungjohann, K., & Cary, M. S. (2011).
Pursuing instructional coherence: Can strong tier 1 systems better meet the needs of the
range of students in general education settings? In R. Gersten & R.Newman-Gonchar,
(Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 49-64).
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Riccomini, P. J., & Smith, G. W. (2011). Introduction of response to intervention in
mathematics. In R. Gersten & R. Newman-Gonchar, (Eds.), Understanding RTI in
mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 1-16). Baltimore, MD: Paul H.
Brookes.

Response to Intervention
Introduction
Response to intervention (RTI) is an intervention and assessment approach that allows
schools to provide students with effective instructional methods (Brown-Chidsey & Steege,
2010). RTI involves the use of data-based methods to identify, define, and solve students
academic or behavior issues (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010). RTI uses a three-tiered approach
to identify and support students with learning needs. Within this model, all students level of
learning is assessed early and often in order to identify students who are struggling (BrownChidsey & Steege, 2010). Essentially, RTI is about using informed, research-based instructional
decisions to improve students learning outcomes (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).

Assessment
Using appropriate assessment measures is vital to the RTI process (Riccomini & Smith,
2011). One of the main purposes of using assessment in RTI is to identify students who are atrisk for developing learning problems; these are called screening measures (Riccomini & Smith,
2011). These assessments are usually administered to all students three or four times a year, in
order to identify students who are at-risk for learning difficulties in specific areas (Riccomini &
Smith, 2011). These measures are usually quick and easy to give, as well as score (Riccomini &
Smith, 2011). The results of these measures are analyzed, and an intervention may be
implemented for students who were found to demonstrate poor achievement (Riccomini &
Smith, 2011).
Establishing a baseline is necessary to begin an intervention (Brown-Chidsey & Steege,
2010). This phase involves gathering information about a students pre-intervention level of

performance (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010). Baseline results serve as a way to judge whether
or not an intervention has been successful. If one understands how a student is performing
before an intervention is put into place, then one can more accurately tell if there was
improvement after the intervention was implemented (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010).
Baseline results should serve two essential functions; one, it should represent the students
current performance level, and two, it should predict how the student will most likely continue to
perform if no intervention is implemented (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010). Baseline results
can be obtained in various ways; for example, by calculating a percent correct score on
classroom assignments, administering curriculum-based measurement probes, or looking at past
grades that the student (or students) has obtained in that area. In order to warrant an
intervention, baseline results should reflect stability, which means the results collected on at least
three occurrences show little to no variation. If one is implementing an intervention, the baseline
results should not indicate that the students scores in that area are already improving. (BrownChidsey & Steege, 2010).
An additional purpose of assessment in RTI is to supervise the progress of those students
who have been identified as at-risk or are involved in an intervention; this is called progress
monitoring (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). These measures allow teachers to answer the question:
Is this intervention successful? (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010). Progress monitoring
involves frequently assessing students in order to determine whether they are learning from the
instruction at a rate that is acceptable (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). It is important to set specific
goals for student progress in order to accurately assess whether or not the intervention is
working. Teachers are responsible for determining these goals and may base the goals off of
local or national norms (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh, & McGraw, 2009). Progress monitoring

can happen as often as twice-weekly, or as little as once a month (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
However, there should be at least four data points from progress monitoring before assessing that
the intervention has been effective or not (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010). Then, if an increase
is noted in the students skills, the teacher will have evidence that the intervention is working; or
on the other hand, if a decrease in student performance is found, then the teacher has evidence
that the intervention should be changed (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010). Progress monitoring
can be carried out using similar measures as were used to obtain baseline. Some examples of
progress monitoring measures are curriculum-based measurement probes and percent correct
scores on classroom materials.
Baseline and progress monitoring scores should be plotted on a graph so that a visual
analysis of the results can be made. The graph below is an example of baseline and progress
monitoring for a student (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010, p. 68):

Since progress monitoring is supposed to assess learning throughout the school year, the
results from these measures can be used to make decisions about the effectiveness of
interventions, instructional methods, and curriculum (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).

Tier System
RTI is organized into a three-tiered system that is based on student needs (Riccomini &
Smith, 2011). This model is usually represented by a triangle that has three tiers (Riccomini &
Smith, 2011). The interventions, assessments, and instructional supports become intensified as
students move up through the tiers (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Tier 1 is the core instruction that all students receive (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). This
tier can also contain differentiated instruction for students who are struggling (Riccomini &
Smith, 2011). Most RTI models suggest that this core instruction should meet the needs of
approximately 80% of students (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Tier 2 involves more intensive and thorough instruction than Tier 1, and generally
includes more time spent in instruction (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). In essence, Tier 2 involves
adding more instructional opportunities in order to supplement and support Tier 1 core
instruction (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Tier 3 involves the most intensive instruction; it is used for those students who have
received evidence-based interventions at the first and second tiers and have failed to make
adequate progress (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). The figure below is a visual representation of the
three-tiered RTI model (Brown-Chidsey & Steege, 2010).

Evidence-Based Practices
This process requires teachers to utilize instructional programs that have been proven to
be effective (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Then, if students are not making the necessary or
expected progress, changes in that instruction need to be considered (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Instructional changes consist of different teaching strategies or approaches; additionally, these
instructional strategies and academic interventions need to be evidence-based (proven to be
effective based on research) (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). The use of evidence-based practices is
crucial to the success of the RTI model (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). In particular, it is important
to be mindful of the fact that RTI is not a strategy for teaching, but a model of how educational
evidence-based practices can be in the classroom setting to facilitate learning and instruction
(Riccomini & Smith, 2011).

Decision Making
Educational decisions play a large role in the process of RTI (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Specifically, students are first identified for needing additional instruction using screening
assessments, secondly, the effectiveness of that instruction or intervention is measured using
progress monitoring data, and lastly decisions are made regarding whether a student should move
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up in the tiers (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Additionally, if a student is not responding at the
third tier, then that student is referred for an evaluation to see if he or she is eligible for special
education services (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). All of these decisions in the RTI process are
based off of results that are collected at each step (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Essentially, the
success of the RTI process lies in the hands of the RTI team and their decision-making processes
(Riccomini & Smith, 2011).

Vital Roles in RTI


It is especially important that classroom teachers are actively involved in the RTI process
(Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Specifically, if the classroom teacher is actively involved in the
entire process, then it will be easier to align tier one and two instruction, which has been linked
to better outcomes for students (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Moreover, the teacher should be
involved in the process of universal screening and the progress monitoring of those students who
have been identified as at-risk (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
A vital component of RTI is that an intervention or additional instruction is provided
quickly and early when students are identified as struggling (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). This
can be done by collaboration with a school psychologist, RTI coordinators, interventionists
(educators whose main job is to implement intervention programs that are not implemented
within the general classroom), or special education teachers (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Essentially, the success of RTI is contingent on the collaboration of educators and professionals
within schools.

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Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and
recipes for success. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Brown-Chidsey, R. & Steege, M. W. (2010). Response to intervention: Principles and
strategies for effective practice (2nd ed). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Riccomini, P. J., & Smith, G. W. (2011). Introduction of response to intervention in
mathematics. In R. Gersten & R. Newman-Gonchar, (Eds.), Understanding RTI in
mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 1-16). Baltimore, MD: Paul H.
Brookes.

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Response to Intervention in Mathematics


A leading concern for educators and parents is the number of students in the United
States who show low achievement levels in math (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Despite this
concern, research on math instruction and on response to intervention (RTI) in math has been
minimal (Clarke et al., 2011). In response to poor academic performance in math, schools have
implemented different early and preventive interventions such as increasing parental
involvement, providing before and after school programs that provide additional math
instruction, emphasizing the importance of math instruction and learning to teachers and
refocusing professional development efforts for teachers and staff in math instruction (Riccomini
& Smith, 2011). When the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of
2004 was reauthorized, it encouraged states to use RTI as an alternative to the typical
discrepancy model of determining specific learning disabilities (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).
Though RTI may take different forms in different schools, its premise is informed instructional
decisions aimed at improving learning outcomes at the most basic level (Riccomini & Smith,
2011). The common elements of RTI include assessment, instruction, interventions and decision
making (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). While RTI has been focused on reading, it has recently
started to focus on the area of math (Riccomini & Smith, 2011).

