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Behavior Resources:

Motivation, Attention, Anxiety, and Depression

Presented by Stacy Williams, Danielle Jordan, Danielle Kraus,


Sharol Whyte, Michelle Powers, Monica Azzaro, and Katie Viola

Presentation Overview
Motivation: Mystery Motivator
Attention: Self-Monitoring
Attention: Positive Peer Reporting
Anxiety: Graduated Exposure Therapy
Anxiety/Depression: Cognitive Restructuring
Anxiety: Coping Cards

Mystery Motivator

Presented by Danielle Jordan

Mystery Motivator
Motivating students to do certain tasks
may be difficult. Students just might
not want to do the assignments. The
mystery component in this
intervention is based on offering an
unknown reinforcer. The mystery will
engage students in the academic task,
even when the task is difficult.

Mystery Motivator
For students who can, but dont want to do the task.
Class or individual level.
Mystery Motivators can be used in a variety of content
areas including reading, math, social studies, science,
writing, homework completion, and based on a variety
of outcomes including test averages and classroom
participation.
Materials include: List of Reinforcers, Reinforcers,
Mystery Motivator Chart, Envelopes, Note Cards

Mystery Motivator
Implementation Steps
1. Develop reward menu with the
student or class.
2. Select a behavior that you wish to
reduce or increase and write out
the concrete definition for it.
3. Decide on a time period during the
day for which the program will be
implemented. For example choose
math class if a student is lacking
motivation to complete homework
or class assignments.

Mystery Motivator
Implementation Steps
4. Define goal (Example:
100% homework
completion, 80% accuracy
on test grades in math).
5. Construct Motivation
Chart for the student with
all the days of the week.

Mystery Motivator
Implementation Steps
6. If criterion is met, have the child remove the envelope
on that particular day. If the Mystery * is located on
that day, have them open the envelope to reveal the
mystery motivator. Reinforcement should be
implemented as soon as possible.
7. If there is not an *, encourage students that
tomorrow will present another chance to earn the
Mystery Motivator.
8. Define the criteria for earning a bonus Motivator. For
example, if the student removes four out of five
envelopes they can redeem them for a prize from the
reward menu.

Mystery Motivator
Comments/Tips
Place reinforcement randomly, put a lot of * on the calendar
during the teaching phase of the intervention.
Define goal so students know what they are expected to achieve.
Reinforcement should be implemented as soon as possible.
It is important to know that the students are performing at grade
level and are capable of the assigned tasks. If not, a more
appropriate acquisition-level intervention should be selected in
order to teach the academic skill first.
Students need to find the reinforcements appealing. Students in
lower grades or with lower cognitive functioning may need more
consistent reinforcement in order to understand the link between
the task and the Mystery Motivator. Tangible motivators may also
be more appropriate for younger ages or lower functioning
students.

Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart!

Coping Cards

Cognitive
Restructuring

Graduated
Exposure
Therapy

Mystery
Motivator

Self-Monitoring

Positive Peer
Reporting

Self-Monitoring

Presented by Danielle Kraus

Self-monitoring
Why?
Evidence-based intervention.

Easy to implement.
Time efficient.
Can be modified to meet criteria of Tier 1, 2, or 3 instruction.
Allows student to be an active participant.

Steps:

Operationally define target behavior(s).

Select/design the self-monitoring worksheet.

Plan where and when the intervention will be implemented.

Choose rewards.

Conduct accuracy checks.

Create a plan to condense or fade the intervention.

Self-monitoring
Operationally define

Data Collection

target behavior(s)

Plan should be written in a positive


tone.

Rating scale.

Focus can be to increase or


decrease certain behaviors.

Checklist.

Be clear and specific.

Frequency Count.

Self-monitoring
Where and When?

Rewards

Specific class period.

Talk with student.

Split A.M. and P.M.

Ask parents.

During class assignments.

Survey.

Self-monitoring
Accuracy Checks

Condense/fade plan

More frequently in the beginning.

Multiple target behaviors single


question.

Perform random spot checks.

Decrease recording times.

Daily monitoring 3x per week


weekly.

Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart!

