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WaterforZoungbomey,Benin

StudentTeam:
BartlettJones,EngineeringMajor,15
GregKitchin,EngineeringMajor,15
ThomasKaisen,EngineeringMajor,16
MariannaFord,EngineeringMajor,16
EmilyFuller,EngineeringMajor,15
AmeliaTavanger,BiologyMajor,14

ProjectPeriod
AugustDecember2013

ProjectLocation
JamesMadisonUniversity,Harrisonburg,VA

Abstract
Thereareanestimated9.6millionpeoplelivinginBeninwhoselifeexpectancyisamere
60.67yearsold.Thislowlifeexpectancyranks191outof223rankednations(TheWorld
Factbook).ThepoorqualityofdrinkingwatercanbeattributedtomanyofthedeathsinBenin.
ThemajorityofBeninspopulationaccessestheirdrinkingwaterfromsurfacewater,muchof
whichiscontaminatedwithpathogenssuchasE.Coli.With25%ofthepopulationlacking
accesstoanimprovedwatersource,and88%ofthepopulationlackingaccesstoimproved
sanitation,theriskofdiarrhea,adeadlydiseaseintheareaandsecondleadingkilleramong
children,isextremelyhigh(WHO).Ourmissionistocreateapointofusewaterchlorination
systemthatwillallowincreasedaccesstoanimproveddrinkingsource,andaidinthe

establishmentofimprovedsanitationinBenin.Thischlorinationsystemmustbeaffordablefor
theaverageBenincitizenwhoseyearlyincomewasonly793USdollarsin2011(UNData).
Additionalfactorsthatmustbeconsideredincludethelackofastablepowersource,alackof
infrastructure,simplicityofuseandimplementation,and,mostimportantly,thecultural
acceptanceanduseofthechlorinationsystem.

Objective
TwentyfivepercentofthepopulationinBeninlackaccesstoanimprovedwatersource
fordrinking,andeightyeightpercentlackaccesstoanimprovedsanitationsource(WHO).The
secondleadingkilleramongchildreninSubSaharanAfricaisdiarrhea.Waterqualityand
sanitationarethetwoleadingfactorsindiarrhealinfection(Jamison).Itisourmissiontoprovide
theresearchandpreliminarydesignforimplementationofapointofusewaterchlorination
systeminBenin,Africa.Thischlorinationsystemwillhelpprovideaccesstoanimprovedwater
source,generatinganimprovedsupplyofdrinkingwaterandimprovedsanitation.Theresearch
anddesignthatisdoneduringthisprojectperiodwillallowforanotherprojectteamtocontinue
revisionsandprototypingofthedesignandeventuallyimplementthefinalproductinBenin,
oncethisprojectgrouphasdisbanded.

Background
AccordingtotheCDC,unsafedrinkingwater,inadequateavailabilityofwaterfor
hygiene,andlackofaccesstosanitationtogethercontributetoabout88%ofdeathsfrom
diarrhealdiseases(2013).Itwasalsosaidthatimprovedwatersourcesreducediarrhea
morbidityby21%improvedsanitationreducesdiarrheamorbidityby37.5%andthesimpleact
ofwashinghandsatcriticaltimescanreducethenumberofdiarrheacasesbyasmuchas35%.
Improvementofdrinkingwaterquality,suchaspointofusedisinfection,wouldleadtoa45%
reductionofdiarrheaepisodes(CDC,2013).
Ourprojectdesignisapointofusechlorinationwaterpurificationsystem,tobeimplementedin
theruralvillageofZoungbomey,Benin,throughsustainabilityaspectsincludingpeople,
prosperity,andplanet.Inrelationtopeople,thisprojectwillultimatelyprovideahigherquality
oflifethroughthehealthbenefitsachievedwithimprovedwaterquality,suchasfewerparasitic
infections(Collieretal.,2013).Inadditiontotheobvioushealthbenefitsofpotablewater,there
willbeanthropologicaleffectsonthelivesofthoseusingthesystem(theusers):itwillease
theburdenonwomentofindawaytocleanwater,decreasedDALYsandhigherratesofschool
attendance(WaterAid,2006WHO,2009FRESH,2013andActionAgainstHunger,2007).
Oursystemwillbeeasytousewhilestillbuildingtheuserscapacitiesastheywillbeableto
interpretinstructionsforitsuseandrepair,andwillgainvaluablehealtheducation.Ourwater
purificationsystemwillbeaffordablemeaningitwillbearealisticinvestmentforthefamilies
inZoungbomey(Cairncross,S.andValdmanis,V.,2006).
Withrespecttoprosperity,readilyavailablepotablewaterwilleliminatewaterrelated

