7171 votes positifs55 votes négatifs

23K vues191 pagesMathematics Concept Book for IIT-JEE is primarily a revision book for engineering aspirants and with detailed theory students can revise complete syllabus more frequently. The purpose of theory book is to recap all basic formulations and concepts in mathematics and all IIT-JEE aspirants are advised to practise sufficient and relevant questions with theory revision. Subject of mathematics requires question-solving ability and to enhance the skill students must practise questions.
Students are advised to follow the given link for "Objective Mathematics for II-JEE".
https://www.scribd.com/doc/111477424/OBJECTIVE-MATHEMATICS-for-IIT-JEE-Mains-Advance

Nov 14, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT ou lisez en ligne sur Scribd

Mathematics Concept Book for IIT-JEE is primarily a revision book for engineering aspirants and with detailed theory students can revise complete syllabus more frequently. The purpose of theory book is to recap all basic formulations and concepts in mathematics and all IIT-JEE aspirants are advised to practise sufficient and relevant questions with theory revision. Subject of mathematics requires question-solving ability and to enhance the skill students must practise questions.
Students are advised to follow the given link for "Objective Mathematics for II-JEE".
https://www.scribd.com/doc/111477424/OBJECTIVE-MATHEMATICS-for-IIT-JEE-Mains-Advance

© All Rights Reserved

23K vues

7171 votes positifs55 votes négatifs

Mathematics Concept Book for IIT-JEE is primarily a revision book for engineering aspirants and with detailed theory students can revise complete syllabus more frequently. The purpose of theory book is to recap all basic formulations and concepts in mathematics and all IIT-JEE aspirants are advised to practise sufficient and relevant questions with theory revision. Subject of mathematics requires question-solving ability and to enhance the skill students must practise questions.
Students are advised to follow the given link for "Objective Mathematics for II-JEE".
https://www.scribd.com/doc/111477424/OBJECTIVE-MATHEMATICS-for-IIT-JEE-Mains-Advance

© All Rights Reserved

Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 191

Er. L.K.Sharma

NIT, Jaipur (Rajasthan), {Gold medalist,

University of Rajasthan} is a well known name

among the engineering aspirants for the last 15

years.

He

has

been

honored

with

BHAMASHAH AWARD two times for the

academic excellence in the state of Rajasthan.

He is popular among the student community for possessing the

excellent ability to communicate the mathematical concepts in

analytical and graphical way.

He has worked with many premiere IIT-JEE coaching institutes

of Delhi, Haryana, Jaipur and Kota, {presently associated with

THE GUIDANCE, Kalu Sarai, New Delhi as senior

mathematics faculty and Head of Mathematics department with

IGNEOUS, Sonipat (Haryana)}. He has worked with Delhi

Public School, RK Puram, New Delhi for five years as a senior

mathematics {IIT-JEE} faculty.

Er. L.K.Sharma has been proved a great supportive mentor for

the last 15 years and the most successful IIT-JEE aspirants

consider him an ideal mathematician for Olympiad/KVPY/ISI

preparation. He is also involved in the field of online teaching to

engineering aspirants and is associated with www.100marks.in

and iProf Learning Sols India (P) Ltd for last 5 years , as a senior

member of www.wiziq.com (an online teaching and learning

portal), delivered many online lectures on different topics of

mathematics at IIT-JEE {mains & advance} level .

Objective Mathematics for IIT-JEE authored by Er. L.K.Sharma

has also proved a great help for engineering aspirants and its e-book

format can be downloaded from http://mathematicsgyan.weebly.com.

Contents

1. Basics of Mathematics

2. Quadratic Equations

14

3. Complex Numbers

20

4. Binomial Theorem

29

32

6. Probability

36

7. Matrices

42

8. Determinants

55

61

10. Functions

67

11. Limits

76

80

13. Differentiation

86

91

93

16. Monotonocity

95

97

101

109

114

118

123

125

129

25. Circles

132

26. Parabola

138

27. Ellipse

142

28. Hyperbola

146

29. Vectors

152

161

170

175

177

180

1. BASICS of MATHEMATICS

{1} Number System :

(i)

Natural Numbers :

The counting numbers 1,2,3,4,..... are called Natural Numbers.

The set of natural numbers is denoted by N.

Thus N = {1,2,3,4, .....}.

(ii)

Whole Numbers :

Natural numbers including zero are called whole numbers.

The set of whole numbers, is denoted by W.

Thus W = {0,1,2, ...............}

(iii)

Integers :

The numbers ... 3, 2, 1, 0, 1,2,3,....... are called integers and the set is denoted by

I or Z.

Thus I (or Z) = {... 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3...}

(a)

Natural numbers.

(b)

(c)

(d)

3, 2, 1}

3, 2, 1,0]

(iv)

Even Integers :

Integers which are divisible by 2 are called even integers.

e.g.

0, 2, 4.....

(v)

Odd Integers :

Integers, which are not divisible by 2 are called as odd integers.

e.g.

1, 3, 5, 7......

(vi)

Prime Number :

Let 'p' be a natural number, 'p' is said to be prime if it has exactly two distinct factors,

namely 1 and itself.

so, Natural number which are divisible by 1 and itself only are prime numbers (except 1).

e.g.

2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, ...

(vii) Composite Number :

Let 'a' be a natural number, 'a' is said to be composite if, it has at least three distinct

factors.

Note:

(i)

(ii)

ma

r

a

h

S

(iii)

Number which are not prime are composite numbers (except 1).

.

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(iv)

'4' is the smallest composite number.

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

(viii) Co-prime Number :

839

Two natural numbers (not necessarily prime) are coprime, if there

H.C.F (Highest common

factor) is one.

e.g.

(1,2), (1,3), (3,4), (3, 10), (3,8), (5,6), (7,8) etc.

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 1

Note:

(a)

(b)

Two prime number(s) are always co-prime but converse need not be true.

Consecutive numbers are always co-prime numbers.

(ix)

Twin Prime Numbers :

If the difference between two prime numbers is two, then the numbers are twin prime

numbers.

e.g.

{3,5}, {5,7}, (11, 13}, {17, 19}, {29, 31}

(x)

Rational Numbers :

All the numbers that can be represented in the form p/q, where p and q are integers and

q 0, are called rational numbers and their set is denoted by Q.

p

Thus Q = { q : p,q I and q 0}. It may be noted that every integer is a rational number

since it can be written as p/1. It may be noted that all recurring decimals are rational

numbers .

(xi)

Irrational Numbers :

There are real numbers which can not be expressed in p/q form. These numbers are called

irrational numbers and their set is denoted by Qc. (i.e. complementary set of Q) e.g. 2 ,

1 + 3 , e, etc. Irrational numbers can not be expressed as recurring decimals.

3.14.

The complete set of rational and irrational number is the set of real numbers and is denoted

by R. Thus R = Q Qc.

The real numbers can be represented as a position of a point on the real number line. The

real number line is the number line where in the position of a point relative to the origin

(i.e. 0) represents a unique real number and vice versa.

Positive side

Negative side

3

1 2 2

Real line

All the numbers defined so far follow the order property i.e. if there are two distinct numbers

a and b then either a < b or a > b.

Note:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

ma

r

a

h

e.g. 2 + 3

S

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The product of a non zero rational number & an irrational

58be an

Er. 8number

027will5always

1

0

irrational number.

9 801

If a Q and b Q, then ab = rational number, only if a = 0.

839

sum, difference, product and quotient of two irrational numbers need not be a

irrational number or we can say, result may be a rational number also.

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 2

A number of the form a + ib is called complex number, where a,b R and i = 1 , Complex

number is usually denoted by Z and the set of complex number is represented by C.

Note : It may be noted that N W I Q R C.

(i)

A number will be divisible by 2 iff the digit at the unit place of the number is divisible

by 2.

(ii)

A number will be divisible by 3 iff the sum of its digits of the number is divisible by 3.

(iii)

A number will be divisible by 4 iff last two digit of the number together are divisible

by 4.

(iv)

A number will be divisible by 5 iff the digit of the number at the unit place is either

0 or 5.

(v)

A number will be divisible by 6 iff the digits at the unit place of the number is divisible

by 2 & sum of all digits of the number is divisible by 3.

(vi)

A number will be divisible by 8 iff the last 3 digits of the number all together are

divisible by 8.

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

A number will be divisible by 11, iff the difference between the sum of the digits at

even places and sum of the digits at odd places is 0 or multiple of 11.

e.g. 1298, 1221, 123321, 12344321, 1234554321, 123456654321

{3} (i)

Remainder Theorem :

Let p(x) be any polynomial of degree greater than or equal to one and 'a' be any real

number. If p(x) is divided by (x a), then the remainder is equal to p(a).

(ii)

Factor Theorem :

Let p(x) be a polynomial of degree greater than of equal to 1 and 'a' be a real number such

that p(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of p(x). Conversely, if (x a) is a factor of p(x), then

p(a) = 0.

(iii)

(1)

(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

= (a b)2 + 4ab

(2)

(a b)2 = a2

= (a + b)2

(3)

a2 b2 = (a + b) (a b)

(4)

(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b)

(5)

(a b)3 = a3 b3

(6)

(7)

(8)

2ab + b2

4ab

ma

r

a

h

a + b = (a + b) 3ab(a + b) = (a + b) (a + b ab)

S

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a b = (a b) 3ab (a b) = (a b)(a + b + ab)r.

E 81027 5058

9 801

(a + b + c) = a + b c + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca

39

1 1 1

8

= a + b + c + 2abc

3

3

3ab(a b)

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 3

1

[(a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 ]

2

(9)

a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca =

(10)

=

1

(a + b + c) [(a b)2 + (b c)2 + (c a)2 ]

2

(11)

(12)

a4 + a2 + 1 = (a2 + 1)2

a2 = (1 + a + a2) (1 a + a2)

If 'a' is any non zero real or imaginary number and 'm' is the positive integer, then am =

a.a.a....a (m times). Here a is called the base and m is the index, power or exponent.

(I) Law of indices :

(1)

a0 = 1,

(2)

am =

(3)

(4)

am n =

(5)

(am)n = amn

(6)

ap/q =

(a 0)

1

am

am

an

(a 0)

ap

(i)

Ratio :

1. If A and B be two quantities of the same kind, then their ratio is A : B; which may be

denoted by the fraction

A

(This may be an integer or fraction )

B

a

ma

na

=

=

= .....where m, n, ....

b

mb

nb

3. To compare two or more ratio, reduced them to common denominator.

4. Ratio between two ratios may be represented as the ratio of two integers e.g.

a

c

:

:

b

d

ma

r

a

Sh ace82

a .cKe.

Ratios are compounded by multiplying them together i.e. L. . .....

= 6 ...

.

b d f 277 bdf 8

r

E 810 505

9 ratio

If a : b is any ratio then its duplicate ratio is a : b ; triplicate

0is1a : b .....etc.

8

9

83

If a : b is any ratio, then its sub-duplicate ratio is a : b ; sub-triplicate ratio is

a /b

ad

c / d = bc or ad : bc. duplicate, triplicate ratio.

5.

6.

7.

a1/3 : b1/3 etc.

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

1/2

1/2

Page 4

(ii)

Proportion :

When two ratios are equal , then the four quantities compositing them are said to be

proportional. If

a

c

= , then it is written as a : b = c : d or a : b :: c : d

b

d

1.

'a' and 'd' are known as extremes and 'b and c' are known as means.

2.

3.

If

a : b = c : d, then

b : a = d : c(Invertando)

4.

If

a : b = c : d, then

a : c = b : d(Alternando)

5.

If

a : b = c : d, then

a b

c d

=

(Componendo)

b

d

6.

If

a : b = c : d, then

a b

c d

=

= (Dividendo)

b

d

7.

If

a : b = c : d, then

a b

c d

=

(Componendo and Dividendo)

ab

cd

If two equations containing three unknown are

a1x + b1y + c1z = 0

............(i)

a2x + b2y + c2z = 0

............(ii)

Then by the rule of cross multiplication

x

y

z

b1c2 b2c1 = c1a2 c2a1 = a1b2 a2b1

............(ii)

In order to write down the denominators of x, y and z in (3) apply the following rule,

"write down the coefficients of x, y and z in order beginning with the coefficients of y and

repeat them as in the diagram"

b1

c1

a1

b1

b2

c2

a2

b2

Multiply the coefficients across in the way indicated by the arrows; remembering that

informing the products any one obtained by descending is positive and any one obtained by

ascending is negative.