Coping Cards

Cognitive
Restructuring

Graduated
Exposure
Therapy

Mystery
Motivator

Self-Monitoring

Positive Peer
Reporting

Positive Peer Reporting

Presented by Sharol Whyte

Positive Peer Reporting


Purpose:
To enhance prosocial behavior and positive
peer relationships and reduce inappropriate
social behaviors by systematically encouraging
and reinforcing peer compliments

Positive Peer Reporting


Materials

Points

Chart

Compliments
Chart

Poster board chart that displays:


the number of points needed to earn
the group reward
the number of points earned per day

Poster board chart that displays:


the steps in providing compliments
examples of compliments

COMPLIMENTS CHART
Four Steps in Giving Compliments
1. Look at the Person
2. Smile
3. Report something positive the
person did or said during the day
4. Then make a positive comment,
such as, Good job! or Way to go!
Examples of Compliments
I really like the way that you...
Thank you for..
Great work today when you..
You look nice this morning! I
like
You did a very good job of...
It was great that you...
I can tell that you are trying really hard to..

Positive Peer Reporting


(Collecting Baseline/Observation)

Record the number of negative and positive


social interactions displayed by the entire class or
a group of target students during recess, a major
transition (such as packing up at the end of the
day), or an instructional period that includes class
wide discussions or cooperative learning
activities.
Conduct these observations during the targeted
period for 4 to 7 days. If desired, use these data
to help set a criterion for the number of points
(compliments) needed to earn the reward.

Positive Peer Reporting


Introduction & Training
Tell the students that they are going to have an opportunity
to help create a friendlier classroom atmosphere and earn
group rewards by participating in a new activity.

Each day three or four students (or an appropriate


number, based on class size) will have a chance to be the
class stars, and everyone will have a chance to praise the
stars friendly and helpful behavior that has contributed to
making the classroom a good place to learn and have fun.

Using the compliments chart, conduct a 20-minute


training session in which you teach students how to give
compliments.

Positive Peer Reporting


Introduction & Training
Tell students that during star time
(e.g. at the end of the morning
instructional period, during
afternoon homeroom period, during
circle/advisory time), you will review
the list of stars for the day and invite
other students to raise their hands to
offer compliments about each of
those students.

Explain that if you call on a student


and he or she is able to offer a
sincere, appropriate compliment
about one of the class starts, the
class will earn a point toward a
group reward. Set a criterion for the
number of points required to earn
the reward, using data obtained
during the observation period.

Positive Peer Reporting


Implementation

Select 2 or 3
students at
random, as well as
1 or 2 of the target
students

Announce the lists


of names and write
their names on the
board

After all the stars have


received compliments,
tally the number of
appropriate compliments
and add that number of
points to the point chart

Once the criterion


has been met,
deliver the reward

At the end of the


intervention period, ask
students to raise their
hands if they have an
appropriate compliment
for the students on the
list

Positive Peer Reporting


Progress monitoring

Compare the number of positive and


negative social interactions for the entire
class or the group of target students
during recess, the selected transition, or
the selected instructional period before
and after implementation

Notes
Do not place the same names on the list every day because this
may embarrass them and lead to great ostracism by the rest of the
class.
If a student offers a sarcastic remark rather than a compliment, tell
that individual that you will not award points for any comments
that may be embarrassing or hurtful to a fellow student.
During field testing, teachers observed that some students
occasionally reacted negatively (by pouting, arguing, etc) when
their names were not on the daily list of stars, especially during the
initial stages of implementation. To address this problem, remind
students prior to the announcement of the star list that everyone
will have a chance to be a star for the day and model appropriate
responses during the star list posting.

Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart!

Coping Cards

Cognitive
Restructuring

Graduated
Exposure
Therapy

Mystery
Motivator

Self-Monitoring

Positive Peer
Reporting

Graduated Exposure Therapy

Presented by Michelle Powers

Graduated Exposure Therapy


Target Problem

Location

Anxiety or Phobias/Fears

School psychologists office;


Individual sessions

Intervention
Overview
Materials

Frequency

Plain white paper, writing utensil, fear


thermometer, fear ladder form / hopping
down the worry path, facing fears
progress monitoring form, child chosen
rewards

2x weekly until fear is


phased out; 20-minute
sessions

Graduated Exposure Therapy:


Steps to Implementation

Session 1

Understanding
Help the child to understand the
importance of facing fears
Develop rapport

Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps


to Implementation
Session 2

Make a List
With the child, make a list of things or places that they fear. Be sure to
group similar fears together if there are many fears. Work with the child to
come up with the list.
Arrange the list from Least (1-No Fear) to Most scary (10-Extreme Fear).
Use the Fear Thermometer to help the child rate their fears.