leavesofabsencefromworkenabling work to be done with higher efficiency(especiallywith


laborintensivejobssuchasagriculturalwork),bringingmorerevenuetothepeopleof
Zoungbomey.Factoringintherelativelylowpriceofacquisitionofthissystemandtheextra
revenuefromincreasedefficiencyofwork,thissystemwillallowthefamiliestobreakeven
relativelyquickly(specificstobedetermined(Cairncross,S.andValdmanis,V.,2006).With
respecttotheplanet,ourwatertreatmentsystemisforeseentomakeuseoflocallyobtainable
resources,andcausenoenvironmentalharmaswewillnotbeaddingorremovinganythingfrom
thewatersourceandwildlifewillbeuntouched.

SocialBenefits
Therewillbemanysocialandculturalbarriersbetweentheengineeringteamandthe
peopleofZoungbomey,however,withpatienceandunderstandingoftheBeninpeople,adesign
andwayofimplementingthedesigncanbeestablished.Problemswillariseconcerningthe
languageandculturaldifferences,thereforeitiscrucialthattheengineeringteamhasawayto
communicatewiththepeopleofZoungbomey,possiblyusingatranslator.Itisalsoimportantto
learntheaboutthelocalcultureinordertorespecttheirwayoflife.InmanySubSaharan
Africancountries,womenaretheonlyoneswhodealwithwatertherefore,theywillbean
importantresourcetogainabetterunderstandingfrom.Thedesignwillfocusontheneedsof
thosewholiveinthevillageandwillaccommodatesocialidealsandvalues.Theimplementation
ofthechlorinationsystemwillbesuretoactivelyinvolvetheZoungbomeycommunity,ineffort
toincludeandaccommodatethepeopleastheyacceptthesystem.Activelyengagingwiththe
localswillhelptheteamtounderstandidentifyandaddressanyissuesexpressedbythepeopleof
Benin.Byestablishingalistofwantsandneeds,theteamwillbeabletoimplementasystemthat
willsatisfythenecessitiesofthepeople.
ThechlorinationsystemwillhelpreducenegativeimpactsonthehealthofZoungbomey
peopleduetoinaccessibleandunsanitarywater..Theproposedhouseholdchlorinationsystem
willprovideZoungbomeyfamilieswithameanspurifytheirwater,whichwilldecreasethe
chancesofcontractingwaterbornediseases.

EconomicBenefits
Oneliterwatertreatedwithahypochloritesolutioncostabout0.01to0.05cents,which
provestobeasoundeconomicalsolutionforthelackofsafedrinkingwaterinZoungbomey
(CDC).Also,asclaimedbytheCDC,thereisthepotentialoffullcostrecoveryfromthe
implementationofahouseholdchlorinationsystembychargingtheuserthefullcostofproduct,
marketing,distributionandeducation(TheSafeWaterSystem,2012).Thedesignofthe
chlorinationsystemwillaimtoproduceaproductwithlowmaterialandassemblycosttostrive
forfullcostrecovery.Whiletotalcostrecoveryisanidealscenario,manyunexpectedcosts
relatedtoimplementationorlackofdonorsupportmayresultinapartialcostrecovery.
Anothereconomicbenefitfromthechlorinationsystemistheprospectofcreatinglocal

jobsinZoungbomeyrelatedtotheassembly,manufacture,anddistributionoftheproduct.
Globally,manyorganizationsandministrieshaveembracedwaterpurificationbychlorination,
suchasareasinGuyana,WesternKenya,andHaiti,whohaveformeddifferentprogramswhich
bottletheirownhypochloritesolutioninruralareas,educatechildrenonsafewatersystems,and
workwithprivatecompaniestohelpdevelopamarketforwaterpurificationbychlorination
(TheSafeWaterSystem,2012).Thechlorinationsystemwillaimtoaccomplishsimilarresults
whichwillhelptobenefitZoungbomeyseconomicprosperity.