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Educators working with an RTI model must consider what content to teach when students
are struggling in certain areas in mathematics (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). The National
Mathematics Advisory Panel (NMAP) recommends that an effective math program should
adequately develop conceptual understanding, computational fluency, factual knowledge and
problem-solving skills (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). A program that addresses these main areas is
less likely to have students who need Tier 2 or Tier 3 instruction. Students should have a
working knowledge of concepts, processes, facts and problem-solving to become proficient in
math (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). The NMAP also recommends explicit instruction on a regular
basis for students who are low-achieving, have disabilities or are at-risk for mathematical
difficulties (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Key elements of explicit instruction are teacher
modeling, guided and independent practice opportunities using sequenced problems, corrective
feedback and opportunities to generalize the information to other contexts (Riccomini & Smith,
2011). As students move through a tiered RTI system the instructions should become more
systematic and explicit, though the degree of explicitness will depend on the content being
covered and student characteristics (Riccomini & Smith, 2011). Students may be immediately
put into a specific tier, or if they fail to respond to Tier 1 or Tier 2, may be provided with a
higher level intervention such as Tier 2 or Tier 3 (VanDerHeyden, n.d.). Employing RTI in math
instruction helps to ensure that all students, no matter their ability-level, can become proficient in
math (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh & McGraw, 2009).

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Math in Tier 1
Tier 1 in RTI is composed of core interventions, which are provided to the entire general
classroom (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). These core interventions can include initial assessment
of the students and progress monitoring as well as different methods of presenting the lesson
(Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Different presentation methods include modeling, explicit
instruction, guided practice, independent practice and review (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). One
of the most important aspects of presenting information is making sure that the students are
actively engaged (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). A way to ensure active participation by the
students is to use signals so that the students know when to respond; signaling also allows for
communication between students and the teacher, so the teacher knows what students understand
(Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). This signaling always teachers to maintain a steady pace
throughout the lesson following the Goldilocks Rules; the lesson is not too fast but not too
slow (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). The overall presentation of the lesson should be organized,
engage all of the students at the same time, and build off what the students already know
(Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009).
In addition to how the lesson is presented, having error correction procedures is a key
feature of effective instruction (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Error-correction procedures
prevent a student from learning a skill the wrong way and then having to unlearn and then
relearn the correct method (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Additionally, this error-correction
procedure lessens student frustration, as students learn the skills correctly and more quickly
(Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). A final element of effective Tier 1 math instruction is diagnosis
and remediation (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). This refers to identifying problems students are
having in the moment of learning and adjusting the instruction for the entire class around those

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problems (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Not only will this address issues for students struggling
but it will also provide practice opportunities for the other students (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009).
Effective math instruction should include this system of monitoring student learning and
adjusting instruction to ensure adequate learning or accelerate learning when needed
(VanDerHeyden, n.d.).

Math in Tier 2
Effective Tier 2 programs emphasize matching the problem difficulty to the capability of
the students in the group, with many opportunities to practice the skill (VanDerHeyden, n.d.).
Tier 2 math instruction is typically done in small groups of about three to five students on a
regular basis; because these students achievement is similar, intervention materials and
procedures can be geared towards the groups (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009, VanDerHeyden, n.d.).
The frequency of Tier 2 interventions can vary from two to five days a week depending on the
amount of support the students need (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Program characteristics of
Tier 2 interventions should be similar to those of Tier 1, such as ensuring the mastery of skills as
instruction progresses, having adequate feedback and being sequential (VanDerHeyden, n.d.).
Specific instructional practices that have been beneficial for students in Tier 2 include:
peer-assisted learning, explicit instruction and providing regular feedback (Brown-Chidsey et al.,
2009). These instructional practices may be used regardless of the Tier 1 instruction set forth at
a school (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Peer-assisted learning helps struggling students by
providing them with many practice opportunities and by getting immediate corrective feedback
from their peers (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Peer-assisted learning can be done easily in the
classroom and does not require students to be pulled out of the classroom to receive a higher

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intensity instructional method (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Explicit and sequenced math
instruction leads to significant gains in math skills (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Furthermore,
explicit instruction is similar to the sequential math instruction in Tier 1 but additional, direct
steps are added for students who are struggling (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). The third
instructional practice is providing regular feedback on student performance to both the student
and the teacher (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). This feedback is important to help counter
problems and monitor student progress as they move through the school year (Brown-Chidsey et
al., 2009). These instructional methods are ways that a school can use resources that they
already have in order to better serve the needs of the children in Tier 2 (VanDerHeyden, n.d.).
Additional Tier 2 programs can be purchased to assist with Tier 2 interventions such as FASTT
Math and Accelerated Math (VanDerHeyden, n.d.).

Math in Tier 3
Tier 3 is the most intensive tier of the RTI program and is similar to programs used for
students in special education (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009). Students whose performance show
extensive skill gaps and fall in the at-risk range during screening measures fall in Tier 3
(VanDerHeyden, n.d.). Tier 3 math interventions are typically more intense versions of Tier 2
interventions, they are individualized interventions and provide one-on-one correspondence
(Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009; VanDerHeyden, n.d.). Tier 3 interventions should include a
process of identifying specific causes of poor performance in mathematics followed by matching
individual interventions to target those specific deficits while monitoring intervention-specific
and generalized math improvement (VanDerHeyden, n.d.). Assessment results gathered from
Tier 3 may be the most useful in determining eligibility for special education and individualized

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education program planning (VanDerHeyden, n.d.). While there is ongoing research about the
different tiers in RTI involving math, there are many interventions that are applicable for the
different tiers (Brown-Chidsey et al., 2009).

Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and
recipes for success. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Jungjohann, K., & Cary, M. S. (2011).
Pursuing instructional coherence: Can strong tier 1 systems better meet the needs of the
range of students in general education settings? In R. Gersten & R. Newman-Gonchar,
(Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 49-64).
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Riccomini, P. J., & Smith, G. W. (2011). Introduction of response to intervention in
mathematics. In R. Gersten & R. Newman-Gonchar, (Eds.), Understanding RTI in
mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 1-16). Baltimore, MD: Paul H.
Brookes.
VanDerHeyden, A. (n.d.). RTI and Math Instruction. RTI Action Network. Retrieved from
http://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/what/rtiandmath
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Numeracy
Whole numbers are like the letters to the language of math. Not understanding letters
will impede one from understanding the language. A multitude of research has found that
struggling with math in lower elementary grades is predictive of struggling with math in higher
elementary grades (Clarke et al., 2011). Moreover, approximately half of students in this country
are performing below grade level in math, which suggests that many students are not developing
number sense in their early years (Poncy, McCallum, & Schmitt, 2010). Number sense, which is
also known as numeracy, is the understanding of what whole numbers mean and the ability to
work with them (Clarke et al., 2011). It is important for a student to understand that numerical
symbols represent certain values. A student with number sense is able to make numerical
comparisons (e.g., 8 is more than 5), count verbally, and understand the order of a number line
(Codding, Chan-Iannetta, George, Ferreria, & Volpe, 2011; Clark et al., 2011). To provide an
example, a component of numeracy means knowing that 7 means 6 + 1 and 9 2."
Numeracy is a foundational concept of math and is vital for success in mathematics. For this
reason, numeracy is identified as the most critical element of math content taught in kindergarten
(Clark et al., 2011). Research suggests that explicit instruction and demonstration through visual
representations and modeling is the embodiment of effective instruction. Explicit instruction
assists whole number understanding in formative years (Doabler, & Fien, 2013) and visual
representations increase a childs engagement and attitude toward content (Woodward, 2011).
Therefore, it is recommended to implement explicit instruction and visual representations in
early elementary classrooms so that the probability of students mastering numeracy may
increase.