{7} Intervals :

Intervals are basically subsets of R and are commonly used in solving inequalities or in

finding domains. If there are two numbers a,b R such that a < b, we can define four types

of intervals as follows :

Symbols Used

(i) Open interval : (a,b) = {x : a < x < b} i.e. end points are not included

( ) or ] [

ma

r

a

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r. also 1included

27 058

Eare

0

(ii) Closed interval : [a,b] = {x : a x b} i.e. end points

98 8015

This is possible only when both a and b are finite.

839

(iii) Open-closed interval :(a,b] = {x : a < x b}

( ] or

(iv)Closed-open interval :[a,b) = x : a x < b}

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

[]

]]

[ ) or [ [

Page 5

(i)

(a, ) = {x : x > a}

(ii)

[a, ) = {x : x a}

(iii)

(iv)

( ,b] = {x : x b}

(v)

( , ) = {x : x R}

,b) = {x : x<b}

Note:

(i)

it as x {1,2}

(ii)

(i)

Polynomial Function :

If a function f is defined by f(x) = a0 xn + a1 xn 1 + a2xn 2 + ......... + an 1 x + an

where n is a non negative integer and a0, a1, a2, ........, an are real numbers and

a0 0, then f is called a polynomial function of degree n.

There are two polynomial functions, satisfying the relation; f(x).f(1/x) = f(x)+f(1/x),

which are f (x) = 1 xn

(ii)

Constant function :

A function f : A B is said to be a constant function, if every element of A has the

same f image in B. Thus f : A B; f(x) = c , x A, c B is a constant function.

(iii)

Identity function :

The function f : A A define dby, f(x) = x x A is called the identity function on

A and is denoted by IA. It is easy to observe that identity function is a bijection.

(iv)

Algebraic Function :

y is an algebraic function of x, if it is a function that satisfies an algebraic equation

of the form, P0(x) yn + P1(x) yn 1 + ........ + Pn 1 (x) y + Pn(x) = 0 where n is a

positive integer and P0(x), P1(x) ........ are polynomials in x. e.g. y = |x| is an

algebraic function, since it satisfies the equation y2 x2 = 0.

(v)

Rational Function :

g(x)

A rational function is a function of the form, y = f(x) = h(x) , where g(x) & h(x) are

polynomial functions.

(vi)

Irrational Function :

An irrational function is a function y = f(x) in which the operations of additions,

substraction, multiplication, division and raising to a fractional power are used

ma

r

a

h

S

.

x x

82

K

For example y =

is an irrational function

.

6

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2x x

Er. 81027 5058

(a) The equation f(x) = g(x) is equivalent to the following

system

9 8

01

9

f(x) = g (x) & g(x) 0

83

3

1/3

(b)

The inequation

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 6

(c)

The inequation

(vii)

or g(x) 0

&

Exponential Function :

A function f(x) = ax = ex ln a (a > 0, a 1, x R) is called an exponential function.

Graph of exponential function can be as follows :

Case - I

For a > 1

Case - II

For 0 < a < 1

f(x)

f(x)

(0,1)

(0,1)

x

(viii) Logarithmic Function : f(x) = logax is called logarithmic function where a > 0 and

a 1 and x > 0. Its graph can be as follows

Case - I

For a > 1

Case - II

For 0 < a < 1

f(x)

f(x)

(0,1)

(1,0)

x

LOGARITHM OF A NUMBER :

The logarithm of the number N to the base 'a' is the exponent

indicating the power to which the base 'a' must be raised to

obtain the number N. This number is designated as loga N.

Hence :

If a = e , we write ln b rather than loge b .

The existence and uniqueness of the number loga N follows from the properties of an

experimental functions .

ma

r

a

h

S

.

log N

82

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identity :

=N , a>0 , a1 & N>0

a

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Er.. 81027 5058

This is known as the FUNDAMENTAL LOGARITHMIC IDENTITY

9 801

NOTE :loga1 = 0

(a > 0 , a 1)

839

loga a = 1

(a > 0 , a 1) and

From the definition of the logarithm of the number N to the base 'a' , we have an

a

log1/a a = - 1

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

(a > 0 , a 1)

Page 7

Let M & N are arbitrary posiitive numbers , a > 0 , a 1 , b > 0 , b 1 and is any real number

then ;

(i)

loga (M . N) = loga M + loga N

(ii)

loga (M/N) = loga M loga N

(iii)

loga M = . loga M

logb M =

(iv)

log a M

log a b

x

ln a

e = ax

(i)

For a > 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & loga x < loga y are equivalent.

(ii)

For 0 < a < 1 the inequality 0 < x < y & loga x > loga y are equivalent.

(iii)

0 < x < ap

(iv)

x > ap

(v)

x > ap

(vi)

0 < x < ap

If the number & the base are on one side of the unity , then the logarithm is positive ; If the

number & the base are on different sides of unity, then the logarithm is negative.

The base of the logarithm a must not equal unity otherwise numbers not equal to unity will

not have a logarithm & any number will be the logarithm of unity.

n

(ix)

a = a1/n.

x if x 0

The symbol of modulus function is f(x) =|x| and is defined as : y = |x| = x if x 0

y

y

x

y = |x|

Properties of Modulus :

For any a, b R

(i)

|a| 0

(iii)

|a| a, |a|

(v)

(vii)

(ii)

|a|

a

b = |b|

|a b| ||a| |b||

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

(iv)

(vi)

ma

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|ab| = |a| |b|

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Er. 81027 5058

|a + b| |a| + 9

|b|

01

8

9

83

|a| = | a|

Page 8

(x)

Signum Function :

A function f (x) = sgn (x) is defined as follows :

1 for x 0

0 for x 0

f(x) = sgn (x) =

1 for x 0

y = 1 if x > 0

|(x)|; x 0

(x)

It is also written as sgn x =

0; x 0

(xi)

y = 1 if x < 0

y = sgn x

|f(x)|; f(x) 0

f(x)

sgn f(x) =

0; f(x)0

Greatest Integer Function or Step Up Function :

The function y = f(x) = [x] is called the greatest integer function where [x] equals to

the greatest integer less than or equal to x. For example :

for 1 x<0 ; [x] = 1 ; for 0 x<1 ;

[x] = 0

for 1 x<2 ; [x] = 1 ; for 2 x<3

;

[x] = 2

and so on.

Properties of greatest integer function :

(a)

x 1 < [x] x

(b)

(c)

(d)

[x] + [ x] =

(xii)

It is defined as, y = {x} = x [x].

e.g. the fractional part of the number 2.1 is 2.1 2 = 0.1 and the fractional part of

3.7 is 0.3.

0 ;

if x is an integer

1 ;

otherwise

y

1

y=1

x

y = (x)

(a)

(b)

{x} + { x} =

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

0 ; if x is an integer

1;

otherwise

ma

r

a

h

S

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

Page 9

(a)

y = sin x

y [ 1,1]

x R;

y

1

(b)

y = cos x

y [ 1,1]

x R;

y

1

0

(c)

x R (2n+1) /2; n I;

y = tan x

y R

(d)

x R n ; n I; y R

y = cot x

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

a

m

r

a

x

h

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

Page 10

(e)

x R n ; n I; y ( , 1,] [1, )

y = cosec x

y

1

(f)

x R (2n+1) /2; n I;

y = sec x

y ( , 1,] [1, )

y

1

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

tan A tanB

tan (A B) = 1 tan A tanB

(f)

cot A cot B 1

cot (A B) =

cot B cot A

(g)

tan (A+B+C) =

1 tanA tanB tanB tanC tanC tanA

(a)

C D

C D

cos

2

2

(b)

C D

C D

sin

2

2

a C D

Cm

D

r

a

sin

h 22 2

S

.

K

.

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L

7

7

.

58 :

Er of

02 &5Cosines

Transformation of Products into Sum or Differences

Sines

1

0

8

9 8

01

(a)

2sinA cosB = sin (A+B) + sin(A B)

(b)

2cosA sinB

= sin(A+B) sin(A B)

9

83

(c)

2cosA cosB = cos(A+B) + cos(A B)

(d)

2sinA sinB = cos(A B) cos(A+B)

(c)

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

C D

C D

cos

2

2

(d)

cosC cosD=

2sin

Page 11

(a)

(b)

cos2A = cos2A

(c)

cos

2tan

2

2 tanA

tan 2A =

; tan =

2

2

1 tan

1 tan A

2 tanA

1tan2 A

; cos 2A =

2

1 tan A

1 tan2 A

(d)

sin 2A =

(f)

(e)

(g)

tan 3A =

3tanA tan3 A

13tan2 A

(a)

sin n = 0 ;

(b)

3 1

5

=

= cos 75o or cos

12

12

2 2

tan 15o =

(c)

3 1

5

=

= sin 75o or sin

12

12

2 2

3 1

= 2 3 = cot 75o ; tan 75o =

3 1

5 1

& cos 36o or cos 5 =

4

3 1

= 2 3 or cot 15o

3 1

5 1

4

Conditional Identities :

If A + B + C = then :

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

A

B

C

cos cos

2

2

2

A

B

C

. sin

. sin

2

2

2

ma

r

a

h

A

B

B

C

C

A

S

.

tan + tan + tan

tan + tan

tan

=1

82

K

.

2

2

2

2

2

2

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r. 1027 058

E

A

B

C

A

B

C

98 8015

cot

+ cot

+ cot

= cot . cot . cot

2

2

2

2

2

2

39

8

cot A cot B + cot B cot C + cot C cot A =1

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 12

(ix)

A+B+C=

2

E = a sin + b cos

E=

=

b

a2 b2 sin( + ) , where tan = a

a2 b2 cos(

), where tan = b

a2 b2 E

a2 b2

sinn

2

n1

sin + sin( + ) + sin( +2 ) + ..... + sin n1 =

sin 2

sin

2

n

sin

2

n1

=

cos 2

sin

2

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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839

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 13

2. QUADRATIC EQUATION

If a0 0, polynomial equation of 'n' degree is represented by a0 x n a1 x n 1 a2 x n 2 .......an 0 ,

where n N . If n = 1, equation is termed as 'linear' and if n=2, equation is termed as

quadratic equation

Note:

(i) Values of 'x' which satisfy the polynomial equation is termed as its roots or zeros.

(ii) If general, polynomial equation of 'n' degree is having n roots, but if it is having more

than n roots, then it represents an identity.

for example:

(c a)(c b) (a b)(a c) (b c)(b a)

(iii) If ax2 + bx + c = 0 is an identity, then a=b=c=0.

(iv) An identity is satisfied for all real values of the variable.

for example: sin2x + cos2x = 1 x R.

2.

The solutions of quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, (a 0) is given by

(i)

2

x = b b 4ac , where b2 4ac=D is called discriminant of quadratic equation.

2a

(ii)

+ =

b

a

c

a

| = |a|

(iii)

Note:

If , , are the roots of ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0, then

b

c

d

, S2 and S3 = ; (where Sk represents sum of

a

a

a

roots taking k roots at a time)

S1 =

= b/a , ( )( ) c / a , ( ) ( ) d / a , e / a.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

then, f(x) a (x )(x )......(x )

82

K

.

6

L

7

7

58

a x a x ........ a x a a (x )(x )........(x

1

) 02

Er. 8

0

5

Comparing the coefficients of like powers of x on both sides,9

we get 801

39

a

coefficient of x 8

S

......

If 1 , 2 , 3 ,........n are roots of the equation f(x) anxn an1xn1 ...... a1x a0 ....(1)

n

n1

n1

n 1

n 1

i 1

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

an

coefficient of xn

Page 14

S2

12 ...... (1)2.

i j

S3

an2

coefficient of xn2

an

coefficient of xn

12 3 2 3 4 ...... (1)3.

i jk

:

:

:

an3

coefficient of xn3

(1)3

an

coefficient of xn

:

:

:

3.

:

:

:

a0

constant term

(1)n

.

an

coeficient of xn

Nature of Roots :

Consider the quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 having , as its roots, D=b2 4ac

Nature of Roots

D=0

D 0

a, b, c R and D > 0

Roots are real and unequal

Roots are imaginary

a, b, c Q and

D is a perfect square

Roots are rational

a,b, c Q and

D is not a perfect square

Roots are irrational

Roots are integral.