EnvironmentalImpacts
Awaterpurificationsystemhasnegativeandpositiveimpactsontheenvironment.Itcan
beusedinplaceofothersystemssuchasbiosandfilters.Biosandfiltersuselayersofsandand
gravelthefilteroutharmfulbacteriaandmicroorganisms(TheWaterProject).Thesandand
gravelarelocalresources.Withtheuseofawaterpurificationsystem,itsubstitutestheneedof
localresourcesandcandiminishresourceconsumption.Theseresourcescanthenbeusedfor
differentlocalprojects.
Theuseofpurificationssystemscanharmtheenvironment.Withanefficientandeffective
system,morewatercanbesafelycleaned.Theselargervolumesofwaterwillcausesourcesof
watertorunoutfaster.Groundwateraquifershavealimitedoutputandtheycantakethousands
ofyearstoreplenishthemselves(ScienceDaily[B5]).Onceempty,anewlocationwillbeused
whichmaynotbeabletokeepupwiththedemand.Waterpurificationandchlorinationsystems
arereusable.Thislowerstheamountofplasticsandmaterialsthatwouldbediscardedandalso
requiresfewermaterials.Manypurificationsystemsusechemicalssuchaschlorine,chlorine
dioxide,ozone,andhypochlorite(Lenntech[B6]).Thesechemicalsareconsideredtobetoxic.If
theyareexposedtotheenvironmenttheycanbeharmfulandcontaminateit,butifmonitored
andusedsafely,thesechemicalsareeffectiveatwaterpurification.Thepurificationsystemwill
useaminimalamountofchemicalstodecreasethepossibilityofexposuretotheenvironment.

EducationalandInterdisciplinaryAspects
Educationalbenefitsofourproposedprojectdesignencompass,broadlyandambitiously,
healtheducationandliteracy.Withregardstohealtheducation,therewouldbeamajoremphasis
onwomenastheyareprimarilytheonesinchargeofwaterandwaterrelatedendeavorsina
household(ACS,2012).Therewouldbelearningaboutwatercontaminantsandtheeffectson
health,includingthebenefitsofcleanwaterandconsequencesofcontaminatedwater.Health
educationconcerninghygieneandsanitationwouldalsobenecessaryincludingbasicssuchas
handwashing,theimportanceofwaterpurification,andsoon(OECD,2012).Withrespectto
literacy,thiswoulddependonthelevelofZoungbomeyifliteracyisnotwidespread,amore
attainablegoalwouldbetheintroductionofmessagesrelayedthroughsimpleimages,for
exampleincludingdirectionsforthewaterpurificationsystemintheformofpictures.Thisform
ofunderstandingcouldbeappliedtosimplerepairsteps,remindersabouthygieneandsanitation,

anditcouldbeusedasamethodofunderstandingZoungbomeyspracticespriortothehealth
education.Asabyproductoftheseintendededucationalbenefits,theZoungbomeyresidents
(andpossiblytheresidentsofsurroundingcommunities)wouldacquireprofessionaland
managerialskillsthroughtheimplementationoftheirownhealtheducationprograms,asthe
intentionofoureducationalendeavorswouldbetocreateaselfsustaining,totally
Zoungbomeyruninitiativetospreadhealtheducation.
Wewillusethisprojecttopromotesustainabilityamongtheparticipantsofthe
implementationandusageofourwaterpurificationsystembyencouragingteamworkwithinthe
communityandpossiblyencompassingneighboringcommunities,workingtowardswomen
empoweringthemselves,andofferinganyassistanceZoungbomeymaydesireforbuildingthe
residentscapacities(IFAD,2011).Theeaseandpracticalityofpointofusewaterpurification
systemsmayinspireZoungbomeytoreachouttoitssurroundingcommunitiesinhopesof
spreadingtheunderstandingoftheadvantagesof,andpossiblypersuadingotherstouse,the
systemthiscreatesalargerpopulationusingthesystem,therebyincreasingtheirpoolof
resourcesifsomethingneedsrepairingtherearemorepeopletohelpfigureitout.
Thenatureofthisprojectmakesitessentialtoincorporateinterdisciplinarycollaboration.
Weforeseetheneedforrepresentationofapoliticalscienceprofessionals(tobetterunderstand
andinvestigatepossibilitiessurroundinggovernmentaid),healthprofessionals(forhealth
educationandassessments),engineers(forthewaterpurificationsystemitself),thosewith
experienceineducation(toprovideamoreefficientwaytopromotethehealtheducation),and
themostimportantcollaboratorswouldbethelocalsthemselves.Theinhabitantsof
Zoungbomeywouldbeessentialinmultiplefacets:languageinterpretation,culturalinformants
(toassistthoseunfamiliarwithZoungbomeysculturetoberespectfulandawareoftheir
surroundings)andimplementationofthesystem(thelocalswillbeinstallingandrepairingand
thereforemustunderstandandbesupportiveoftheendeavor).