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Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines for
recipes for success. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Codding, R., Chan-Iannetta, L., George, S., Ferreria, K., & Volpe, R. (2011). Early number
skills: Examining the effects of class-wide interventions on kindergarten performance.
School Psychology Quarterly, 26(1), 85-96.
Doabler, C. T., & Fien, H. (2013). Explicit Mathematics Instruction: What Teachers Can Do for
Teaching Students With Mathematics Difficulties. Intervention In School &
Clinic, 48(5), 276-285.
Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Jungjohann, K., & Cary, M. S. (2011).
Pursuing instructional coherence: Can strong tier 1 systems better meet the needs of the
range of students in general education settings? In R. Gersten & R.Newman-Gonchar,
(Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 49-64).
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Poncy, B., McCallum, E., & Schmitt, A. (2010). A comparison of behavioral and constructionist
interventions for increasing math fact fluency in a second-grade classroom. Psychology
in the Schools, 47(9), 917-930.
Woodward, J. (2011). The role of motivation in secondary mathematics instruction. In R.
Gersten & R.Newman-Gonchar, (Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven
methods and applications (pp. 49-64). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

20

Making Numerals
Purpose: Teacher introduces the numbers 1 through 10 with a song. The song Making
Numerals is sung to the tune of The Farmer and the Dell. The purpose of this intervention is
to enhance the identification of whole numbers.

Tier 1

Materials:

Number sign boldly displaying numbers 1-10 (may use a dry erase board or chalk board
to show the numbers instead).

Song lyrics

Recording of the Farmer and the Dell (optional)

Directions:
1. Teacher says, We are going to learn a fun song about numbers. First, I am going to
introduce a number to you by singing a verse and showing you on this paper. Then I want
you to introduce the number to me by singing along with me and making the number in
the air. Does anyone have any questions? Lets practice. Ready set go!
2. After explaining the directions, teacher sings verse 1 while holding up the number sign
(or writing the number on the board). While singing, teacher models the shape of the
number by tracing over it on the number sign (or by tracing the number in the air or
writing the number on the board).

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3. At the end of verse 1, teacher motions for children to sing along, repeating the previously
introduced verse and modeling.
4. This process continues for all numbers.
5. It is recommended that the teacher provide ongoing encouragement and positive
reinforcement.

Progress Monitoring:

Before administering this intervention, use scores from an early numeracy math
curriculum based measure (CBM) to determine the students baseline score, or in other
words to determine the students current level of number sense.

On a weekly basis, administer an early numeracy math CBM to monitor the students
progress.

Each score on the early numeracy math CBM should be graphed.

Use this procedure until the goal set by the instructor is achieved.

Making Numerals Lyrics:


Pull down, thats itthats 1
Pull down, thats itthats 1
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Pull down, thats itthats 1

Make an L, pull downthats 4


Make an L, pull downthats 4
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Make an L, pull downthats 4

Half-circle, slide rightthats 2


Half-circle, slide rightthats 2
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Half-circle, slide rightthats 2

Down, around, top linethats 5


Down, around, top linethats 5
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Down, around, top linethats 5

Half-circle, half-circlethats 3
Half-circle, half-circlethats 3
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Half-circle, half-circlethats 3

Circle left, close the bottomthats 6


Circle left, close the bottomthats 6
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Circle left, close the bottomthats 6

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Slide right, slant downthats 7


Slide right, slant downthats 7
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Slide right, slant downthats 7

Small circle, pull downthats 9


Small circle, pull downthats 9
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Small circle, pull downthats 9

Make S, close it upthats 8


Make S, close it upthats 8
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Make S, close it upthats 8

Make 1, add 0thats 10


Make 1, add 0thats 10
Hi-ho for numbers, oh.
Make 1, add 0thats 10

Sources:
Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Powell, S., Seethaler, P., Cirino, P., & Fletcher, J. (2008). Intensive
intervention for students with mathematics disabilities: Seven principles of effective
practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(2), 79-92.
Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Jungjohann, K., & Cary, M. S. (2011).
Pursuing instructional coherence: Can strong tier 1 systems better meet the needs of the
range of students in general education settings? In R. Gersten & R.Newman-Gonchar,
(Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 49-64).
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

23

Big Top Twelve


Purpose: Students roll die, observe the number he or she rolled, and then color that same
number of rectangles. The purpose of this intervention is to help students visualize parts of
whole numbers.

Tier 1

Materials:

Die

Crayons or colored pencils

Big Top Twelve game board for each player

Directions:
1. Place the Big Top Twelve Game Board on students desk
2. Provide explicit instructions and concrete examples by saying: Today we are going to
play a game with numbers. You each have a Big Top Twelve game board with three Big
Tops. We will use this die and crayons in our game, too. Numbers will help us color the
Big Top! When we are ready to play, I want each of you to select the Big Top that you
want to play with first. Then, we will take turns and the first player will roll the die. The
number showing on the die is part of twelve. So, if you roll a 4 that will be 4 out of 12.
You will then color that number of rectangles in the Big Top. So if you rolled a 4, you
will color 4 rectangles next to each other (provide a concrete example by demonstrating
this). The next player will roll the die and complete that part of twelve on his or her

24

board. On each new turn, color the next part of twelve with a different color. Remember
how we rolled a four and then colored four rectangles blue? If you roll a 2 on your next
turn, you may color 2 rectangles with any color except blue (provide a concrete example
by demonstrating this). If you roll a number that cannot be colored in the Big Top
because there arent enough rectangles, you lose a turn. The first person to complete the
Big Top is the winner!
3. Monitor as players take turns rolling and coloring parts of twelve.

Progress Monitoring:

Before administering this intervention, use scores from a quantity discrimination early
numeracy math CBM to determine the students baseline score, or in other words to
determine the students current level of number sense.

On a weekly basis, administer a quantity discrimination early numeracy math CBM to


monitor the students progress.

Each score on the quantity discrimination early numeracy math CBM should be graphed.

Use this procedure until the goal set by the instructor is achieved.

25

26

Sources:
Cox, J. (2009). Math intervention: Building number power. NY: Eye on Education.
Fuchs, L., Fuchs, D., Powell, S., Seethaler, P., Cirino, P., & Fletcher, J. (2008). Intensive
intervention for students with mathematics disabilities: Seven principles of effective
practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31(2), 79-92.
Clarke, B., Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Fien, H., Junngjohann, K., & Cary, M. S. (2011).
Pursuing instructional coherence: Can strong tier 1 systems better meet the needs of the
range of students in general education settings? In R. Gersten & R.Newman-Gonchar,
(Eds.), Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven methods and applications (pp. 49-64).
Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.

27

Computation
Computation is an essential skill students need to master in order to progress to more
advanced math concepts and ideas like algebra, geometry, measurement and applications like
time and money (McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005; NCTM, 2000). For students to become proficient
in computation, it is imperative that foundational skills like number sense are mastered because
computation relies on an accurate understanding of numeracy (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh &
McGraw, 2009; McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005). Computation is the ability to understand and work
with numerals. Furthermore, computation is the ability to understand the relationships between
numbers, symbols and the operations that go along with the symbols, as well as the steps and the
correct order of operations necessary to arrive at a solution (Brown-Chidsey, et al., 2009;
McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005; NCTM, 2000). The specific order of operations or steps involved
in answering a problem is referred to as an algorithm; one of the errors students make involves
the use of a defective algorithm, or otherwise an incorrectly applied algorithm. In order to apply
the correct algorithm for computation of math facts and problems, a student needs the ability to
read and understand the language of math to properly select the algorithm and then apply it to the
problem (McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005). Traditionally, computation skills are assessed through
paper and pencil tests and practice worksheets; however the National Council for Teachers of
Mathematics (2000) recommends that instruction include activities facilitating mental
computation and estimation in addition to paper and pencil activities due to the real world
implications of lacking such knowledge.