Note:

ma

r

a

(i) If the coefficients of the equation ax + bx + c = 0 are all real and h

+ i is its root,

S

.

82

K

.

6

then i is also a root. i.e. imaginary roots occur in conjugate

pairs.

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

(ii) If the coefficients in the equation are all rational and 9 is one of1its roots, then

80

9

3

is also a root where , Q and is not a perfect

8square.

2

expression then D=b24ac = 0.

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 15

4.

Common Roots :

Consider two quadratic equations, a1x2 + b1x + c1=0 and a2x2 + b2x + c2=0.

(i) If two quadratic equations have both roots common, then the equation are identical

and their co-efficient are in proportion. i.e.

a1 b1

c

1

a2 b2

c2

(ii) If only one root is common, then the common root ' ' will be :

c1a2 c2a1

b c b2c1

1 2

a1b2 a2b1

c1a2 c2a1

Hence the condition for one common root is (a1b2 - a2b1 )(b1c2 - b2 c1 ) = (c1a2 - c2 a1 )2

Note:

(i) If f(x) = 0 and g(x) = 0 are two polynomial equation having some common root(s) then

these common root(s) is/are also the root(s) of h(x)=af(x)+bg(x)=0.

(ii) To obtain the common root, make coefficients of x2 in both the equations same and

subtract one equation from the other to obain a linear equation in x and then solve it for

x to get the common root.

5.

If a quadratic expression f(x,y) = ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c may be resolved into two

linear factors, then

a h g

=abc + 2fghaf2bg2ch2 = 0 OR

6.

h b f

g f

=0

y = f(x) = ax2 + bx + c; a 0

2

y D

b

4a = a x

2a

Note:

(i) f(x) = ax2+bx+c represents a parabola.

ma

r

a

h

S

2 shape

(iii) If a>0 then the shape of the parabola is concave upwards and

if.a

< 0 then

8the

K

.

6

L

7

of the parabola is concave downwards.

r. 1027 058

(iv) the parabola intersect the y-axis at point (0,c). E

1the5real roots

98x-axis8are

0

(v) the x-co-ordinate of point of intersection of parabola with

of the quadratic equation f(x) = 0.

839

b

D

,

(ii) the co-ordinate of vertex are

2a 4a

Er. L.K.Sharma

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Page 16

7.

(1) Absolute Range :

D ,

If a > 0 f(x)

and if a < 0 f(x) ,

4a

4a

and it occurs at x =

D

in respective cases

4a

b

(at vertex).

2a

8.

(a) If

b

[x1, x2], then f(x) min f(x1 ), f(x2 ) , max f(x1 ), f(x2 )

2a

(b) If

D

D

b

, max f(x1 ), f(x2 ),

4a

4a

2a

The value of expression f(x) = ax2 + bx + c at x = x0 is equal to y-co-ordinate of a point on

parabola y = ax2 + bx + c whose x-co-ordinate is x0. Hence if the point lies above the x-axis

for some x = x0 then f(x0) > 0 as illustrated in following graphs:

Note:

(i) ax2 bx c 0 x R a 0 and D 0.

(ii) ax2 bx c 0 x R a 0 and D 0.

(iii) ax2 bx c 0 x R a 0 and D 0.

(iv) ax2 bx c 0 x R a 0 and D 0.

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

ma

r

a

h

S

.

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839

Page 17

10.

Location of Roots :

Let f(x) = ax2 + bx + c, where a b c R.

(x0,f(x0))

(A)

x0

(x0,f(x0))

(B)

x0

(C)

x0

(x0,f(x 0))

(i) Conditions for both the roots of f(x) = 0 to be greater than a specified number 'x0'

are b24ac 0 ; af(x0) > 0 and (b/2a) > x0. (refer figure no. (A))

(ii) Conditions for both the roots of f(x) = 0 to be smaller than a specified number 'x0' are

b24ac 0 ; af(x0) > 0 and (b/2a) < x0. (refer figure no. (B))

(iii) Conditions for both roots of f(x) = 0 to lie on either side of the number 'x0' (in other

words the number 'x0' lies between the roots of f(x) = 0) is b2 4ac > 0 and

af(x0) < 0. (refer figure no. (C))

(x1,f(x1))

(D)

x1

(x1,f(x1))

(x2,f(x2))

(E)

x2

x1

x2

(x2,f(x2))

(iv) Condition that both roots of f(x) = 0 to be confined between the numbers x1 and x2,

(x1 < x2) are b2 4ac 0 ; af(x1) > 0 ; af(x2) > 0 and x1<( b/2a)<x2.

(refer figure no. (D))

(v) Conditions for exactly one root of f(x) = 0 to lie in the interval (x1, x2) i.e.

x1 < < x2 is f(x1).f(x2) < 0. (refer figure no. (E))

Important Results

(i) If is a root of the equation f(x) = 0, then the polynomial f(x) is divisible by

(x ) or (x ) is a factor of f(x)

(ii) An equation of odd degree will have odd number of real roots and an equation of

even degree will have even numbers of real roots.

ma

r

a

.Sh root

(iv) The quadratic equation f(x) = ax + bx+c = 0, a 0 has as.aK

repeated

8if2and only

6

L

7

if f( ) = 0 and f'( ) = 0. In this case f(x) = a(x r

27 058

E ) . 81=0b/2a.

5

(v) If polynomial equation f(x) = 0 has a root of multiplicity9

r (where r0

>1

1), then f(x) can

8

be written as f(x) = (x ) g(x), where g( ) 0, also, f'(x)

3=90 has as a root with

8

multiplicity r1.

(iii) Every equation f(x) = 0 of odd degree has at least one real root of a sign opposite to

that of its last constant term. (If coefficient of highest degree term is positive).

2

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 18

f(x)= a0 (x 1 )(x 2 )...(x n ) , where 1 , 2 , ... n are n distinct real roots and

f '(x)

f(x)

(x

k 1

(vii) If there be any two real numbers 'a' and 'b' such that f(a) and f(b) are of opposite

signs, then f(x) = 0 must have odd number of real roots (also at least one real root)

between 'a' and 'b'

(viii) If there be any two real numbers 'a' and 'b' such that f(a) and f(b) are of same

signs, then f(x) = 0 must have even number of real roots between 'a' and 'b'

(ix) If polynomial equation f(x) = 0 has n real roots, then f'(x) = 0 has atleast (n 1) real

roots.

(x) Descartes rule of signs for the roots of a polynomial

The maximum number of positive real roots of a polynomial equation f(x) = 0

is the number of changes of the signs of coefficients of f(x) from positive to negative or

negative to positive.

The maximum number of negative real roots of the polynomial equation f(x) = 0 is the

number of changes from positive to negative or negative to positive in the signs of coefficients of f(x) = 0.

(xi) To form an equation whose roots are reciprocals of the roots in equation

a0 xn a1xn1 ... an1x an 0 , x is replaced by 1/x and then both sides are multiplied

by xn.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

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839

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 19

3. COMPLEX NUMBER

(1)

A number of the form a + ib where a , b R . and i 1 is called a complex number. If

z = a + ib , then the real part of z is denoted by Re(z) and the imaginary part of z is denoted

by Im(z). A complex number z is said to by purely real if Im(z) = 0 and is said to be purely

imaginary if Re(z) = 0.

Note:

Zero is the only number which is purely real as well as purely imaginary..

i

Sum of four consecutive powers of 'i' is always zero ( i.e. (i)n (i)n 1 (i)n 2 (i)n 3 0 ) ,

where n I .

non-negative.

(2)

Algebraic Operations :

1. Addition :

3. Multiplication : (a + bi)(c + di) = ac + adi + bci + bdi2 = (ac bd) + (ad + bc)i

4. Division :

a bi

a bi c di ac bd (bc ad)i ac bd bc ad i

=

.

2

2

2

c2 d2

c di

c di c di

c d2 c d

Note:

(i) In real numbers if a2 + b2 = 0 then a = b = 0 but in complex numbers, z12 + z22 = 0

does not imply z1 = z2 = 0.

(ii) Inequalities in complex numbers are not defined (Law of order is not applicable for

complex numbers).

(3)

Two complex numbers z1 = a1 + ib1 and z2 = a2 + ib2 are equal if and only if their

corresponding real and imaginary parts are equal respectively

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

Conjugate of Complex Number :

.

6

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7

r. 1027 058

E

Conjugate of a complex number z = a + ib is denoted by z and

aib.

1(a5,asb) zon=the

98and is8defined

0

Geometrically a complex number z = a + ib is represented by ordered

pair

9 axis represents the

complex plane (or Argand plane) and the mirror image of z about

83real

(4)

z1 = z2

conjugate of z.

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 20

z1 z2 z1 z2

(z) z

z z 2 Re(z)

z z 2i Im(z)

z z z is purely real

z z 0 z is purely imaginary.

zz [Re(z)]2 [Im(z)]2 | z |2

z1 z2 z1 z2

z1 z2 z1 z2

z1z2 z1 z2

z z

1 1 if z2 0

z2 z2

(z)n zn

If f(z) a0 a1z a2z2 ... anzn where a0 , a1 ,....an and z are complex number , then

f(z) a0 a1 (z) a2 (z)2 ... an (z)n

2z 3z3

For example :

4z 1

(5)

2z 3(z)3

4z 1

If z = a + ib , then modulus of complex number z is denoted by |z| and defined as

| z |

Properties of modulus :

| z | 0 z 0

| z | Re(z) | z |

zz | z |2

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

ma

r

a

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S

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82

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| z | | z | | z | |8

9 801

| z | Im(z) | z 3

8| 9

| z1 z2 | | z1 || z2 |

Page 21

z1

z1

, if z2 0

z2

z2

| z1 z2 |2 | z1 |2 | z2 |2 z1z2 z1z2

| z1 z2 |2 | z1 |2 | z2 |2 z1z2 z1z2

| z1 |2 | z2 |2 2 Re(z1z2 )

| z1 z2 |2 | z1 z2 |2 2(| z1 |2 | z2 |2 )

| z1 |2 | z2 |2 2 Re(z1z2 )

If z1 , z2 0, then | z1 z2 |2 | z1 |2 | z2 |2

z1

is purely imaginary.

z2

Geometrically |z1 z2| represents the distance between complex points z1 and z2 on

argand plane.

Triangle Inequality :

If z1 and z2 are two complex numbers , then

| z1 z2 | | z1 | | z2 | .

| z1 z2 | | z1 | | z2 |

The sign of equality holds iff z1 , z2 and origin are collinear and z1 , z2 lies on same side of

origin.

(6)

If non-zero complex number z is represented on the argand plane by complex point 'P' ,

then argument ( or amplitude ) of z is the angle which OP makes with positive direction of

real axis.

1

Let complex number z = a + ib and tan

b

, then principal argument of z is given as

a

arg(z) ( ) , if z lies in II quadrant.

arg(z) ( ) , if z lies in III quadrant.

arg(z) , if z lies in IV quadrant.

Note:

Argument of a complex number is not unique , according to definition if is a value of

argument , then 2n n I is also the argument of complex number..

principal argument.

Unless otherwise mentioned , arg(z) implies the principal argument.

Properties of Argument of Complex Number :

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

arg(z ) = n arg(z) + 2k for some integer k.

L

7

r. 1027 058

E

arg(z) = 0 z is real, for any complex number z 0 98

15

0

8

39 z 0

arg(z) = /2 z is purely imaginary, for any complex8

number

arg(z1/z2) = arg(z1)arg(z2) + 2k for some integer k.

arg( z ) = arg(z)

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

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Page 22

(7)

(a) Cartesian Form (Geometric Representation) :

Complex number z = x + i y is represented by a point on the complex plane (Argand plane/

Gaussian plane) by the ordered pair (x , y).

(b) Trigonometric/Polar Representation :

z r(cos i sin ) , where | z | r and arg z , represents the polar form of complex

number

Note:

cos i sin is also written as cis or ei .

cos x

eix eix

eix eix

and sin x

are known as Euler ' s Identities

2

2

z rei , where | z | r and arg z , represents the Euler's form of complex number

Every complex number can be considered as if it is the position vector of a point. If

the point P represents the complex number z then , OP= z and |OP|=|z|.