My List of Fears
School
People
Getting on the bus
Flying
Failing a test
People laughing at me
Getting hurt

Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps


to Implementation

Session 3

Build a Fear Ladder


Once each fear has been rated, identify the childs most
prominent fear (10 on list). This will be the focus of the
intervention.
The main fear should then be broken down into gradual
steps that lead up to facing the most prominent fear.
Use the Fear Ladder Form to create this final list.

Graduated Exposure Therapy: Steps


to Implementation
Subsequent
Sessions

Facing Fears (Exposure)


Starting with the situation that causes the least anxiety (the
bottom of the fear ladder), encourage the child to repeatedly
engage in that activity (e.g., repeatedly saying hi to an unfamiliar
person) until he or she starts to feel less anxious doing it.
Goal Anxiety rating of 1
when engaging in the activity
At the start of each
session, progress
monitoring should be
done using the Facing
Fears Form

Parental
involvement is
critical

Progress Monitoring Form

Graduated Exposure Therapy

Reminder

Practice
Encourage the child to practice exposing
themselves to each step often. The more
the child practices, the quicker the fear
will fade.
Every child will have 3 initial sessions
in order to identify his/her major
fear, then there will be subsequent
sessions until the student faces the
major fear with no anxiety.

Graduated Exposure Therapy:


Goals, Praise, and Rewards
Goals

Praise

Rewards

Small goals are set in order to maintain determination.


The main goal is successfully facing their main fear.

An important component of this intervention.


Should be used while the child is gradually exposing themselves to fears.
Encourage the child to praise themselves.

At some point, reward options should be discussed with the child.


Rewards will be awarded once the child has reached their main goal (Facing
their main fear while experiencing an anxiety rating of 1 *no fear+)

Graduated Exposure Therapy:


Tips and Comments
This activity should
only be done after the
child is familiar with
anxiety and their
symptoms.

Parental involvement
is crucial. Building
rapport with the
parent in order to
reach success in this
intervention is critical.

Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart!

Coping Cards

Cognitive
Restructuring

Graduated
Exposure
Therapy

Mystery
Motivator

Self-Monitoring

Positive Peer
Reporting

What is CBT?
Main Idea
The Research
Says
Best
Practices
Says

The way we perceive (think about) situations influences


how we feel emotionally and how we subsequently
behave.

Research currently supports the use of CBT in the


treatment of both depression and anxiety disorders.

By changing belief systems and cognitions through this


form of therapy, children with anxiety and depression
can begin to function more appropriately and
adequately in their environments.

Cognitive Restructuring
What was I
feeling?

Presented by Monica Azzaro

Cognitive Restructuring
Target Population
DEPRESSION

Materials

ANXIETY

WRITING UTENSILS

MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL


STUDENTS

THOUGHT RECORDS

Intervention
Overview
Location

Frequency

SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS OFFICE;

1x WEEKLY FOR 6-8 WEEKS; 40MINUTE SESSIONS (i.e. 1 PERIOD)

GROUP SESSION
WEEKLY SESSIONS

Cognitive Restructuring:
Initial Sessions
GOAL OF THE GROUP IS TO RECOGNIZE NEGATIVE THOUGHTS AND THINK OF
ALTERNATIVE BEHAVIORS AND THOUGHTS

EXPLAIN THE RULES OF THE SESSION

EXPLAIN WHAT A TYPICAL SESSION AGENDA LOOKS LIKE

USES THESE FIRST COUPLE OF SESSIONS TO ESTABLISH RAPPORT


COLLECT BASELINE DATA

Cognitive Restructuring:
Initial Sessions
HAND OUT AND EXPLAIN THE THOUGHT RECORDS

THINK OF A HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: STUDENTS


AND SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS COLLABORATIVELY

END THE SESSION WITH A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE

http://www.depressionhelp-resource.com/cesddepression-test.pdf

This scale should


be administered
prior to the
intervention then
every week that
the intervention is
implemented.

The scale is
appropriate for
children between
the ages of 6 and
17.

Cognitive Restructuring:
Initial Session
HAND OUT AND EXPLAIN THE THOUGHT RECORDS
PRACTICE FILLING OUT THE THOUGHT RECORD WITH THE
STUDENTS

THINK OF A HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT: STUDENTS AND SCHOOL


PSYCHOLOGISTS COLLABORATIVELY

END THE SESSION WITH A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE

You got a
test back
and you
received
a bad
grade

I feel like a
failure. I am
so stupid.

Negative
selflabeling:
since I
couldnt
pass this
test, Ill
probably
fail all of
the other
ones

I tend to be really
hard on myself. Even
though I didnt pass
this test, I have
passed other ones in
the past. People
have even told me
that I am smart.