28

Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L. & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and
recipes for success. New York, NY: Guildford Press.
McLoughlin, J. A., & Lewis, R. B. (2008). Assessing students with special needs. (7th ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school
mathematics. Reston, VA: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.

29

Reciprocal Peer Tutoring


Purpose: To improve mathematics performance and engagement during math instruction with
peer tutoring, group rewards and self-management procedures.

Tier 1

Materials:

Reinforcement Menus with activity rewards one per student pair

Team score cards, consisting of 3 x 5 index cards, one per student pair per week

Happy face stickers or stamps one set of stickers or stamp per student pair

Flashcards with math problems printed on the front and the problems with the
computational steps and answer on the back one problem per card one set of cards
per student pair

Worksheets divided into 4 sections labeled Try 1, Try 2, Help and Try 3

Instructional prompt cards, consisting of 3 x 5 index cards with specific instructions


related to common mistakes in solving math problems one prompt card per student
pair

Quizzes with 10-16 math problems one per student

Answer sheets for quizzes one per student

Red pens one per student

Poster board chart or section of chalkboard to record team wins

30

Directions:
1. Tell the students that they will be learning to work in pairs to help each other do well in
math.
2. Divide the class into pairs. Provide each pair with a Reinforcement Menu listing activity
rewards such as - serving as classroom helper/messenger, working on special projects as
a class, using classroom computers, and working in centers have each pair pick a
reward for the week.
3. Conduct a brief meeting with each pair to help the students select their team goal for the
week (the number of problems they believe they can answer correctly as a team). Teams
select goals from a list of recommended choices, based on the estimates of realistic
academic objectives for that team and the results of the previous weeks math
assessments.
4. After each pair has chosen a goal, have each student record his or her expected individual
contribution to the team (the individual goal), the sum of the individual goals (the team
goal) and their choice of reward on the team score card.
5. For the first 5 minutes of each session, conduct a review or skills drill with the math facts
the students are currently learning.
6. Give a set of flashcards to each pair. Tell the students to choose who will act as the
teacher first.
a. Flashcards may be identical across all the groups or individualized according to
the students needs.
7. The teacher will hold up the flashcard for the student and tells the student to work
on the problem on the worksheet marked Try 1 while the teacher observes.

31

8. If the student solves the question correctly the teacher praises him or her and marks
the worksheet with a happy sticker/stamp in the Try 1 section and presents the next
problem.
a. If the solution is incorrect, the teacher gives the student instructional prompts
read from the prompt card and tells the student to compute the problem again in
the Try 2 section.
b. If the student does not solve the problem correct on the second try, the
teacher computes the problem in the Help section. As he or she marks the
problem, they explain each step and try to answer the students questions.
i. If the teacher has trouble answering the students questions they may
raise their hands and seek assistance from the classroom teacher.
c. Then the teacher tells the student to work the problem again the in the Try 3
section.
9. After 10 minutes, signal for the pairs to switch roles for a second 10 minute tutoring
session.
10. During the session, circulate the room and praise appropriate behavior and identify
strategies the teachers can use with their students.
11. After the 2nd tutoring session give all the students a problem drill sheet and have them
work on their own for a fixed amount of time (like 7-10 minutes).
12. Have the students switch papers with their partners. Go over the problems as a class
while the students check each others papers using red pens.

32

13. Have student pairs determine their teams total score by counting the number of problems
each team member completed correctly and then compare their team score with their
team goal to see if they won (met their goal).
14. Give winning teams a sticker to put on their score card for that day and record daily wins
on the poster board/section of the chalkboard.
15. After 5 wins, schedule a time when the team can engage in the previous selected
rewarding activity.
16. Set a criterion for a weekly class wide reward, such as 80% of the teams meeting their
goals on 4 out of 5 days. If earned, deliver the reward to the entire class on Friday.
Gradually increase the criterion for students to meet as they become more successful.

*This intervention can also be used as a Tier 2 intervention by using it with a targeted group
of students.*

Progress Monitoring:

Calculate percent-correct scores on daily or weekly math quizzes for the entire class for
5-10 days or several weeks. These scores will determine students current math
knowledge and establish a baseline. The instructor may also administer a math
curriculum based measure (CBM) to determine the students current math knowledge and
baseline. The CBMs should be aligned with skills that the students are currently working
on in class. These procedures should be administered at least 3 times.

33

After implementing the reciprocal peer tutoring intervention, administer a weekly math
quiz or math CBM to determine the students progress in math, as well as determining
other areas to create flashcards for.
o Each score on the math CBM or math test should be graph using a line graph.
Use this procedure until the student achieves the goal set by the instructor.

Sources:
Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving
Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: NY. Guilford Press.

34

Reinforcement Menu
15 minutes computer time
Be the classroom helper
Center projects
Play a game
Go outside for class
Free time
Free reading time
Take home the class pet

35

Try 1

Try 2

Help

Try 3

36

Domino Facts
Purpose: Domino Facts is an activity to help teach addition and subtraction computation skills in
a concrete way. Students count the dots on the faces of 2 dominos to create a number sentence
they then add or subtract. Domino Facts is appropriate for students in early elementary grades
learning the operations of addition and subtraction.

Tier 1

Materials:

10-12 Dominos for each student or group of students


o Actual dominos may be substituted with domino flashcards (resource included)

Domino Facts number sentence worksheet

Directions:
1. Before students practice, first model the activity for students by choosing 2 dominos from
the set, pointing to the domino while counting the total number of dots and then write the
number down.
2. Do the same procedure for the second domino, so there are two numbers. Depending on
the operation being practiced, add or subtract the two numbers and write down the
solution.
3. Then, distribute sets of dominoes and Domino Facts worksheets to either the individual
students or pairs of students. If the students are in pairs, explain that each student will
choose a domino from the set each time.

37

4. For addition practice, ask students to write the total number of dots for each of the
dominos in the space provided on their worksheet and then add the two numbers together
and write the solution in the space provided on their worksheet
5. For subtraction practice, ask students to write the total number of dots for each domino in
the corresponding places on the worksheet. Next, ask students to take away or subtract
the smaller number from the larger number and write the solution in the space provided
on their worksheet
6. Modifications can be made for practice with multiplication facts for older elementary
grades by having them multiply the total number of dots from each domino.
7. For Tier 2 instruction, students should be presented with dominos before picture or
flashcards of dominos to provide a concrete example before moving on to a visual
representation of a domino.
Modeling with the concrete example should be paired with explicit instructions regarding how
the instructor is solving the addition problem step-by-step by verbalizing to the student.

*This intervention can be modified for Tier 2 instruction*

Progress Monitoring:

Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) computation probes are administered to


determine students level of proficiency with the computation skills of addition,
subtraction, multiplication and division.

Progress monitoring can vary in frequency depending on the tier of service delivery.

38

o For Domino Facts Tier 1, CBM computation probes can be administered once a
month; for Tier 2 students, probes may be administered weekly.
Addition Resources:
For domino flashcards
http://www.mathwire.com/numbersense/dominoflashcards.pdf
For Domino Facts worksheets
http://www.mathwire.com/templates/dominofacts.pdf

Sources:
Kawas, T. (2011). Using math domino mats. Retrieved from http://www.mathwire.com/
strategies/matsdom.html
National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) Foundations for success: The final report of the
National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Gersten, R. & Newman-Gonchar, R. (2011). Understanding RTI in mathematics: Proven
methods and applications. Baltimore, MD: Brooks

39

Sample Domino Facts Worksheet

__________

__________

= _______

__________

__________

= _______

__________

__________

= _______

__________

__________

= _______

__________

__________

= _______

__________

__________

= _______

40

The Sum What Dice Game


Purpose: The Sum What Dice Game is designed to help teach students and practice mental
computation skills. This intervention is appropriate for students in elementary school.