(8)

Demoivre's Theorem :

If n is any rational number , then (cos i sin )n cos n i sinn.

If z (cos 1 i sin 1 )(cos 2 i sin 2 )(cos 3 i sin 3 )....(cos n i sin n ) then

z cos(1 2 3 .... n ) i sin(1 2 .... n ) , where 1 , 2 , 3 ..... n R

2k+

2k

z1 / n r1 / n cos

i sin

n

n

ma

r

a

2k p

2k

h p ,2

S

If p , q z and q 0 , then (cos i sin )

cos

i sin

.

K

q L.

q 68

7

7

.

r

2

E 810 5058

where k = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 .... (q1).

9 801

Note:

9

83complex

This theorem is not valid when n is not a rational number or the

number is not in

p /q

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 23

(9)

Let x (1)1 / 3

x3 1 0 (x 1)(x2 x 1) 0.

x 1 ,

1 i 3 1 i 3

,

2

2

1 i 3

1 i 3

, then 2

2

2

If

3n 1 ; 3n 1 ; 3n 2 2 n I

1 0

3 1

2 and 2

0 , if k is not multiple of 3

1 k 2k

1 , if k is multiple of 3

1

1

and 2

2

2

4

4

+ i sin

, cos

+ i sin

3

3

3

3

The cube roots of unity , when represented on complex plane , lie on vertices of an

equilateral triangle inscribed in a unit circle having centre at origin , one vertex being on

positive real axis.

cos 0 + i sin 0 , cos

3 or

3 : 1 , can always be

expressed in terms of i , , 2 .

Note:

If x , y , z R and is non-real cube root of unity , then

x2 x 1 (x )(x 2 )

x2 x 1 (x )(x 2 )

x2 xy y2 (x y)(x y2 )

x2 xy y2 (x y)(x y2 )

x2 y2 (x iy)(x iy)

x3 y3 z3 3xyz (x y z)(x y 2 z)(x 2 y z)

The nth roots of unity are given by the solution set of the equation

xn = 1 = cos 0 + i sin 0 = cos 2 k + i sin 2 k

ma

r

a

2k

2k

h

S

x cos

i sin

, where k 0 , 1 , 2 ,...., (n 1).

.

82

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n

.

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Properties of n roots of unity

9 801

2

2

3be9expressed in the form

i sin

e

, then n roots of unity can

(i) Let cos

8

n

n

x = [cos 2 k + i sin 2 k ]1/n

th

i(2 / n)

th

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 24

(iii) Product of all n roots of unity is (1)n1.

(iv) Sum of pth power of nth roots of unity

0 , when p is not multiple of n

1 p 2p .... (n 1)p

n , when p is a multiple of n

(v) The n, nth roots of unity if represented on a complex plane locate their positions at the

vertices of a regular plane polygon of n sides inscribed in a unit circle having centre at

origin, one vertex on vertex on positive real axis.

(i) If P(z1) and Q(z2) are two complex numbers such that |z1| = |z2| , then :

(ii) If P(z1), Q(z2) and R(z3) are three complex numbers and PQR =

, then:

Let z = x + iy , then z | z |(e)i

logeZ

2

2

1

loge(x y ) i arg(z)

2

ma

r

a

h

(13) Standard Loci in the Argand Plane :

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

.

27 05of8z is a

Erarg(z)

If z is a variable point in the argand plane such that

=0

, then locus

1

15

98

straight line (excluding origin) through the origin inclined at an

angle8

with x-axis.

0

39

8

If z is a variable point and z is a fixed point in the argand plane such that

1

arg(z z1) = , then locus of z is a straight line passing through the point representing z1

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 25

and inclined at an angle with x-axis. Note that line point z1 is excluded from the locus.

If z is a variable point and z1 , z2 are two fixed points in the argand plane , then

(i) |z z1| = |z z2| Locus of z is the perpendicular bisector of the line segment

joining z1 and z2

(ii) | z z1 | | z z2 | constant (| z1 z2 |) Locus of z is an ellipse

(iii) |z z1| + |z z2| = |z1 z2| Locus of z is the line segment joining z1 and z2

(iv) |z z1| |z z2| = |z1 z2| Locus of z is a straight line joining z1 and z2 but z

does not lie between z1 and z2.

(v) |z z1| |z z2| = constant ( |z1 z2|) Locus of z is hyperbola.

(vi) |z z1|2 + |z z2|2 = |z1 z2|2 Locus of z is a circle with z1 and z2 extremities of

diameter

(vii) |z z1| = k |z z2| k 1

z z1

(viii) arg

z z2

Locus of z is a circle

z z1

(ix) arg

/ 2 Locus of z is a circle with z1 and z2 as the vertices of diameter..

z z2

z z1

(x) arg

0 or Locus z is a straight line passing through z1 and z2.

z z2

(xi) The equation of the line joining complex numbers z 1 and z 2 is given by

z z1

z z1

or

z2 z1

z2 z1

z

z1

z2

z 1

z1 1 0

z2 1

(i) Distance formula :

If P(z1) and Q(z2) are two complex points on complex plane then distance between P and Q

is given by : PQ = |z1 z2|

(ii) Section formula :

If P(z1) and Q(z2) are two complex points on complex plane and R(z) divides the line

segment PQ in ratio m : n , then :

z

mz2 nz1

mn

mz2 nz1

mn

Note:

If a, b, c are three real numbers such that az1 + bz2 + cz3 = 0 , where a + b + c = 0 and a,

b, c are not all simultaneously zero, then the complex numbers z1, z2 and z3 are collinear.

ma

r

a

h

(iii) Triangular Properties :

S

.

8z2, z

K

.

6

If the vertices A, B and C of a triangle is represented by the complex

numbers

L

7

z respectively and a, b, c are the length of sides , then

Er:. 81027 5058

9 801

z z z

Centroid (Z ) of the ABC =

3

839

1

and

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tan A tanB tan C

abc

sin2A sin2B sin 2C

Note:

Triangle ABC with vertices A(z1) , B(z2) and C(z3) is equilateral if and only if

1

1

1

0

z1 z2 z2 z3 z3 z1

z12 z22 z23 z1z2 z2 z3 z3z1

An equation of a straight line joining the two points A(z1) and B(z2) is

z

z1

z 1

z1 1 0

z2

z2 1

An equation of the straight line joining the point A(z1) and B(z2) is z = tz1 + (1 t)z2

where t is is a real parameter.

The general equation of a straight line is az az b 0 where a is a non-zero complex

number and b is a real number

(v) Complex Slope of a Line :

If A(z1) and B(z2) are two points is the complex plane , then complex slope of AB is defined

to be

z1 z2

two lines with complex slopes 1 and 2 are

z1 z2

parallel , if 1 2

perpendicular , if 1 2 0 the complex slope of the line az az b 0 is given by

(a / a)

(vi) Length of Perpendicular from a Point to a Line :

Len gt h

of

perpen di cu lar

of

poi n t

A()

from

t he

l i ne

az az b 0 ,

| a a b |

2 | a|

An equation of the circle with centre at z0 and radius r is

|r z0| = r

or z z0 rei , 0 2 (parametric from)

ma

r

a

General equatio of a circle is

h

S

.

82

K

.

(1)

6

zz az az b 0

L

7

.

27 058

Erthat

where a is a complex number and b is a real number such

aa10

b0

98 8015

Centre of (1) is a and its radius is aa b .

839

Diameter Form of a Circle

or zz z0 z0z z0 z0 r3 0

An equation of the circle one of whose diameter is the segment joining A(z1) and B(z2) is

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 27

(z z1 )(z z2 ) (z z1 )(z z2 ) 0

An equation of the circle passing through two points A(z 1) and B(z 2 ) is

z

(z z1 )(z z2 ) (z z1 )(z z2 ) k z1

z2

z 1

z1 1 0 where k is a parameter

z2 1

Let three non-collinear points be A(z1) , B(z2) and C(z3). Let P(z) be any point on the circle.

Then either ACB APB [when angles are in the same segment]

ACB APB [when angles are in the opposite segment]

or

z z2

z z2

arg 3

arg

0

z z1

z3 z1

z z2

z z1

arg 3

arg

z3 z1

z z2

z z2 z z1

arg 3

0

z3 z1 z z2

z z1 z3 z2

arg

z z2 z3 z1

z

[using arg 1 arg(z1 ) arg(z2 ) and arg(z1z2 ) arg(z1 ) arg(z2 ) ]

z2

(z z1 )(z3 z2 )

In any case , we get (z z )(z z ) is purely real.

2

3

1

(z z1 )(z3 z2 ) (z z1 )(z3 z2 )

(z z2 )(z3 z1 ) (z z2 )(z3 z1 )

Condition for four points to be concyclic. Four points z1 , z2 , z3 are z4 will lie on the same

(z4 z1 )(z3 z2 )

circle if and only if (z z )(z z ) is purely real.

4

2

3

1

(z1 z3 )(z2 z4 )

is purely real.

(z1 z4 )(z2 z3 )

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Page 28

4. BINOMIAL THEOREM

An algebraic expression which contains two distinct terms is called a binomial

expression.

3 3

y x

General form of binomial expression is (a+b) and the expansion of (a+b)n, n N is called

the binomial theorem.

For example :

(a + b)1 = a + b

(a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

Note:

Coefficients in the binomial expansion is termed as binomial coefficients and these

binomial coefficients have a fixed pattern which can be seen through pascal triangle

(2)

If a, b C and n N, then :

(a + b)n = nC0 anb0 + nC1 an1 b1 + nC2 an2 b2 + ... + nCr anr br + ... + nCn a0 bn

n

or

(a b)n

Cr an rbr

r 0

Now, putting a = 1 and b = x in the binomial theorem

(1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1 x + nC2 x2 + ... + nCr xr + ... + nCn xn

n

(1 x)n

Cr xr

r 0

(3)

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(i) The number of terms in the expansion is n + 1.Er.

0

1

98 8015

(ii) The sum of the indices of 'a' and 'b' in each term is n.

39 equidistant from

8terms

(iii) The binomial coefficients (i.e. C , C ........ C ) of the

Properties of Binomial Theorem :

the beginning and the end are equal, i.e. C0 = nCn , nC1 = nCn1 etc. { nCr = nCnr}

(iv) Middle term (s) in expansion of (a + b)n , n N :

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 29

If n is even, then number of terms are odd and in this case only one middle term

n 2

exists which is

th

therm if n is odd, then number of terms are even and in this case

n 2

two middle terms exist which are

7.

th

n 3

and

th

terms .

(1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + ......... + Crxr + ........ + Cnxn

(1)

Putting x = 1 in (1)

n

C0 + nC1 + nC2 + ....... + nCn = 2n

......(2)

n

or

r 0

(2)

.....(1)

C = 2n

r

n

C0 nC1 + nC2 nC3 + ............... + ( 1)n nCn = 0

......(3)

(1)r nCr = 0

or

r 0

(3)

The sum of the binomial coefficients at odd position is equal to the sum of the

binomial coefficients at even position and each is equal to 2n 1.

from (2) and (3)

n

C0 + nC2 + nC4 + ............... = 2n 1

n

C1

+ nC3 + nC5 + .............. = 2n 1

(4)

n

Cr + nCr 1 = n+1Cr

L.H.S. = nCr + nCr 1

n!

(n r)!r!

n!

1 1

(n r)!(r 1)! r n r 1

n!

(n 1)

(n r)!(r 1)! r(n r 1)

(n 1)!

=

(n r 1)!r!

n+1

Cr

= R.H.S.

n

(6)

n!

(n r 1)!(r 1)!

(5)

=

r-1

Cr =

n

r

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9810277682/8398015058

nr 1

r

1Cr

n(n 1)

1 = r(r 1)

2Cr

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.

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1 n (r 1))

9n(n 1)(n802).......(

9

= .......... = 83

r(r 1)(r 2).........2.1

Page 30

8.

If n R then,

(1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

.............. +

n(n 1) 2

n(n 1)(n 2) 3

x +

x + .............

2!

3!

x + ............ .

r!

Remarks

(i)

The above expansion is valid for any rational number other than a whole

number if |x| < 1.

(ii)

When the index is a negative integer or a fraction the number of terms in the

expansion of (1 + x)n is infinite, and the symbol nCr cannot be used to denote

the coefficient of the general term.