ProjectDesign
ConsideringZoungbomeyisaruraltown,ahouseholdlevelpurificationsystemwould
bestsuitthelocalcommunity.Thepositivehealthandsocialeffectsofwaterchlorinationto
purifyunsafewaterproveapotentialsatisfactorysolutionforZoungbomey,Benin.A
chlorinationsystemwillbecreatedfromasetofimportedmaterialsbroughtbybothourteam
andsentaheadoftimetoZoungbomeysoastomakesurethematerialsmakeittoBeninintime.
TheceramicfiltersarealreadyinplaceinBenin,thesolardisinfectionmethodwillbeineffective
toofrequently,theflocculants/disinfectantpowderisnotcosteffective.However,oncethis
technologyiscreatedandintroduced,theelectricityrequiredtopowerthesystemwehopeto
implicateamicrobialfuelcellforthissourceofpower.Researchdonebyapreviousgrouphas
shownthatasufficientamountofcurrentcanbegeneratedfromthefuelcells.Theprocessof
addingchlorinetothewaterkillsmostharmfulbacteriaandwillproducecleandrinkingwaterin
amatterofminutes.Thistechnologyishighlyportableandcanbebroughtdirectlytothewater

sourceitself.Additionally,thesystemwillbesimpleenoughtoallownearlyanybodytouseit
withminimaltraining.Itwillalsobeportablebecausethefactthatbatteriescouldbeusedto
powerthesystem.Anothergoalisthatoncethesystemisinplaceitcanbeputtoworkinstantly
toproducedrinkablewaterfortheuser.

ProjectPrototype:
ThedesignteamchoseachlorinetreatmentsystemthatismodelaftertheUniversityof
Auburnssolarsystem(Baginski,2011).Theprocedureusedbelowisfortheasystemusinga
powersupplyinsteadofa12Vbattery.AdiagramofthesystemcanbefoundintheAppendix,
alongwithabillofmaterialsforthesystem.

materialsrequired:
1.OneDCpowersupply
2.16ozemptybottle
3.2.0mgofNaCl
4.Wireconnectiongatorclips
5.Titaniumelectrodes
6.0.5LofH2O
7.Winecork
Tobegintheexperiment,2.0mgofNaClwasaddedto0.5LofH2O(baginski,2011).Initialtotal
chlorinetestswerethentaken.Thesolutionwasthenaddedtothe16ozbottle.Twotitanium
electrodes,bothcutto15.25cm,werethenpushedintothewinecork.Thecorkwasusedasa
spacerinordertokeeptherodsfromtouchingoneanotherwhileexperimentisinprogress.The
longersideoftheelectrodewasthenplacedinthe16ozbottleandsubmergedintheNaCl
solution.Thepowersupplywaslimitedto.2Awitha12Vsupply,thesespecificationmatchthe
Nomad7solarcellkitusedintheAuburnresearchexperiment.Gatorclipswereusedtoconnect
thepowersupplytotheelectrodes.Thepowersupplywasthenturnedonandtheexperimentis
thenallowedtorunfor30min.After30minthegatorclipswereremovedandtheelectrodeswere
takenoutofthesolution.Totalchlorinetestwasthentakentomeasuretheamountofchlorine
produced.