Tier 1

Materials:

2 players

2 number cubes (dice)

Number strip for each player

9 square tiles per player

2 buttons, coins or some other counter

Directions:
1. Students can be in small groups or pairs
2. Explain that each player takes a turn rolling both dice
3. Next, the students add the number of dots from each dice together
4. Students can then cover the sum or any combination of 2 numbers that are uncovered.
a. Example: You roll a sum of 7. You can cover the 7 with a square tile or any
combination that equals 7. (6+1)(5+2)(4+3)
5. Later in the game, if the sum of 7 is rolled and the 5 is already covered, then the student
cannot use 5+2.
6. When a player is unable to play because the numbers are covered, they are out

41

7. The final score is the sum of the remaining uncovered numbers.


8. The player with the lowest score wins. Play 3 rounds.

Progress Monitoring:

Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) computation probes are administered to


determine students level of proficiency with the computation skill of addition.

Progress monitoring can be conducted once a month or once every two weeks for Tier 1
students.

Sources:
Stenmark, J., Thompson,V., & Cossey, R. (1986) Family Math. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Hall of
Science, the Regents, University of California.
National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008) Foundations for success: The final report of the
National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
National Council of teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school
mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
Wright, J. (n.d.) Number operations: Strategic number counting instruction. Retrieved
from http://www.interventioncentral.org/academic-interventions/math/numberoperations-strategic-number-counting-instruction

42

Sample Number Strip


123456789













43

Fluency
In addition to solving basic math facts accurately, students are expected to solve basic
math facts quickly (McCallum, & Schmitt, 2011; Poncy, Skinner, & Jaspers, 2007). Fluency is a
term used to describe responding accurately and quickly. Solving math facts fluently exerts less
effort on actually computing the math facts, which means the student will be more likely to solve
more complex problems and to attend to the pace of classroom instruction (McCallum, Skinner,
Turner, & Saecker, 2006; Rathvon, 2008; Skinner, Fletcher, & Hennington, 1996). Fluent
students report less frustration and math related anxiety compared to non-fluent students
(Cates, & Rhymer, 2003). The combination of anxiety, frustration and fluency failure may lead
to math avoidance. If a student avoids math, the student will inadvertently engage in less
practice time and less opportunities for reinforcement (Poncy, McCallum, & Schmitt, 2010). Not
mastering fluency in the elementary years increases the risk for future math failure in and outside
of the classroom (e.g., balancing a checkbook); therefore, its critical to foster math fluency in
young students. Research has suggested that the following factors enhance math fact fluency:
several opportunities for accurate responding, reinforcement for accurate responding, and
immediate feedback for accurate and inaccurate responding (McCallum, & Schmitt, 2011).
Immediate feedback for inaccuracy provides a child with the opportunity to see their error, which
may reduce the chance of repeating the same error. Alternatively, immediate feedback for
accuracy reinforces the childs performance, may enhance the chance of repeating the same
performance.

44

Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines for
recipes for success. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Cates, G. L., & Rhymer, K. N. (2003). Examining the relationship between mathematics anxiety
and mathematics performance: A learning hierarchy perspective. Journal of Behavioral
Education, 12, 23-34.
McCallum, E., & Schmitt, A. (2011). The taped problems intervention: Increasing the math fact
fluency of a student with an intellectual disability. International Journal of Special
Education 26(3), 276-284.
McCallum, E., Skinner, C., Turner, H., & Saecker, L. (2006). The taped-problems intervention:
increasing multiplication fact fluency using a low-tech, classwide, time-delay
intervention. School Psychology Review, 35(3), 419-434.
Poncy, B., McCallum, E., & Schmitt, A. (2010). A comparison of behavioral and constructionist
interventions for increasing math fact fluency in a second-grade classroom. Psychology
in the Schools, 47(9), 917-930.
Poncy, B., Skinner, C., & Jaspers, K. (2007) Evaluating and comparing interventions designed to
enhance math fact accuracy and fluency: Cover, copy and compare verses taped
problems. Journal of Behavioral Education 16, 27-37.
Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving
Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: NY. Guilford Press.
Skinner C. H, Fletcher P, Henington C. (1996) Increasing learning trial rates by increasing
student response rates. School Psychology Quarterly, 11, 313325.

45

Boost Fluency Through Explicit Time Drills


Purpose: Explicit time drills are used to boost students rate of response on math-fact
worksheets.

Tier 1

Materials:

Math worksheets (one per student) that contains simple math facts that do not require
many computation steps
o Worksheets can be created from this website:
http://www.interventioncentral.org/teacher-resources/math-work-sheet-generator

Stopwatch

Directions:
1. The teacher hands out the worksheets and tells the students that they will have three
minutes to work on the problems that are on the sheet.
2. The teacher then starts the stopwatch, and tells the students to begin working.
3. After the first minute, the teacher should stop the stopwatch and tell the students to
underline the last number that they have written and to raise their pencils up in the air.
4. Then, the teacher resumes the stopwatch and tells the students to continue working.
5. This same process is repeated after the two-minute mark, and three-minute mark.
6. After three minutes, the teacher should collect the worksheets from the students.
Tips:

46

1. This intervention works best with simple math facts that do not require many
computation steps; it is less effective when used on complex math facts.
2. A less intrusive version of this intervention could be to use time-prompts while
students are working individually on math facts in order to speed up their rate of
response. For example, during seatwork, the teacher can call the time after every
minute and ask the students to underline the last number that they were working
on.

Progress Monitoring:

Baseline measures can be established by using a curriculum based measure of math


fluency before the intervention is given.

Progress monitoring can also be carried out using a curriculum-based measurement of


math fluency after the intervention is implemented.

Sources:
Rhymer, K. N., Skinner, C. H., Jackson, S., McNeill, S., Smith, T., & Jackson, B. (2002).
The 1-minute explicit timing intervention: The influence of mathematics problem
difficulty. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 29(4), 305-311.
Skinner, C. H., Pappas, D. N., & Davis, K. A. (2005). Enhancing academic engagement:
Providing opportunities for responding and influencing students to choose to respond.
Psychology in the Schools, 42, 389-403.
Woodward, J. (2006). Developing automaticity in multiplication facts integrating strategy
instruction with timed practice drills. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29, 269-289.

47

Flashcards
Purpose: To build student fluency with computation facts

Tier 3

Materials:

Blank 3 x 5 flashcards

Sets of math computation problems

Marker

Directions:
1. Sit facing the student and hold up the problem side of each card.
2. Say to the student: We are going to work on some math facts. You will say the answer to
the problems on these cards.
3. Hold up the first card and say: What is the answer to this problem?
4. If the student says the correct answer, say: Good. Go on to the next card
a. If the student doe not respond in 5 seconds, tell the student the answer and go to
the next card.
5. As the student gives answers place the cards in separate piles according to correct and
incorrect answers.
6. Sit facing the student and hold up the problem side of each card that the student
previously answered incorrectly. Say to the student: Now we are going to practice only
the ones that were incorrect.

48

7. Hold up the first card and say: What is the answer to this problem?
8. If the student says the correct answer, say: Good. Go on to the next card.
a. If the student doesnt respond in 5 seconds, tell the student the answer and go to
the next card.
9. As the student gives the answer place the cards in separate piles according to correct and
incorrect answers.
10. Repeat the drill 5 times in a row for all the cards the student missed on the first 5 drills
the second time
11. Use this drill daily until the student answers all cards correctly during 5 consecutive
drills.

Progress Monitoring:

Before administering this intervention the instructor should administer a math curriculum
based measure (CBM) or math test to determine the students current math knowledge.
This will also help determine what areas of math the student is struggling in.
o This procedure will establish a baseline and should include results from at least 3
different times.

After implementing the flashcards intervention, administer a weekly math CBM or math
test to determine the students progress in math, as well as determining other areas to
create flashcards for.
o Each score on the math CBM or math test should be graphed on a line graph. Use
this procedure until the student achieves the goal set by the instructor.