(iii)

The first terms must be unity in the expansion, when index 'n' is a negative

integer or fraction

(iv)

=

x

r!

(v)

When 'n' is any rational number other than whole number then approximate

value of (1 + x)n is 1 + nx(x2 and higher powers of x can be neglected)

(vi)

(a)

(1 + x) 1 = 1 x + x2 x3 + ....... + ( 1)r xr + .......

(b)

(1 x) 1 = 1 + x + x2 + x5 + .............. + xr + .......

(c)

(1 + x) 2 = 1 2x + 3x2 4x3 + .....( 1)r (r + 1) xr + .......

(d)

(1 x) 2 = 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + ..... + (r + 1)xr + .......

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Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 31

Permutations are arrangements and combinations are selections. In this chapter we discuss

the methods of counting of arrangements and selections. The basic results and formulas are

as follows :

(1)

(i) Principle of Multiplication :

If an event can occur in 'm' different ways, following which another event can occur in 'n'

different ways, then total number of different ways of simultaneous occurrence of both

the events in a definite order is m + n.

(ii) Principle of Addition :

If an event can occur in 'm' different ways, and another event can occur in 'n' different

ways, then exactly one of the events can happen in m + n ways.

(2)

The Factorial :

Let n be a positive integer. Then the continued product of first n natural numbers is called

factorial n, be denoted by n! or n . Also , we define 0! = 1.

when n is negative or a fraction, n ! is not defined.

Thus , n ! = n (n1) (n2).......3.2.1.

Also , 1! 1 (0!) 0! 1.

(3)

Arrangement or Permutation :

The number of permutations of n different things, taking r at a time without repetition is

given by nPr

n!

(n r)!

Note:

(i) The number of permutations of n different things, taking r at a time with repetition is

given by nr

(ii) The number of arrangements that can be formed using n objects out ow which

p are identical (and of one kind) q are identical (and of another kind), r are identical

(and of another kind) and the rest are distinct is

(4)

n!

.

p!q!r !

Conditional Permutations :

ma

r

a

h

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.

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6

C r!

always occur

L

7

r. 1which

27p particular

58things

0

(ii) Number of permutation of n dissimilar things takenE

r at a time

0

5

8

9 801

C r!

never occur

839

(i) Number of permutation of n dissimilar things taken r at a time which p particular things

n p

r p

n p

r p

(iii) The total number of permutation of n dissimilar things taken not more than r at a time,

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n(nr 1)

.

n1

(iv) Number of permuutations of n different things, taken all at a time, when m specified

when each thing may be repeated any number of times, is

(v) Number of permutation of n different things, taken all at a time when m specified things

never come together is n! m! (n m 1)!

(5)

Circular Permutation:

The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a time is given by

(n 1)! , provided clockwise and anti-clockwise circular permutations are considered to be

differnt

Note:

(i) The number of circular permutations of n different things taken all at a time , clockwise

and anti-clockwise circular permutations are considered to be same , is given by

(6)

(n 1)!

.

2

Selection or Combinations :

The number of combinations of n different things taken r at a time is given by nCr , where

n

Cr =

n

n!

Pr

=

where r n ; n N are r W..

r!(n - r)!

r!

Note:

(i) nCr is a natural number.

(iii) nCr = nCnr

(iv) nCr + nCr1 = n+1Cr

(vi) If n is even then the greatest value of nCr is nCn/2

(vii) If n is odd then the greatest value of nCr is nC(n+1)/2 or nC(n1)/2

n

n n 1

n

(viii) Cr r . Cr 1

(x)

(7)

Cr

(ix)

r 1 n 1

. Cr 1

n1

Cr

Cr 1

nr 1

r

(a) Number of ways in which atleast one object be selected out of 'n' distinct objects is

n

C1 + nC2 + nC3 + ........ + nCn = 2n1

(b) Number of ways in which atleast one object may be selected out of 'p' alike objects

of one type 'q' alike objects of second type and 'r' alike of third type is

(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1)1

ma

r

a

h'n' objects

(c)

Number of ways in which atleast one object may be selected .

from

S

2 where

8

K

.

'p' alike of one type 'q' alike of second type and 'r' alike

of

third

type

and

rest

6

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n (p + q + r) are different , is

Er. 81027 5058

(p + 1) (q + 1) (r + 1) 2

1

9 801

39

8

Formation of Groups :

n(p + q + r)

(8)

Number of ways in which ( m + n +p) different things can be divided into three different

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 33

(m n p)!

,

m!n!p!

If m = n = p and the groups have identical qualitative characteristic then the number of

groups =

(3n)!

.

n!n!n!3!

However , if 3n things are to be divided equally among three people then the number of

(3n)!

ways =

8.

(n!)3

Multinomial Theorem :

Coefficient of xr in expansion of (1 x) n = n + r 1Cr (n N)

Number of ways in which it is possible to make a selection from m + n + p = N things, where

p are alike of one kind , m alike of second kind & n alike of third kind taken r at a time is given

by coefficient of xr in the expansion of

(1 + x + x2 + ....... + xp) (1 + x + x2 + ..... + xm) (1 + x + x2 + ..... + xn).

(i)

For example the number of ways in which a selection of four letters can be made

from the letters of the word PROPORTION is given by coefficient of x4 in

(1 + x + x2 + x3) ( 1 + x + x2) (1 + x + x2) (1 + x) (1 + x).

(ii)

Number of ways in which n identical things may be distributed among p persons if

each person may receive one, one or more things is; n+p 1Cn

Let N = pa qb rc ... where p, q, r... are distinct primes & a, b, c... are natural numbers then :

9.

10.

11.

(a)

(b)

(p0 + p1 + p2 + ... + pa) (q0 + q1 + q2 + ....... + qb ) (r0 + r1 + r2 + ... + rc)....

(c)

1/2 (a+1)(b+1)(c+1)....

if N is not a perfect square

1/2 [(a+1)(b+1)(c+1)...+1] if N is a perfect square

(d)

Number of ways in which a composite number N can be resolved into two factors

which are relatively prime ( or coprime) to each other is equal to 2n 1 where n is the

number of different prime factors in N.

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Dearrangement :

Er. 81027 5058

9 envelopes

Number of ways in which 'n' letters can be put in 'n' corresponding

01 such that no

8

9

letter goes to correct envelope is

83

Let there be 'n' types of objects, with each type containing atleast r objects. Then the

number of ways of arranging r objects in a row is nr.

n! 1

1!

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

2!

3!

4!

.......... ....... ( 1)

1

.

n!

Page 34

Exponent of Prime p in n!

If p is a prime number and n is a positive integer , then Ep(n) denotes the exponent of the

prime p in the positive integer n.

n

n n n

Ep (n!) 2 3 .... s where S is the largest naturla number. Such that

p p p

p

ps n ps 1.

(i) Number of total different straight lines formed by joining the n points on a plane of which

m(< n) are collinear is nC2 mC2 + 1.

(ii) Number of total triangle formed by joining the n points on a plane of which m (< n) are

collinear is nC3 mC3.

(iii) Number of diagonals in a polygon of n sides is nC2 n.

(iv) If m parallel lines in a plane are intersected by a family of other n parallel line. Then total

mn(m 1)(n 1)

4

(v) Given n points on the circumference of a circle, then

(a) Number of straight lines = nC2

(b) Number of traingles = nC3

n

(c) Number of quadrilaterals = C4.

(vi) If n straight lines are drawn in the plane such that no two lines are parallel and no three

lines are concurrent. then the number of part into which these lines divide the plane is

C2 nC2 i.e.

1 n.

n

r 1

n

size is

r 1

np

(n 1)(p 1) and

4

(n 1 r)(p 1 r).

r 1

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Mathematics Concept Note

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6. PROBABILITY

Theory of probability measures the degree of certainty or uncertainty of an event, if an

event is represented by 'E', then its probability is given by notation P(E), where 0 P(E) 1.

(1)

Basic terminology:

(i) Random Experiment :

It is a process which results in an outcome which is one of the various possible outcomes

that are known to happen, for example : throwing of a dice is a random experiment as it

results in one of the outcome from {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}, similarly taking a card from a pack of

52 cards is also a random experiment.

(ii) Sample Space :

It is the set of all possible outcomes of a random experiment for example : {H, T} is the

sample space associated with tossing of a coin.

In set notation it can be interpreted as the universal set.

(iii) Event :

It is subset of sample space. for example : getting a head in tossing a coin or getting a

prime number is throwing a die. In general if a sample space consists 'n' elements, then a

maximum of 2n events can be associated with it.

Note:

Each element of the sample space is termed as the sample point or an event point.

The complement of an event 'A' with respect to a sample space S is the set of all

AA S

P(A) P(A) 1

Complement of event

If an event covers only one point of sample space, then it is called a simple event, for

example : getting a head followed by a tail in throwing of a coin 2 times is a simple event.

(v) Compound Event or mixed event (Composite Event) :

when two or more than two events occur simultaneously then event is said to be a

compound event and it contains more than one element of sample space. for example :

when a dice is thrown, the event of occurrence of an odd number is mixed event.

(vi) Equally likely Events :

If events have same chance of occurrence, then they are said to be equally likely events.

For example :

In a single toss of a fair coin, the events {H} and {T} are equally likely..

In a single throw of an unbiased dice the events {1}, {2} , {3}, {4}, {5} and

{6} are equally likely.

In tossing a biased coin the events {H} and {T} are not equally likely..

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9

(vii) Mutually Exclusive / Disjoint / Incompatible Events8

: 3

Two events are said to be mutually exclusive if occurrence of one of them rejects the

possibility of occurrence of the other (i.e. both cannot occur simultaneously).

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 36

Mathematically, A B

P(A B) 0

For example:

When a coin is tossed the event of occurrence of a head and the event of occurrence of

a tail are mutually exclusive events.

When a dice is thrown sample space S = (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6),

Let A = the event of occurrence of a number greater than 4 = {5, 6}

B = the event of occurrence of an odd number = {1, 3, 5}

C = the event of occurrence of an even number = {2, 4, 6}

Now B and C are mutually exclusive events but A and B are not mutually exclusive because

they can occur together (when the number 5 turns up).

(viii) Exhaustive System of Events :

If each outcome of an experiment is associated with at least one of the events E1, E2, E3,

.... En, then collectively the events are said to be exhaustive.

Mathematically, E1 E2 E3........ En = S..

For example.

In random experiment of rolling an unbiased dice, S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Let E1 = the event of occurence of prime number = {2, 3, 5}

E2 = the event of occurence of an even number = {2, 4, 6}

E3 = the event of occurence of number less than 3 = {1, 2}

Now, E1 E2 E3 S and hence events E1, E2 and E3 are mutually exhaustive events.

(2)

If a random experiment results in a total of (m + n) outcomes which are equally likely and

mutually exclusive and exhaustive and if 'm' outcomes are favourable to an event 'E' while

'n' are unfavourable, then the probability of occurrence of the event 'E', denoted by P(E), is

given by :

P(E) =

m

=

total number of outcomes

mn

P(E)

n(E)

n(S)

Note:

(i) In above definition, odds in favour of 'E' are m : n, while odds against 'E' are n : m .

(ii) P(E) or P(E ') or P(Ec ) denotes the probability of non-occurrence of E.

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Notation of an event in set theory:

Er. 81027 5058

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In dealing with problems of probability, it is important to convert the

39verbal description of an

event into its equivalent set theoretic notation. Following8

table illustrates the verbal

P(E) 1 P(E)

(3)

n

mn

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 37

AB

AB

AB

AB

(A B) (A B)

A BC

A BC

A BC

A BC

(A B C) (A B C) (A B C)

(A B) (B C) (A C)

(A B C) (A B C) (A B C)

A B C A B C.

Note:

(i) De Morgan's Law :

If A and B are two subsets of a universal set, then

(A B)c A c Bc and (A B)c Ac Bc.

A (B C) (A B) (A C)

A (B C) (A B) (A C).

(iii) Venn diagram for events A , B , C :

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Page 38

(4)

If 'A' and 'B' are any two events associated with a random experiment, then

(i) P(A B) = P(A) + P(B) P(A B) or P(A B) P(A) P(B) P(AB).