ExpectedBenefits
Chlorinationofthewatereffectivelykillsallbacteriapresentinthewater.This
technologyrequiresthatthereisanenergysourceavailabletotransformsaltintochlorinetobe
addedtothecontaminatedwaterandkillpathogens.Thetheorybehindthistechnologylike
microbialfuelcellshouldbeafeasiblewaytocreatedsaidelectricity.Researchiscurrently
beingundertakentodeterminehowthatelectricpotentialcanbestoredinabatteryandhow
muchavailableenergythebatterywillprovide.Whenthisresearchiscomplete,anenergysource
willbecomeavailabletocreatethechlorinefordisinfection.Wehopetoeliminateanythreatof

deathfromwaterthatiscontaminated.Inaddition,wewanttomakeadifferenceinthewaythe
peopleofBeninviewwatertreatment.Wewanttoeducatethecitizenssothatareabletofixthe
systemifanycomplicationsoccur.

AnalyticalResults
Upontestingtheprototype,500mLofasolutionof1mg/Lofchlorinewasproduced.
Fromthissolution,thepathoscreentestwasperformed:equalpartsofthechlorinesolution
andofcontaminatedwaterweremixedtocreatethefirstoftenserialdilutions(allperformed
induplicate,includingthepositiveandnegativecontrols).Afterincubationatroom
temperatureforapproximately24hours,allbutthenegativecontrols(thevialscontainingno
chlorinesolution)remainedagoldencolor,indicativeofminimalpresence(ifnotabsence)of
coliformbacteria.Thenegativecontrolproducedablackcolor,indicativeofthepresenceof
coliformbacteria.ProtocolforthepathoscreentestwasfollowedasprescribedbyHach
(Product#2859100).

TheprotocolfollowedforthetestingofTotalChlorinewasexactlyasHachprescribed
(Method8167forChlorine,Total).1120mgofsaltwasaddedto500mLofcontaminatedwater
andtestingbegan.Samplesweretakeneveryfiveminutesandtestedwithaspectrophotometer.
Withanincreasefrom12Vto15V,theTotalChlorinetestingshowedanincreasingchlorine
residualjustifyingtheexistenceofchlorinefromtheapparatus.AccordingtotheWorldHealth
Organization,achlorineresidualof1mg/Lisrequiredforpurificationofwaterfromsources
suchaswells.Thisresidualwouldbepresentafterapproximately27minutes.

Fig.2Graphicalrepresentationofchlorinetest.

Discussion:
Toassessthegivenoutcomesandeffectivenessofthepurificationsystem,household
surveyswillbeimplementedwithinthecommunity.Toevaluatethesuccessofthesystemandits
implementation,surveyswillbeformulatedtogaugetheabilityofthedesigntoactuallypurify

water,easeofuse,andincidentsofwaterborneillnesssinceuse,howoftenapparatusis
maintainedandcleaned,andoverallsatisfaction.Bysurveyingatahouseholdlevel,areassuch
aspersonalhealthoffamilymembers,economicimpact,andmaintainabilityofthepurification
systemcanbefullyassessed.Thesesurveyswillbeconductedbyprofessionals,whowillnot
onlyconductsaidsurveybutalsoeducatethelocalpopulationonpropersanitation.Inadditionto
theassessmentoftheeffectivenessofthesystem,wewillalsoperformaninfieldtestfor
coliformandpresenceabsencetests,whichtestforfecalmatterandothercontaminationinthe
water.Additionally,infieldtestingofthewaterfortotalandfreechlorinewillbeconductedto
measuretheeffectivenessofthesystemwillbedone.
Intheend,theoverarchinggoalistofindawellsuitablepointofusefiltrationand
purificationsystemthatisportableandsimple.Thissystemwillincludeachlorinationand
filtrationmethodsothatitmayturnanyunsafedrinkingwaterintouseable/drinkablewater.Not
onlywillthisimpactalocalcommunitybutwehopeonedayoursystemwillbeabletobeeasy
duplicatedandusedthroughoutSubSaharanAfricatosavelives.
Afterinlabtestingofthepurificationsystem,testsshowedthattheapparatuswasableto
producechlorine.Thegradualincreaseofthevoltagetofifteenvoltsproduced0.3mg/Lof
chlorineaftertenminutes.Accordingtothistrend,itwouldtakeapproximately27minutesto
produce1mg/Lofchlorine.