49

Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L., & McGraw, K. (2009). RTI in the classroom: Guidelines and
recipes for success. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

50

Taped Problems
Purpose: Students listen to fact problems and answers presented from a recording. Students are
given a printed copy of the problems without the answers, and are instructed to try to "beat the
tape" by writing the correct answer to each problem before it is heard on the tape. The purpose of
this intervention is to achieve fluency (speed and accuracy) of basic math facts (addition,
subtraction, multiplication or division).

Tier 1

Materials Needed:
Practice sheets containing 12 problems repeated three times with blank lines for answers
(can be modified according to age/ability)
Tape corresponding to the problems on the practice sheet
Tape recorder
Headphones (if used individually)

Directions:
1. Decide the operation (addition, subtraction, multiplication or division) you want to target.
2. Prepare a recording of 12 math facts repeated 3 times. Allow a time delay of 3 seconds
between the problem and the answer.
3. Create a practice sheets with problems in the same order as the recording but with blank
lines for the students to write in the answers.
4. Place practice sheet facedown on students desk.

51

5. Say to student(s), Today we are going to play a game with math facts! You will hear
multiplication (insert addition, subtraction, or division when applicable) math facts (like 2
x 2 = 4) from this recorder. There will be a 3 second pause between the problem and the
answer. After you hear the math problem, try to beat the tape by writing the correct
answer before the tape says it. You will have three opportunities to answer each
problem, so try to beat the tape as many times as you can. Does anyone have any
questions? (Attend to questions, if applicable).
6. Lets begin. Start tape.
7. Encourage students to write answers on their practice sheets during all 3 repetitions.

*This intervention can be used as a Tier 2 or Tier 3 intervention by using it with a targeted
group of students or with individual students.*

Progress Monitoring:

Before administering this intervention, use results from a curriculum based measure
(CBM) probe or math test to determine the students baseline score, or in other words to
determine the students current level of fluency.

Administer timed CBM probes, which include the problems on the tape, to monitor
students progress (weekly for Tier 1, more frequently for Tiers 2 and 3).

Each score on the math CBM should also be graphed (let the student monitor his/her own
progress).

Use this procedure until fluency is achieved as indicated by the goal set by the instructor.

52

Practice Sheets

2 X 3 = ________

2 X 3 = ________

2 X 3 = ________

2 X 5 = ________

2 X 5 = ________

2 X 5 = ________

2 X 8 = ________ 2 X 8 = ________ 2 X 8 = ________

5 X 3 = ________

5 X 3 = ________

53

5 X 3 = ________

3 X 8 = ________

3 X 8 = ________

3 X 8 = ________

4 X 4 = ________

4 X 4 = ________

4 X 4 = ________

4 X 9 = ________ 4 X 9 = ________ 4 X 9 = ________

6 X 5 = ________

6 X 5 = ________

54

6 X 5 = ________

6 X 7 = ________

6 X 7 = ________

6 X 7 = ________

9 X 6 = ________

9 X 6 = ________

9 X 6 = ________

7 X 7 = ________ 7 X 7 = ________ 7 X 7 = ________

9 X 8 = ________

9 X 8 = ________

55

9 X 8 = ________

Sources:
Freeman, T. & McLaughlin, T. (1984). Effects of a taped-words treatment procedure on learning
disabled students sight-word reading. Learning Disability Quarterly, 7, 49-54.
Poncy, B.C., Skinner, C.H., & Jaspers, K.E. (2007) Evaluating and comparing interventions
designed to enhance math fact accuracy and fluency: Cover, copy and compare verses
taped Problems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 16, 27-37.
McCallum, E., & Schmitt, A. (2011). The taped problems intervention: Increasing the math fact
fluency of a student with an intellectual disability. International Journal of Special
Education, 26(3), 276-284.
McCallum, E., Skinner, C., Turner, H., & Saecker, L. (2006). The taped-problems intervention:
Increasing multiplication fact fluency using a low-tech, classwide, time-delay
intervention. School Psychology Review, 35(3), 419-434.
Mong, M., & Mong, K. (2011). The utility of brief experimental analysis and extended
intervention analysis in selecting effective mathematics interventions. Journal of
Behavioral Education, 21, 99-118.

56

Problem Solving
Successful problem solving approaches to word problems and applications of time,
money and measurement depend upon the successful learning and maintenance of previously
developed math skills in combination with other academic abilities (Brown-Chidsey, Bronaugh
& McGraw, 2009; McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005; NCTM, 2000). Although particular attention
has been given to computation, reading abilities like decoding and comprehension are also
important for solving mathematical problems (Taplin, 2006). While the National Council of
Teachers of Mathematics (2000) recommends that problem-solving skills be addressed
throughout a curriculum in order to develop mathematical thinking, it is important that teachers
and practitioners be aware of the different ability levels of students and how that may affect their
learning. Problem solving instruction through the use of word problems occurs when a students
or class is presented with numerical or quantitative information in verbal language instead of
numerical symbols (McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005). Consequently, a student needs good language
skills in both oral and written language in addition to mathematical language knowledge to learn
and understand how to solve problems (McLoughlin & Lewis, 2005). Currently, one of the more
important debates concerning problem solving includes the applications and implications of
having poor problem solving skills in the real world and how to better prepare and teach students
to use problem-solving strategies. (NCTM, 2000; Taplin, 2006).

57

Sources:
Brown-Chidsey, R., Bronaugh, L. & McGraw, K. (2009). Mathematics interventions. In RTI in
the classroom: Guidelines and recipes for success. New York, NY: Guildford Press.
McLoughlin, J. A., & Lewis, R. B. (2008). Assessing students with special needs. (7th ed.). Upper
Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
National Council of teachers of Mathematics. (2000). Principles and standards for school
mathematics. Reston, VA: Author.
Taplin, M. (2006). Mathematics through problem solving. Institute of Sathya Sai Education,
Hong Kong. Retrieved from http://www.mathgoodies.com/articles/problem_solving.html.

58

Help Students Avoid Errors with the Individualized Self-Correction Checklist

Purpose: To help students improve their accuracy on types of word problems and number
problems by using an individualized self-correction checklist that reminds each student to pay
attention to his or her specific pattern of errors.

Tier 3

Materials:

Students recent work (to analyze for error patterns)

Directions:
1. To create the checklist, the teacher meets with the student, and together they identify
common patterns of error that the student is making on a particular type of problem (for
example, when problems require carrying, I do not always carry the number over from
the previous column).
2. For each type of error, the student and teacher describe the right step to take to keep the
error from happening (for example, when adding numbers, make sure to carry the number
from the previous column).
3. These items are complied to create a checklist, and the student is encouraged to use this
checklist when working on math problems individually.
4. As older students become better at generating these checklists, they can analyze their
patterns of error on their own, and create checklists independently.

59

Progress Monitoring:

Baseline can be established using a curriculum-based measurement (CBM) that assesses


the target skill; for example, if the student is working on addition during this intervention,
then the CBM would contain addition problems.

Progress monitoring can be carried out using the same type of CBM that was used to
establish a baseline.

Source:
Zrebiec Uberti, H., Mastropieri, M. A., & Scruggs, T. E. (2004). Check it off:
Individualizing a math algorithm for students with disabilities via self-monitoring
checklists. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39, 269-275.

60

Fast Draw
Purpose: The purpose is to boost students ability to solve word problems by teaching them a
self-regulation strategy.

Tier 1

Materials:

Math folders (one per student) with sheets of paper inside

Manipulatives

Prompt cards (index cards that list the strategy steps and FAST DRAW mnemonic; one
per student)

Self-monitoring strategy check off sheet (one per student)

Math worksheet with word problems (one per student)

Colored pens and highlighters (one of each per student)

Optional: overhead projector and transparencies of the word problems, mnemonic, and
strategy steps

Directions:
Stage One: Introduction and Initial Group Conferencing
1. Tell students that they will be learning FAST DRAW, which is a strategy that will help
them solve math word problems. Also, let the students know that they will be working in
pairs.