(ii) P(A B) P(B) P(A B)

(iii) P(A B) P(A) P(A B)

If A , B , C are three events associated with a random experiment, then

(v) P(A B C) P(A) P(B) P(c) P(A B) P(B C) P(A C) P(A B C)

(vi) P(at least two of A, B c occur) = P(B C) + P(C A) + P(A B)2P(A B C)

(vii) P(exactly two of A, B, c occur) = P(B C) + P(C A) + P(A B)3P(A B C)

(viii) P(exactly one of A, B , C occur) =

P(A) + P(B) + P(C)2P(B C)2P(C A)2P(A B) + 3P(A B C)

(5)

If two events are such that occurence or non-occurence of one does not effect the

chances of occurence or non-occurence of the other event, then the events are said to be

independent. Mathematically : if P(A B) P(A).P(B) then A and B are independent.

For example

When a coin is tossed twice, the event of occurrence of head in the first throw and the

event of occurrence of head in the second throw are independent events.

When two cards are drawn out of a full pack of 52 playing cards with replacement (the

first card drawn is put back in the pack and the second card is drawn), then the event of

occurrence of a king in the first draw and the event of occurrence of a king in the second

draw are independent events because the probability of drawing a king in the second draw

4

whether a king is drawn in the first draw or not. But if the two cards are drawn

52

without replacement then the two events are not independent.

is

Note:

(i) If A and B are independent , then A' and B' are independent , A and B' are independent

and A' and B are independent.

(ii) Three events A,B and C are independent if and only if all the three events are pairwise

independent as well as mutually independent.

(iii) Complementation Rule :

If A and B are independent events, then

P(A B) 1 P(A B)

1 P(A B)

1 P(A).P(B)

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P(A B C) 1 P(A).P(B).P(C).

(6)

Conditional Probability

Let A and B be any two events, B , then P(A/B) denotes the conditional probability of

occurrence of event A when B has already occurred.

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For example :

When a die is thrown, sample space S = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6}

Let

A = the event of occurrence of a number greater than 4.

= {5, 6}

B = the event of occurrence of an odd number.

= {1, 3, 5}

Then P(A/B) = probability of occurrence of a number greater than 4, when an odd number

has occurred

Note:

A

A

A

A

(i) If B , then P P 1 and P P 1.

B

B

B

B

B

B

P(B) P(A).P P(A).P .

A

A

(7)

If A and B are any two events, then

A

A

P(A B) P(B). P , where B and P denotes the probability of occurrence of

B

B

event A when B has already occurred.

If A and B are independent events, then probability of occurrence of event A is not

affected by occurrence or nor occurrence of event B, therefore

A

P P(A)

B

(8)

If an event A can occur with one of the n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events

B1, B2,..., Bn and the probabilities P(A / B1 ),P(A / B2 ),........,P(A / Bn ) are known , then

n

P(A)

P(B ).P(A / B ).

i

i 1

(9)

Let B1 , B2 , B3 , ........... , Bn is a set of n mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and

event A can occur with any of the event B1 , B2 , ...... , Bn . If event 'A' has occured, then

Bi

probability that event 'A' had occured with event Bi is given by P

A

A

P(Bi ).P

B

Bi

P i n

A

A

P(Bi ).P

Bi

i 1

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Particular Case :

Let A , B , C be three mutually exclusive and exhaustive events and event 'E' can occur with

any of the events A , B and C as shown in diagram:

Now, if event 'E' had occurred, then

y

A

P

E x y z

E

P(A).P

A

A

P

E P(A)P E P(B)P E P(c)P E

A

B

C

Let a random experiment is conducted for n trials and in each trial an event 'E' is defined for

which the probability of its occurence is 'p' and probability of non-occurence is 'q', where

p+q = 1. Now if in n trials, event 'E' occurs for r times, then the probability of occurence of

event 'E' for r times is given by:

P(r) nCr (p)r (q)n r .

Note:

(i) (q p)n nC0 qn nC1(p)(q)n 1 n C2 (p)2 (q)n 2 ........ nCn (p)n

(ii) For Binomial Probability distribution, it mean and variance is given by np and npq respectively

If the number of sample points in sample space is infinite, then classical definition of

probability can't be applied. For uncountable uniform sample space, probability P is given

by:

P=

favourable dimension

total dimension

For example:

If a point is taken at random on a given straight line segment AB, the chance that it falls

on a particular segment PQ of the line segment is PQ/AB.

If a point is taken at random on the area S which includes an area , the chance that the

point falls on is /S.

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7. MATRICES

Any rectangular arrangement of numbers (real or complex) is called a matrix. If a matrix has 'm' rows

and 'n' columns then the order of matrix is denoted by m n.

If A = [aij ]mn , where aij denotes the element of ith row and jth column , then it represents the following

matrix :

a13

a11 a12

A

ai1

ai2

ai3

(1)

aij

a2j

aij

amj

a1n

a2n

ain

amn

Basic Definitions :

(i) Row matrix : A matrix having only one row is called as row matrix.

General form of row matrix is A = [a11 a12 a13 ...... a1n]

(ii) Column matrix : A matrix having only one column is called as column matrix.

a11

a21

am1

(iii) Singleton matrix : If in a matrix there is only one element then it is called singleton m a t r i x .

A [aij]mn is a singleton matrix if m = n = 1. For example : [2] , [3] , [a] , [3] are singleton matrices.

(iv) Square matrix : A matrix in which number of rows and columns are equal is called a

square matrix. General form of a square matrix is A = [aij]n.

a12

a11

a

a

22

A 21

an1 an2

a1n

a2n

ann

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(i) In a square matrix , the elements of the form a is termed as diagonal

where

15

98 elements,

0

8

i = 1 , 2 , 3 , ...... , n and line joining these elements is called the principal diagonal

or

839

leading diagonal or main diagonal.

ii

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(ii) Summation of the diagonal elements of a square matrix is termed as its trace.

n

ii

i 1

tr(A) tr(A)

tr(AB) tr(BA)

tr(In ) n

tr(O) 0

tr(AB) tr A.tr B

(v) Rectangular Matrix : A matrix in which number of rows in not equal to number of

columns is termed as rectangular matrix. A [aij]mn is rectangular if m n .

If m > n, matrix is termed as vertical matrix and if m < n , matrix is termed as horizontal matrix.

(vi) Zero matrix : A = [aij]m n is called a zero matrix if aij = 0 i and j.

For example :

0 0

O2

0 0

O32

0 0

0 0

0 0

(vii) Diagonal matrix : A square matrix [aij]n is said to be a diagonal matrix if aij = 0 for

i j. (i.e. all the elements of the square matrix other than diagonal elements are zero).

Diagonal matrix of order n is denoted as diag (a11, a22, ...... , ann).

(viii) Scalar matrix : Scalar matrix is a diagonal matrix in which all the diagonal elements

are same. A = [aij]n is a scalar matrix if aij = 0 for i j and aij = k for i = j.

(ix) Unit matrix (Identity matrix) : Unit matrix is a diagonal matrix in which all the

diagonal elements are unity. Unit matrix of order 'n' is denoted by In (or I). A = [aij]n is a unit

matrix if aij = 0 for i j and aii = 1 for i = j

For example :

1 0

I2 =

, I3 =

0 1

1 0 0

0 1 0 .

0 0 1

(x) Triangular Matrix : A square matrix [aij]n is said to be triangular matrix if each element

above or below the principal diagonal is zero. It is of two types :

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Lower triangular matrix :

39

8

A = [a ] is said to be lower triangular matrix if a = 0 for i < j. (i.e. all the elements

A = [aij]n is said to be upper triangular if aij = 0 for i > j (i.e. all the elements below the

diagonal elements are zero).

ij n

ij

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Note:

n(n 1)

, where n is order of

2

triangular matrix.

Diagonal matrix is both upper and lower triangular.

(xi) Singular and Non-singular matrix : Any square matrix A is said to be non-singular if

| A | 0 , and a square matrix A is said to be singular if |A| = 0. det (A) or |A| represents determinant

of square matrix A.

(xii) Comparable matrices : Two matrices A and B are said to be comparable if they have

the same order.

(xiii) Equality of matrices :Two matrices A and B are said to be equal if they are compa

rable and all the corresponding elements are equal.

Let A = [aij]m n and B = [bij]p q , then

A = B m = p, n = q and aij = bij i and j.

(2)

let be a scalar (real or complex number ) and A = [aij]m n be a matrix , then A is defined

as [ aij ]mn

Note:

If A and B are matrices of the same order and , are any two scalars , then

(3)

(i) (A B) A B

(ii) ( )A A A

Addition of matrices :

Let A and B be two matrices of same order (i.e. comparable matrices) , then A + B is defined

as:

A + B = [aij]m n + [bij]m n

= [cij]m n , where cij = aij + bij i and j.

Note:

If A , B and C are matrices of same order , then

A + B = B + A (Commutative law)

(A + B) + C = A + (B + C) (Associative law)

A + O = O + A = A , where O is zero matrix which is additive identity of the matrix.

A + (A) = 0 = (A) + A , where (A) is obtained by changing the sign of every element

of A, which is additive inverse of the matrix.

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A B A C

B C (Cancellation law)

B A C A

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(4)

Multiplication of Matrices :

Two matrices A and B are conformable for the product AB if the number of columns in A

(per-multiplier) is same as the number of rows in B (post multiplier).

Thus , if A [aij]mn and B [bij ]np are two matrices of order m n and n p respectively ,

n

then their product AB is of order m p and is defined as AB [cij ]mp , where cij airbrj

r 1

0 2

14

02

22

3 2 4

For example :

1 322

2 1 123

1 6 0 3 2 323

7 3 1 23

Note:

(i) If A , B and C are three matrices such that their product is defined , then

(Generally not commutative)

AB BA

(AB)C = A(BC)

(Associative Law)

IA = A = AI

(I is identity matrix for matrix multiplication)

A(B+C) = AB + AC

If AB = AC B = C

If AB = 0

(Distributive law)

(Cancellation law is not always applicable)

(It does not imply that A = 0 or B = 0 , product of

zero matrix may be a zero matrix.)

two non

(A + B)2 = A2 + B2 + AB + BA

(A B)(A + B) = A2 B2 + AB BA

A(B) = (A)B = (AB)

(A B)2 = A2 + B2 AB BA

(A + B)(A B) = A2 B2 AB + BA

(iii) The positive integral powers of a matrix A are defined only when A is a square matrix

A2 = A.A , A3 = A.A.A = A2A. For any positive integers m , n

AmAn = Am+n

I n = I , Im = I

(5)

Transpose of a Matrix :

Let A = [aij]m n , then the transpose of A is denoted by A' (or AT) and is defined as

AT = [bij]n m , where bij = aji i and j.

a1

Note:

Let A and B be two matrices then

(AT)T = A

Mathematics Concept Note

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b2

a3

b3 2 3

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a1

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a3

b1

b2

b3

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(A B)T A T B T ,

(AB)T = BT AT , A and B being conformable for the product AB

(A1A2A3 .... An1 An)T = AnT An1T .... A3T A2T A1T (Reversal law)

(An)T = (AT)n

IT = I

|AT| = |A|

(A1)T = (AT)1

(6)

A square matrix A = [aij] is called symmetric matrix if aij = aji i , j (i.e. AT = A)

a h g

g f c

A square matrix A = [aij] is called skew-symmetric matrix if aij = aji i, j (i.e. AT = A)

0

-y z

Note:

Every unit matrix , scalar matrix and square zero matrix are symmetric matrices.

n(n 1)

.

2

All principal diagonal elements of a skew-symmetric matrix are always zero because for

any diagonal element. aii aii aii 0

Trace of a skew symmetric matrix is always 0.

If A is skew symmetric of odd order , then det(A) = 0.

(7)

(i) If A is a square matrix , then A + AT , AAT , AT A are symmetric matrices , while A AT is

skew-symmetric matrix.

(ii) If A is a symmetric matrix , then A , KA , AT , An , A1 , BT AB are also symmetric

matrices , where n N, K R and B is a square matrix of order as that of A.

(iii) If A is a skew-symmetric matrix, then

A2n is a symmetric matrix for n N

A2n+1 is a skew-symmetric matrix for n N

kA is skew-symmetric matrix, where K R

BTAB is skew-symmetric matrix , where B is a square matrix of order as that of A.

(iv) If A and B are two symmetric matrices , then

A B , AB BA are also symmetric matrix

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AB is symmetric matrix when AB = BA.