ProjectScheduleandMilestones
Researchpossibleconceptsandtestingmethods
Conceptgeneration
Determinetestingmethodology
DesignPrototype
ConceptualDesign
Detaileddesign
Buildprototype
TestPrototype
Analyzedataresults
Referenceofanalysisinproposal
Completefinalpaper
Finishpresentation
Practicepresentation
Finalpresentation

FutureWork:

Futureworkforthisprojectwillinvolvemoreextensivetestingofthechlorinesystem.
Firstmoretestingintoalternativewaystoproducetheelectricityusedfortheprocess.Theteam
haslookedintoseveraloptionsincludingmicrobialfuelcells,solarpower,andlithiumbattery
cell.Thesepowersourceswillsupplyalongerandmoresustainablepowersupplyforthe
system.Additionaltheextensivetestingneedstobedoneintowhichtypeelectrodeswillbe

cheapestsandmosteffectiveformorethan10hoursofuseindisasterreliefefforts.Currently
oxidationwasobservedonthetitaniumrodsaftertwohoursofconsistenttestingwhichlimitsthe
amountofcurrentinthesolution.InconclusionextensivetestingintotheproperamountofNaCl
neededforelectrolysisneedstobeconductedinascientificmanner.Thiswaytheteamwillhave
astepbystepprocessthatcanbebroughttoBeninbyMay2014forinitialimplementation.

Partnerships/Resources:
1.CentreAfrikaObota:Charterfocusingonprotectionandpromotionofhumanandpeoples
livesandtheinterpretationoftheAfricanCharteronHumanandPeoplesRights.Provides
backgroundinformationonBeninandSubSaharanAfrica.

2.GonzagaUniversity:Institutionusingengineeringprinciplesininnovativewaystohelppeople
throughsustainableenergy,recycledtechnology,affordablehousing,andcleanwater.

3.JamesMadisonUniversityDepartmentofEngineering:Aninstitutionfocusingonthedesign
andimplementationofawaterpurificationsysteminZoungbomey,Benin,Africa.

4.JamesMadisonUniversityDepartmentofIntegratedScienceandTechnology:Aneducational
departmentworkinginunisonwiththeJMUDepartmentofEngineeringtofurtherorganizea
waterpurificationproject.

5.RotaryInternational:AnNGOwhohelpsfundlocalandglobalhumanitarianactivities.A
desiredorganizationtohelpfundtheimplementationofawaterpurificationsystem.

6.SonghaiCentre,Benin,Africa:APrivateVoluntaryOrganizationpromotingtheemergenceof
anewAfricansociety.AnentrepreneurialspaceinBenin.

7.UnitedStatesCentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention:Agovernmentorganization
providinghealthinformationsuchasstandardsofsafedrinkingwater.

8.UnitedNationsMillenniumDevelopmentGoals:Anorganizationthatfocusesontheneeds
andadvancementsofdevelopingcountriesaroundtheworld.

9.WorldHealthOrganization:directingandcoordinatingauthorityforhealthwithintheUnited
Nationssystem

Appendix:

PricelistforTotalChlorineTest:
DR2700PortableSpectrophotometer(Hach)$2957.00
TotalChlorinePowderPillows,50(Hach)$10.29
250mLBeaker(Hach)$6.35

PathoscreenTest:
Pathoscreenkit$49.95


Item
Battery

Cost
$70.00

Wire(2ft)

$0.15

Salt(1kg)

$0.50

Bottle

$0.05

SteelElectrode(6ft)

$12.62

TitaniumElectrode(3ft)

$14.38

Subtotal(w/battery&steel)

$83.32

Subtotal(w/battery&
titanium)

$85.32

Subtotal(steelw/obattery)

$13.32

Subtotal(titaniumw/obattery)

$15.08

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