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2. Discuss with the students why learning math word problems is important for each
students future as a consumer, worker, and citizen. Write down each reason on the
board.
3. Give students their results from the baseline math tests (detailed under baseline) or a list
of their grades on math quizzes and tests obtained in the past few weeks. Use the
overhead projector or chalkboard to show how to create a bar graph of the percent scores.
Help the students use the scores they received to create bar graphs of their scores.
Explain that this will help them to monitor their own progress.

Stage Two: Pre-Skill Development


1. Use simple computation problems or manipulatives to demonstrate these relationships in
addition and subtraction equations:
a. Which action (addition or subtraction) is implied by the word problem; for
example, when adding, items are put together, and when subtracting, items are
removed or separated.
b. Addition and subtraction in relation to the size of an answer; so for addition, the
number will get larger, and for subtraction the number will get smaller.
2. Hold a class-wide practice with each concept being taught until students reach an 80%
mastery rate for each concept.

Stage Three: Discussion of the FAST DRAW Strategy and Self-Regulation


Procedures

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1. Give each student one prompt card that has the eight strategy steps and the FAST
DRAW mnemonic. These are:
F: Find and highlight the question, and write the label (for example
addition-change)
A: Ask what the parts of the problem are and circle the numbers necessary
for solving it
S: Set the problem up by writing and labeling the numbers.
T: Tie down the sign; do this by re-reading the problem (so decide
whether to use addition or subtraction)
D: Discover the sign by re-checking the operation
R: Read the number problem
A: Answer the number problem
W: Write the answer and check is to see if it makes sense
2. Discuss why and how each step is used in solving word problems, and demonstrate each
with examples on the board or overhead.
3. Talk about the importance behind using self-statements like:
a. (A) To find the question look for the sentence ending with a question mark
4. Show the students how self-statements like these can be used to create self-monitoring
check lists to use while solving word problems. Guide students to create their own selfstatements, and have them record these on check-off sheets in their math folder.

Stage Four: Modeling


1. Model the use of the strategy using the six following self-instructions:

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a. Problem Definition: What do I have to do?


b. Planning: How can I solve this problem?
c. Strategy Use: FAST DRAW will help me remember all the things that I need to
do to successfully solve this problem.
d. Self-Monitoring: I can check off the steps of the strategy as I do them so that I
can keep track of what I have done.
e. Self-Evaluation: How am I doing? Does what I am doing make sense?
f. Self-Reinforcement: Good, Im halfway through this strategy! or Oops I made
a mistake, but its okay because I fixed it!
g. Have the students write down sample statements for each of the six categories on
their self-monitoring, strategy check lists. Stress that once learned, these selfstatements do not need to be said aloud, they can be whispered or said to oneself.
Stage Five: Mastery of the Strategy Steps
1. Divide the class into pairs and ask the students to work together to practice the strategy
until they have memorized all eight steps, including the mnemonic for FAST DRAW,
and a few positive self-statements about solving word problems.
Stage Six: Collaborative Practice with Self-Instruction
1. Hand out a worksheet with seven to ten problems of the first problem type that is being
taught (for example, addition change problems).
2. As students are working in pairs, move around the room and provide assistance.
Encourage students to verbalize their self-statements softly to each other and then silently
to themselves.

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3. Once all of the pairs have finished the worksheet, have the students exchange their papers
and go over the answers as a class. Have the students graph the number that they got
correct on their bar graph in their math folder.
4. Continue these collaborative practice sessions until students get five out of six problems
correct for that problem type.
Stage Seven: Independent Performance
1. During math instruction, remind the students to use the strategy and self-instructions, but
do not provide help. If the students are having too much trouble, return to the
collaboration practice stage until they demonstrate mastery once again.
2. Return to the collaboration practice stage for the next problem type (for example,
subtraction-change problem). Continue these stages for each of the problem types
sequentially.

*This intervention may be implemented at a Tier 2 level for a targeted group of children.*

Progress Monitoring:

Option One: Before the intervention, administer the class a 20-problem math test
consisting of 10 problems involving addition and subtraction facts, problems with
regrouping, and 10 one-step word problems involving the application of knowledge about
basic facts and regrouping involving addition and subtraction.
o For example: the fourth grade class has six goldfish. The fourth grade classroom
has nine goldfish. How many goldfish does the fifth grade need to give away to
have as many as the fourth grade?

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Calculate a percent-correct score for each student by dividing the number of problems
completed correctly by the total number of problems. If desired, compute a class average
percent-accuracy score by adding the scores of individual students and dividing by the
number of students in the class.

After implementing the intervention compare an individual student or class average


percent-correct scores on word problem tests before and after intervention
implementation.

Option Two: Before the intervention, calculate the grades on math quizzes and tests for a
group of target students or all of the students in the class for the past several weeks or the
current marking period.

After implementing the intervention, compare the grades on math quizzes and tests for
the target group or entire class before and after intervention implementation.

The table below describes the various types of word problems (Rathvon, 2008, p. 246):

Sources:
Rathvon, N. (2008). Effective School Interventions: Evidence-Based Strategies for Improving
Student Outcomes (2nd ed.). New York: NY. Guilford Press.
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Resources
Websites:
Education.com: http://www.education.com

Education.com is a site created for teachers and parents who want to engage their
students or children actively in learning and reach their full potential. This site includes free
activities and worksheets, that parents or teachers can choose by grade, subject or specific
subject area. For example a kindergarten teacher working on patterns could find many free
worksheets available. Similarly workbooks are available for purchase; these can be purchased
separately or by becoming an exclusive member of Education.com, one receives unlimited
access to all the workbooks. For the parent or teacher looking to learn more about education or
the role of parenting in education, the site provides different articles about different areas of
education and parenting. These too can be filtered by grade, subject or developmental area.
Additionally applications for Apple and Android products can be found to utilize on different
technology. Again, these apps can be filtered by grade, subject and price. Finally this site
includes a search, where different schools can be looked up for reviews, rankings, numbers of
students and teachers and location of the district. This site is effective for both teachers and
parents looking to engage students in fun activities and promote learning. While this site is not

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just specifically for math, it includes many different fun and useful tools for teachers or parents
to use.
Multiplication.com: http://www.multiplication.com

Multiplication.com is a math website targeted towards children with fun animations and
games. Games are sorted by the amount of players, math types and type of game. In addition to
fun games for students, this site has a multiplication fact checker, so that students may learn and
remember multiplication facts with pictures, puzzles, games and a quiz. While this site seems
immediately targeted towards students, it also includes math quizzes and checklists for teachers
for free and other useful math resources, such as books, flashcards, quizzes and worksheets,
available for purchase. In addition Multiplication.com includes lesson ideas and tips, different
math activities to use in the classroom and interactive games also for classroom use. The site
also includes a step-by-step program for parents that want to help their children with their
multiplication. This site would be useful for teachers to teach multiplication with engaging
games for students and for resources on how to explicitly instruct during lessons for
multiplication. Additionally, the quizzes and checklists allow teachers to check student progress.
Parents who feel that their children may be struggling with multiplication can direct their

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children to this site, as the bright and interactive games will engage them in a world of
multiplication.
Ascend Math: http://www.ascendmath.com

Ascend Math is an online math intervention available for purchase for educators and
schools to use. This program includes math tutorials, personalized learning plans and continuous
assessment to improve math achievement. Ascend Math is aligned with standards from
Common Core, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, all 50 states and British
Columbia. While the website advertises the Ascend Math intervention, it also includes a
working demo for teachers, parents or students to use. This demo also includes weekly webinars
for teachers to learn how to Ascend Math for Tiers 2 and 3. The demo includes explicit
instruction on patterns, addition, multiplying two digit factors, decimals, multiplying and
dividing applications of fractions, percents and algebra. The Ascend Math website includes
testimonials and sample study plans. This site while promoting a mathematic intervention for
purchase provides an extensive research base and free demonstration of different applications
available.