A B , AB BA are skew-symmetric matrices

AB + BA is a symmetric matrix.

(vi) If A a skew-symmetric matrix and C is a column matrix, then CT AC is a zero matrix.

(vii) Every square matrix A can uniquely be expressed as sum of symmetric and

T

T

skew-symmetric matrix i.e. A 2 (A A ) 2 (A A )

(8)

Submatrix : In a given matrix A , the matrix obtained by deleting some rows or columns

(or both) of A is called as submatrix of A.

a b c

For example :

s , then

x y z w

If A p q r

a b

a b c

a b c

x y z

x y

Minors and Cofactors : If A = [aij]n is a square matrix , then minor of element aij, denoted

by Mij , is defined as the determinant of the submatrix obtained by deleting ith row and jth

column of A.

Cofactor of element aij , denoted by Cij , is defined as Cij (1)i j.Mij

a b

For example: If A = c d , then

M11 = d = C11

M12 = c , C12 = c

M21 = b , C21 = b

M22 = a = C22

If

a b c

A d e f , then

g h i

and C22 = aicg , C31 = bfec , C23

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(9)

Determinant of A matrix :

If A = [aij]n is a square matrix of order n > 1 , then determinant of A is defined as the

summation of products of elements of any one row (or any one column) with the

corresponding cofactors.

For example:

a11 a12

A a21 a22

a31 a32

a13

a23

a33

a11

a22

a23

a32

a33

a12

a21 a23

a31 a33

a13

a21 a22

a31 a33 , or

a12

a21 a23

a31 a33

Properties of determinant

a22

a11

a13

a31 a33

a32

a11

a13

a21 a23

If A = [aij]n , then the summation of the products of elements of any row with corresponding

cofactors of any other row is zero. (Similarly , the summation of the products of elements of any column

with corresponding cofactors of any other column is zero).

For example: a11 C21 + a12 C22 + a13 C23 = 0 , and a12 C11 + a22 C21 + a32 C31 = 0.

If be a scalar , then |A| is obtained by multiplying any one row (or any one column)

of |A| by

| A | = n | A | , where A aij

n

1

|A|

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If two rows are identical (or two columns are identical) then

=8

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If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant be interchanged8

, the determinant is unaltered in

| A |n | An | , n N and | A 1 |

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If each element of any row (or column) can be expressed as a sum of two terms , then

the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants.

The value of a determinant is not altered by adding to the elements of any row (or column) the

same multiples of the corresponding elements of any other row (or column).

If A = [aij]n is a square matrix , then matrix obtained by replacing each element of A by

corresponding cofactor is called as cofactor matrix of A, denoted as cofactor A.

The transpose of cofactor matrix of A is called as adjoint of A, denoted by adj A.

If A = [aij]n , then cofactor A = [Cij]n where Cij is the cofactor of aij

adj(A) = [Cji]n

a11 a12

If A a21 a22

a31 a32

a13

C11 C12

C31 C32

a33

i and j.

C13

C11 C21 C31

C13 C23 C33

C33

Note:

If A and B are square matrices of order n and In is unit matrix, then

A(adj A) = |A| In = (adj A)A

|adj A| = |A|n1

adj(adj A) = |A|n2 A

adj(In) = In

adj(O) = O

A is singular | adj A | 0

A non-singular square matrix of order n is invertible if there exists a square matrix B of the

same order such that AB = In = BA.

In such a case, we say that the inverse of A is B and we write A1 = B

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.

.adj A

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matrix

1 A

9 of a square

0

8

is that | A | 0

839

AA 1 A 1 A I.

1

Note:

If A and B are invertible matrices of the same order , then

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(A1)1 = A

(AT)1 = (A1)T

(AB)1 = B1A1

(Ak )1 (A 1 )k , k N

| A 1 |

B=O. Similarly B is non singular and AB = O A = O. Therefore , AB = O either both

are singular or one of them is O.

1

| A |1

|A|

(i) Orthogonal matrix :

A square matrix A is said to be an orthogonal matrix if , AAT = I = ATA.

cos sin

cos

For example : A

sin

A square matrix A is said to be involutory if A2 = I, I being the identity matrix.

For example: A =

1 0

0 1

is an involutory matrix.

A square matrix A is said to be idempotent if A2 = A.

1/2 1/2

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(iv) Nilpotent matrix :

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A square matrix is said to be nilpotent of index p, if p is the least positive

integer such

that

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For example : 0 0 is nilpotent matrix of index 2.

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A matrix A will be called a periodic matrix if Ak+1 = A , where k is a positive integer. If

however k is the least positive integer for which Ak+1 = A , then k is said to be the period of A.

(vi) Differentiation of a matrix:

f(x) g(x)

dA

f '(x) g '(x)

If A

then

is the differentiation of matrix A.

dx h'(x) l '(x)

h(x) l(x)

dA 2x cos x

sin x

then

dx 2

0

2

2x

For example: If A x

If matrix A [aij]mn , then the conjugate of matrix A is given by A , where A [ aij ]mn

i

2 3i

2 3i i

For example : If A

; then A

3 i

3 i

4

4

A square matrix A = [aij] is said to be Hermitian matrix if aij aji i, j A A

a

For example: b ic

b ic

0

For example: 2 i

2 i

A square matrix A is said to be unitary if AA I , where A is the transpose of complex

conjugate of A.

(13) System of Linear Equations and Matrices

Consider the system

a11 x1 + a12x2 + ......... + a1nxn = b1

a21 x1 + a22x2 + ......... + a2nxn = b2

...................................................

am1 x1 + am2x2 + ......... + amnxn = bn

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Let A =

.... .... .......

a1n

a2n

.... ,

amn

X=

x1

x2

....

x n

and B =

b1

b2

...

...

b

n

The system is said to be consistent if it has atleast one solution.

(i)

System of linear equations and matrix inverse :

If the above system consist of n equations in n unknowns, then we have AX = B

where A is a square matrix. If A is non-singular, solution is given by X = A 1B .

If A is singular, (adj A) B = 0 and all the columns of A are not proportional, then the

system has infinite many solution.

If A is singular and (adj A) B 0, then the system has no solution

(we say it is inconsistent).

(ii)

If the above system is homogeneous, n equations in n unknowns, then in the matrix

for m it is AX = O. ( in this case b1 = b2 = ..... bn = 0) , where A is a square matrix.

If A is non-singular, the system has only the trivial solution (zero solution) X = 0.

If A is singular, then the system has infinitely many solutions (including the trivial

solution) and hence it has non trivial solutions.

(iii)

Rank of a matrix :

Let A = [aij]m n . A natural number is said to be the rank of A if A has a

non-singular submatrix of order and it has no nonsingular submatrix of order more

than . Rank of zero matrix is regarded to be zero.

e.g.

3 - 1 2 5

A = 0 0 2 0

0 0 5 0

3 2

we have 0 2 as a non singular submatrix.

3 - 1 2 3 - 1 5 3 2 5 - 1 2 5

0 0 2 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 2 0

0 0 5 . 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 5 0

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(iv) Elementary row transformation of matrix :

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The following operations on a matrix are called as elementary

9 row transformations.

01

8

9

(a)

Interchanging two rows.

83

and all these are singular. Hence rank of A is 2.

(b)

(b)

Addition of constant multiple of a row to another row.

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Remark :

1.

2.

Two matrices A & B are said to be equivalent if one is obtained from other using elementary

transformations. We write A B.

(v)

following :

(a) The first non-zero element in each row is 1 & all the other elements in the

corresponding column (i.e. the column where 1 appears) are zeroes.

(b) The number of zeroes before the first non zero element in any non zero row is

less than the number of such zeroes in succeeding non zero rows.

Result : Rank of a matrix in Echelon form is the number of non zero rows (i.e. number of rows with

atleast one non zero element).

Remark :

1.

To find the rank of a given matrix we may reduce it to Echelon form using elementary row

transformations and then count the number of non zero rows.

(vi) System of linear equations & rank of matrix :

Let the system be AX = B where A is an m n matrix, X is the n-column vector & B is

the m-column vector. Let [AB] denote the augmented matrix (i.e. matrix obtained

by accepting elements of B as (n + 1)th column & first n columns are that of A).

(A) denote rank of A and ([AB]) denote rank of the augmented matrix.

Clearly (A) ([AB])

(a)

(i.e. system is inconsistent).

(b) If (A) = ([AB]) = number of unknowns, then the system has unique

solution. (and hence is consistent)

(c) If (A) = ([AB]) < number of unknowns, then the systems has infinitely

many solutions (and so is consistent).

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(vii)Homogeneous system & rank of matrix :

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In7

this case 8

r.unknowns.

2

E

0

1

B = 0 and so (A) = ([AB]).

8 01505

9

Hence if (A) = n, then the system has only the trivial solution.

If98

(A) < n, then

3

8

the system has infinitely many solutions.

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Cayley-Hemilton Theorem :

Every matrix satisfies its characteristic equation e.g. let A be a square matrix then |AxI|=0

is characteristics equation of A. If x3 4x2 5x 7 = 0 is the characteristic equation for A,then

A3 4A2 + 5A 7I = 0

Roots of characteristic equation for A are called Eigen values of A or characteristic roots of

A or latent roots of A. If is characteristic root of A, then 1 is characteristic root of A1.

ma

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8. DETERMINANTS

Consider the equations a1x + b1y = 0 and a2x + b2y = 0

a

a

y

y

1 and

2

x

b1

x

b2

a1

a

2

b1 b2

a1b2 a2b1 0

a1 b1

Now the obtained eliminant a1b2 a2b1 is expressed as b b , which is called the

2

2

(1)

a1 b1

a1b2 a2b1

b2 b2

If A = [aij]n is a square matrix , then minor of element aij, denoted by Mij , is defined

as the determinant of the submatrix obtained by deleting ith row and jth column of A.

Cofactor of element aij , denoted by Cij , is defined as Cij (1)i j.Mij

For example:

a b

A = c d , then

If

M11

M12

M21

M22

= d = C11

= c, C12 = c

= b, C21 = b

= a = C22

a b c

A d e f , then

g h i

If

and C22 = aicg , C31 = bfec , C23 = bgah , etc.

(2)

Determinant of A matrix :

If A = [aij]n be a square matrix of order n > 1 , then determinant of A is defined as the

summation of products of elements of any one row (or any one column) with the

corresponding cofactors.

For example:

a11 a12

A a21 a22

a31 a32

a13

a23

a33

a11

a22

a23

a32

a33

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

a12

a21 a23

a31 a33

a13

a21

a31

ma

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a

39

8

,

or

a

22

33

Page 55

a21 a23

a12

a31 a33

a22

a11

a13

a31 a33

a32

a11

a13

a21 a23

Note:

If A = [aij]n , then the summation of the products of elements of any row with corresponding

cofactors of any other row is zero. (Similarly , the summation of the products of elements of

any column with corresponding cofactors of any other column is zero).

For example:

a12 C11 + a22 C21 + a32 C31 = 0.

(3)

Properties of Determinants :

(i) The value of a determinant remains unaltered, if the rows and columns are interchanged.

a1 b1

i.e. D a2 b2

a3 b3

c1

c2

a1

c3

a1

a3

| A | | A T |

b1 b2 b3

c1

c2

c3

(ii) If any two rows (or columns) of a determinant be interchanged, the value of determinant is changed in sign only. For example:

a1

b1

c1

If D a2 b2

a3 b3

a2 b2

c2

c2 , R1 R2 D ' a1 b1

c1 , then D' D

c3

c3

a3 b3

(iii) If a determinant has all the elements zero in any row or column then its value is zero.

For example:

0

D a2 b2

a3 b3

0

c2 0.

c3

(iv)If a determinant has any two rows(or columns) identical, then its value is zero.

a1

b1

For example: D a1 b1

a3 b3

c1

c1 0.

(R1 R 2 )

c3

(v) If all the elements of any row (or column) is multiplied by the same number, then the

determinant is multiplied by that number. For example:

a1

b1

c1

D a2 b2

c2

a3 b3

c3

and D '

a2

b2

c2

a3

b3

c3

, then D ' KD

ma

r

a

h

S

Note:

.

82

K

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L

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7 one column)

r. 10or2any

58 of

If be a scalar , then |A| is obtained by multiplying E

any one row(

0

5

8

9 801

|A| by .