Next time I do not


do so well on a test,
Ill try to make the
negative thinking
into a positive
learning experience.
I can see if I need to
study harder or if I
should ask more
questions in class.

Cognitive Restructuring:
Follow Up Sessions
GO OVER THE HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT WITH THE GROUP
IF THERE WERE ANY DIFFICULTIES, HAVE A DISCUSSION WITH THE
GROUP
ONCE A NEGATIVE COGNITION IS HEARD, THE SCHOOL
PSYCHOLOGIST FILLS OUT THE THOUGHT RECORD WITH THE GROUP
HAVE THE GROUP FILL OUT THE CES-DC

DISCUSS WHAT THE HOMEWORK WILL BE


END THE SESSION WITH A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE

Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart!

Coping Cards

Cognitive
Restructuring

Graduated
Exposure
Therapy

Mystery
Motivator

Self-Monitoring

Positive Peer
Reporting

Coping Cards
Count to 10

Presented by Katie Viola

Write in a
journal

Coping Cards
Target Problem

Materials

Anxiety

Index Cards
Writing Utensil
Intervention
Overview

Location

Frequency

School psychologists office;


Individual sessions

1x weekly for 6 weeks; 30minute sessions

Coping Cards:
Steps to Implementation
Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Discuss with the student how to recognize anxious thoughts


and feelings.

In collaboration with the student, create a list of the anxious


thoughts and feelings that he/she frequently experiences.

Explain to the student that his or her anxious thoughts can


be changed to reflect more relaxed and balanced thinking.

Coping Cards:
Steps to Implementation
Step 4

Introduce the purpose of coping cards. Say Coping cards are


small index cards with short sentences of some of the coping
skills you can use when experiencing anxiety. The cards are
portable reminders to boss back anxiety!

Step 5

Take out the index cards and a writing utensil. Model to the
student how he or she might create a coping card using one of
the students anxious thoughts identified in Step 2. Provide
the student with examples of coping card statements.
Pictures can be substituted for words for very young children,
or you can transcribe the students thoughts.

Coping Cards:
Steps to Implementation

Step 6

Step 7

Instruct the student to create the coping card(s). Say, On one side
of the card, you will write down one of your anxious thoughts or
feelings. On the other side, you will write a replacement thought, or
an activity you can do when experiencing the anxious thought.
Provide assistance as needed.

Allow the student to decorate his or her card(s) with stickers or


colored pencils (optional).

Coping Cards: Examples


Other people dont like
me. Social situations
make me nervous.

I am a likeable person. Other


people get nervous too.

My heart is racing.

Count to 10.

Coping Cards:
Steps to Implementation

Step 8

Practice using the coping card(s). Role-play


different scenarios in which the student might
need to use his or her coping card(s).
Instruct the student to refer to the card(s)
whenever he or she is feeling anxious.

Coping Cards:
Follow Up Sessions
Follow up with the student once weekly for 6 weeks.

At these sessions, discuss how the cards are working,


add additional cards as needed, and role-play various
situations in which the cards may be useful.

Progress Monitoring

Spence Childrens Anxiety Scale (SCAS)

The SCAS is sensitive to treatment outcome and may be used to


evaluate the impact of therapy on anxiety symptoms in children.

This scale should be administered three times prior to the


implementation of coping cards in order to collect baseline data,
and at the beginning of each subsequent session for progress
monitoring.

This scale is appropriate for children between the ages of 8 and


15. Use the SCAS- Parent Version for children as young as age 6.

SCAS http://www.scaswebsite.com/

Color in your Mystery Motivator Chart!

Coping Cards

Cognitive
Restructuring

Graduated
Exposure
Therapy

Mystery
Motivator

Self-Monitoring

Positive Peer
Reporting

Questions or
Comments?

Presenter Information
Danielle Jordan

BA Psychology/Criminal Justice & MS Educational Psychology, SUNY Albany


School Psychology Intern Cornwall Central School District

Danielle Kraus

BA Psychology, Marist College


School Psychology Intern - Hyde Park Central School District

Sharol Whyte

BA Psychology, Pace University


School Psychology Intern - Hyde Park Central School District

Michelle Powers

BA Psychology, Mount Saint Mary College


School Psychology Intern - Arlington Central School District

Monica Azzaro

BA Psychology, Mount Saint Mary College


School Psychology Intern Warwick Valley Central School
District

Katie Viola

BA Psychology, Marist College


School Psychology Intern - Wappingers Central School District