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The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics: http://www.nctm.org


The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics is the public voice of education. This
site is dedicated to supporting teachers to ensure equal and quality math instruction for all
students through vision, leadership, professional development and research. The National
Council of Teachers of Mathematics includes information on math in the different levels of
education and information for families to help success in math. Included for teachers are math
tools, lesson plans for the different educational levels, new research on mathematics, job
information and openings, teaching tips and grants and awards. For families and parents are
different resources to help children succeed in math, help with homework, how to become more
involved in a childs math learning and information about current mathematics instruction. This
research-based site is great for educators and families to learn more about math and how to
improve math success.

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The Kentucky Center for Mathematics: http://www.kentuckymathematics.org

The Kentucky Center for Mathematics is dedicated to furthering the development of math
proficiency, future sucesss and the enjoyment of teaching and learning math to diverse student
and teacher populations. The Center goals are to create a shared vision of high-quality math
instruction by enhancing the beliefs about math, enhance math teachers knowledge and ability
to differentiate instruction to meet the needs of all students and to enhance awareness and
knowledge of teachers about effective math resources. The website includes information to
increase adults education about math instruction and content to increase teachers professional
development. Additionally, information about implementing interventions is provided on the
site including information about specific interventions and supplementary resources. This site is
great for teachers looking to learn more about math and different interventions to use in the
classroom as well as useful for parents. In addition to information for teachers, the Kentucky
Center for Mathematics also includes general resources for families and students such as games
for children and tips for homework help. Overall this site is a great resource for families,
students and teachers in particular with the amount of information provided about math
instruction, interventions and overall math success.

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Education Northwest: http://educationnorthwest.org/

Based on empirical solutions and a commitment to learning success, Educational


Northwest website is a great resource for teachers. This website provides educators with up-todate information about trainings, professional development, technical assistance, and curriculum
development. Additionally, this is a great resource for accessing the Common Core State
Standards for Mathematics.
Everyday Mathematics: http://everydaymath.uchicago.edu/

Everyday Mathematics, developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics


Project, is an empirical and effective comprehensive math program (pre-kindergarten through 6th

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grade). The website is a useful resource for teachers and parents. Parents are able to access
grade appropriate goals and activities for their children, while teachers are able to access grade
appropriate goals, lessons, and games for their students.
AplusMath: http://www.aplusmath.com/

AplusMath helps students to develop math skills interactively. Children can engage in
various games and participate in interactive features like flashcards. When visiting this site,
students can also use features like the homework helper, which assists them in completing
various types of math assignments. This website is also now available as an application for
Androids, iPhones, and iPods.
Catch up Math: http://catchupmath.com/

Catch up Math is an interactive website for parents, teachers, and students. The
comprehensive, teacher used program is available for purchase, but this site offers a free trial.
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Also, many of the games for students are linked to a site called: hotmath.com, and are free to use.
The information on this site is aligned with the standards, and also research-based. Teachers can
sign up for an account and use this website for individualized instruction; teachers can create
assignments, and monitor the work that their students are doing. This program is targeted toward
grades 6-7 math; specifically, algebra readiness, pre-algebra, algebra 1 and 2, geometry, and
graduation exam prep. On this site, students can take online quizzes that diagnose learning gaps,
and various topics are explained by video tutorials, written lessons, animations, games and
guided practice problems.
Count Me in Too: http://www.curriculumsupport.education.nsw.gov.au/countmein/

This site was developed to support math instruction for children in kindergarten through
sixth grade. It is research based and has three major components: a research based theory of
number development, an individualized schedule for early number assessment that can be used
by teachers to place each child at a point of skill development, and a professional development
program that is designed to help teachers better understand how children learn arithmetic. This
site was created through Australias National Education System.

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Kindle Applications (Apps)

Math Blaster Hyperblast


Math Blaster Hyperblast is a free app where kids get to drive a
motorcycle through space, solving addition facts along the way. The
app has high quality graphics and is also multi sensory because kids
have to move the Kindle side to side to steer the motorcycle! Other in
app purchases includes subtraction, multiplication, division and fractions. Math Blaster
Hyperblast also has computer software components available for purchase.

KIDMATH game
This app is very flexible and easily adapted to practice a variety of
important math computation skills for elementary school kids. You can
select the number of questions and what kinds of numbers to use
(positive or positive and negative) along with the type of math skill you would like to practice.

Mathemagica Free- Kids Math


This app is designed for children in first through sixth grades,
allowing users to even differentiate by semester of schooling in the
grade level. Also, this app allows up to 3 users. There are two different options for play, the
marathon setting or practice setting.

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iPad Applications (Apps)

Sushi Monster
Great educational benefits as reviewed by education.com!
This app allows kids to practice addition or multiplication skills. The monster
requests a number and students touch numbered plates of sushi to equal the
monsters requested number. Kids are rewarded for correct answers.

Motion Math Zoom


Great educational benefits as reviewed by education.com!
Using interactive graphics, this app helps kids understand numbers, their relative
size, and their placement on the number line.

Rocket Math
Wow! Highly educational as reviewed by education.com!
This app provides kids with individual practice of addition, subtraction,
division or multiplication skills. Kids do math to earn money to buy
accessories for their rocket, and then launch into space to solve math themed missions!
Motion Math: Wings
Wow! Highly educational as reviewed by education.com!
This app helps kids with understanding multiplication concepts. Kids tilt the
iPad to guide the flying bird to the bigger number.

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Additional Resources
Progress Monitoring
National Center on Student Progress Monitoring
http://www.studentprogress.org
RTI Action Network
http://www.rtinetwork.org
Curriculum Based Measures
AIMSweb
http://www.aimsweb.com
Intervention Central
http://www.interventioncentral.org
Additional Information
Institute of Education Sciences
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/
Math Curriculums
Accelerated Math
http://www.renlearn.com/training/app/product.aspx?p=am
FASTT Math
http://fasttmath.cpsd.us:55880/slms-static/s_app_fm/fm_login.html
Number Worlds
http://www.sranumberworlds.com

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About the Authors


Jaime Haas received a Bachelors degree from the University at Albany in 2011,
and is currently finishing her first year in the School Psychology, CAS program at
that same institution. She is involved in research concerning collaborative
instructional consultation teams, and the fidelity of test administration in schools.
Jaimes educational interests involve developing skills in the area of early
intervention and prevention, as well as developing more extensive skills in research.

Heather Creary received her Bachelors degree from St. Bonaventure


University and is finishing up her first year at the University at Albany, School
Psychology CAS program. After completing the program, Heather plans to
move to the Finger Lakes or Rochester area to become a school psychologist
and then eventually go back to school for Administration to become a principal.
Heather is currently involved in research about involving technology in
education and in the past has researched the effects of food on a persons mood and how the
proximity and visibility of food affect intake. Heathers educational interests include
implementing RTI in secondary education, specifically in the high school level.

Victoria Sheppard holds a Bachelors degree from Millsaps College, a Masters


degree from Columbia University, and is currently a first year doctoral student at
the University at Albany. Victoria has supervised experience working with
children and adolescents at St. Dominics Behavioral Health in Jackson, MS and
at New York State Psychiatric Institute in New York City. As a research
assistant at Columbia, Victoria examined social stress and suicidality in a LGB
youth population. Victoria is currently interested in bully prevention and system-wide
approaches that are designed to promote positive mental health in school.
Brianna Murray is currently in her first year of the School Psychology CAS
program at the University at Albany. While earning her Bachelors degree in
Psychology at Ithaca College, Brianna was a research assistant for the Center for
Research on the Effects of Television. Specific interests in School Psychology
include implementing RTI in primary and secondary education and the
achievement of culturally diverse populations and implications for school
success. Future career goals include a earning a Doctoral degree and helping
shape the future of the countrys education system.
For any questions or comments, the authors may be contacted at:
Jaime Haas Jaimemhaas@gmail.com
Heather Creary Hcreary@albany.edu
Victoria Sheppard Sheppardv@gmail.com
Brianna Murray Bmurray@albany.edu

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