39

8

| A | = | A | , where A a

n

ij n

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

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(vi) If each element of any row (or column) can be expressed as a sum of two terms then

the determinant can be expressed as the sum of two determinants.

For example:

a1 x b1 x c1 x

a2

b2

c2

a3

b3

c3

a1

b1

c1

a2 b2

c2 a2 b2

c2

a3 b3

c3

c3

a3 b3

(vii) The value of a determinant is not altered by adding to the elements of any row

(or column) a constant multiple of the corresponding elements of any other row

( or column). For example:

a1

b1

c1

If D a2 b2

a3 b3

c2 , R1 R1 mR 2 and R3 R 3 nR1

c3

a1 ma2 b1 mb2

D'

(4)

c1 mc2

a2

b2

c2

a3 na1

b3 nb1

c3 nc1

, then D ' D

Summation of Determinant :

f(r) g(r) h(r)

Let (r) a1

b1

a2

a3

b2

b3

where a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3 are constants (independent of r) , then

n

n

(r)

f(r)

r 1

r 1

g(r)

r 1

h(r)

r 1

a1

a2

a3

b1

b2

b3

Note:

If more than one row or one column are function of r , then first the determinant is simplified

and then summation is calculated.

(5)

Integration of a Determinant :

f(x) g(x) h(x)

Let (x) a1

b1

a2

a3

b2

b3

where a1, a2, a3, b1, b2, b3 are constants (independent of x) , then

ma

r

a

h

S

.

(x)dx a

a

a

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b

b

Er. 81027 5058

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Note:

39

If more than one row or one column are function of x , then first8

the

determinant is simplified

b

f(x)dx

g(x)dx

h(x)dx

a

Mathematics Concept Note

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(6)

Differentiation of Determinant :

f1 (x)

f2 (x)

f3(x)

, then

f1 '(x) f2'(x) f3'(x)

'(x) g1(x)

f1(x)

f1(x)

f2 (x)

f3(x)

g2 (x)

g3 (x)

(7)

h1(x)

f2 (x)

h2 (x)

f3(x)

h3 (x)

a1 b1

m1

a b1 2

1

1 1

a2 b2

2 m2

a2 1 b2 2

a1 b1

c1

a2 b2

c2

a3 b3

c3

m1

a1m1 b1m2

a2m1 b2m2

a11 b12 c1 3

n1

2 m2 n2 a2 1 b2 2 c2 3

3 m3 n3

a3 1 b3 2 c3 3

Multiplication expressed in the calculation is row column which also applicable in matrix

multiplication , but in case of multiplication of determinants , row column , row row ,

column row and column column all are applicalble.

Note:

Power cofactor formula :

If = |aij| is a determinant of order n , then the value of the determinant |Cij| = n 1 ,

where Cij is cofactor of aij.

(8)

Standard Results :

a 0 0

a d e

a 0 0

0 b 0 0 b f d b 0 abc

0 0 c

a h g

h b f abc 2fgh af 2 bg2 ch2.

g f

0 0 c

a b c

b c a (a3 b3 c3 3abc) (a b c)(a2 b2 c2 ab bc ac)

c a b

1

a

1

b

1

c

a3 b3

(a b)(b c)(c a)

1

(a b c) (a b)2 (b c)2 (c a)2

2

1

a

a3

ma

r

a

h a)(a2 b c)

.S c)(c

(a .

K

b)(b

68

L

7

7

.

b E

cr

02 5058

1

8

9 801

839

1

b

1

c

c3

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(8)

(I) Consider the system of non-homogenous equations :

a1x + b1y + c1z = d1

a2x + b2y + c2z = d2

a3x + b3y + c3z = d3

a1

b1

c1

d1 b1

c1

a1

Where D a2 b2 c2 , D1 d2 b2 c2 , D2 a2

a3 b3 c3

d3 b3 c3

d1

c1

a1

b1

d1

d2 c2 and D3 a2 b2 d2

a3 d3 c3

,then

a3 b3 d3

D

D1

D

, y 2 , z 3

D

D

D

Non-homogenous system of equations may or may not be consistent ,following cases

explains the consistency of equations :

If D 0 , then the system of equations are consistent and have unique solution.

no solution.

If D = 0 and atleast one of D1, D2, D3 is not zero then the equations are inconsistent

and have no solution.

a1x + b1y + c1z = 0

a2x + b2y + c2z = 0

a3x + b3y + c3z = 0

In homogenous system , D1 = D2 = D3 = 0 , hence :

If D 0 , then the system of equations are consistent and have unique solution

(i.e. Trivial solution)

(i.e. Non-trivial solution)

Note:

Homogenous system of equations are always consistent , either having Trivial solution or

non-trivial solution

(III) System of equations , a1x + b1y = c1 and a2x + b2y = c2 represents two straight lines in

2-dimonseional plane , hence :

If

a1

b

1 : System of equations are consistent and have uniqe solution

a2

b2

a1

b1

c1

If a b c : Wywtem of equation are consistent and have infinite solution

2

2

2

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a1

b

c

1 1 : System of equation in inconsistent and have no solution

If

a2 b2

c2

Note:

If x and y are not zero, then condition for a1x + b1y + c1 = 0; a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 59

a1

b1

c1

a2 b2

c2 0.

a3 b3

c3

(i) Area of a triangle whose vertices are (x1 , y1) , (x2 , y2) and (x3 , y3) is :

1

2

x1

y1 1

x2

y2 1

x3

y3 1

(ii) Equation of a straight line passing through (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) is :

x1

y1 1

x2

y2 1 = 0

y3 1

x3

(iii) If lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 , a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 and a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are non-parallel

and non-coincident , then lines are concurrent , if

a1

b1

c1

a2 b2

c2 0

a3 b3

c3

(iv) ax2 + 2 hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of straight lines if :

a h g

h b f

g f

r

a

h

S

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(1)

Basic Definitions :

Sequence :

A sequence is a function whose domain is the set of natural numbers.Since the domain for

every sequence is the set N of natural numbers, therefore a sequence is represented by its

range. If f : N R , then f(n) = Tn , n N is called a sequence and is denoted by {Tn}

{f(1), f(2), f(3), ...........} = {T1, T2, T3, ...................}

Note:

(i) A sequence whose range is a subset of R is called a real sequence.

(ii) Finite sequences : A sequence is said to be finite if it has finite number of terms.

(iii) Infinite sequences : A sequence is said to be infinite if it has infinite number of terms.

(iv) It is not necessary that the terms of a sequence always follow a certain pattern or they

are described by some explicit formula for the nth term. Sequences whose terms follow

certain patterns are called progressions.

(v) All progressions are sequences, but all sequences are not progressions. For example:

Set of prime numbers is a sequence but not a progression

Series :

By adding or substracting the terms of a sequence, we get an expression which is called a

series. If a1, a2, a3,........... an is a sequence, then the expression a1 + a2 + a3 + ....... + an

is a series.

For example :

(i) 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + ............ + n

(ii) 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 + ...........

nth term of sequence:

If summation of n terms of a sequence is given by Sn , then its nth term is given by :

Tn = Sn Sn1 .

(2)

A.P. is a sequence whose terms increase or decrease by a fixed number. This fixed number is

called the common difference. If a is the first term and d is the common difference , then

A.P. can be written as :

a , a + d, a + 2d ,.......... a + (n1) d , .........

nth term of an A.P. :

Let a be the first term and d be the common difference of an A.P., then

Tn = a + (n1)d and Tn Tn1 = Constant. (i.e. , common difference)

Sum of first n terms of an A.P. :

If a is first term and d is common difference then

ma

r

a

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S

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82

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.

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Er. 81027 5058

p term of an A.P. from the end :

9 801

Let 'a' be the first term and 'd' be the common difference of an A.P. 9

3 having n terms. Then p

term from the end is (n p + 1) term from the beginning. 8

Sn =

n

(2a + (n 1)d)

2

n

(a + )

2

th

th

th

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 61

(3)

Properties of A.P. :

(i) If a1 , a2 , a3..... are in A.P. whose common difference is d, then for fixed non-zero

number K R.

Ka1 , Ka2 , Ka3 ..... will be in A.P. with common difference = Kd.

a1 a2 a3

,

,

..... will be in A.P. with common difference = d/k.

K K K

1 1 1

,

,

,........ will be in H.P..

a1 a2 a3

(ii) The sum of terms of an A.P. which are equidistant from the beginning and the end is

constant and is equal to sum of first and last term. i.e. a1 + an = a2 + an1 = a3 + an2 = ....

(iii) Any term (except the first term) of an A.P. is equal to half of the sum of terms equidistant from the term i.e. an

1

(an k an k ),k n.

2

(iv) If number of terms of any A.P. is odd, then sum of the terms is equal to product of

middle term and number of terms.

(v) If number of terms of any A.P. is even then A.M. of middle two terms is A.M. of first and

last term.

(vi)If the number of terms of an A.P. is odd then its middle term is A.M. of first and last term.

(vii) If a1, a2 , ........ an and b1 , ........ bn are the two A.P.'s. Then a1 b1 , a2 b2 ,......an bn

are also A.P.'s with common difference d1 d2 , where d1 and d2 are the common difference

of the given A.P.'s .

(viii) Three numbers a , b , c are in A.P. iff 2b = a + c.

(ix) If the terms of an A.P. are chosen at regular intervals, then they form an A.P.

(x) Three numbers in A.P. can be taken as ad, a, a + d; four numbers in A.P. can be

taken as a3d, ad, a + d, a + 3d; five numbers in A.P. are a2d, ad, a , a + d, a + 2d and

six terms in A.P. are a5d, a3d, ad, a+d, a+3d, a+5d etc.

(4)

If three terms are in A.P. then the middle term is called the A.M. between the other two, so

if a, b, c are in A.P. , b is A.M. of a and c.

ac

2

n-Arithmetic Means Between Two Numbers :

b

ma

r

a

h

S

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82

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r. a) 1027 058

En(b

=a+

15

n 9

18

0

8

839

If a, b are any two given numbers and a, A1, A2....., An, b are in A.P. then A1, A2, ... An

are the n A.M.'s between a and b.

A1 = a +

ba

2(b a)

, A2 = a +

,...., An

n1

n 1

Note:

Sum of n A.M.'s inserted between a and b is equal to n times the single A.M. between

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 62

a and b i.e.

r 1

(5)

G.P. is a sequence of numbers whose first term is non zero and each of the succeeding

terms is equal to the preceding terms multiplied by a constant. Thus in a G.P. the ratio of nth

term and (n1)th term is constant. This constant factor is called the common ratio of the

series

a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4,....... is a G.P. with a as the first term and r as common ratio.

nth term of G.P. :

Tn = a(r)n1

a(r n 1)

, r 1

Sum of the first n terms : Sn = r 1

na , r 1

Sum of an infinite G.P. , when |r| < 1.

S

a

.

1r

If G.P. consists of 'n' terms, p th term from the end = (n p + 1) th term from the

beginning = arnp.

n 1

1

Also, the pth term from the end of a G.P. with last term and common ratio r is

r

(5)

Properties of G.P. :

(i) If each term of a G.P. be multiplied or divided or raised to power by the some non-zero

quantity, the resulting sequence is also a G.P.

(ii) The reciprocal of the terms of a given G.P. form a G.P. with common ratio as reciprocal of

the common ratio of the original G.P.

(iii) In a finite G.P. , the product of terms equidistant from the beginning and the end is

always the same and is equal to the product of the first and last term.

i.e. , if a1 , a2 , a3 , ........ an be in G.P. Then a1 an = a2 an1 = a3 an2 = a4 an3 = ......

= ar . anr+ 1

(iv)If the terms of a given G.P. are chosen at regular intervals, then the new sequence so

formed also forms a G.P.

(v) Three non-zero numbers a , b , c are in G.P. iff b2 = ac.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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(vii) If first term of a G.P. of n terms is a and last term is r,.then the product

8 of

E 81027 5of0all5terms

the G.P. is (a)

.

9 801

83S9denotes the sum of the

(viii) If there be n quantities in G.P. whose common ratio is r and

(vi) Every term (except first term) of a G.P. is the square root of terms equidistant from it.

i.e. Tr

Tr p .Tr p ; [r p]

n/2

first m terms , then the sum of their product taken two by two is

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

r

Sn Sn 1 .

r 1

Page 63

a

a, ar, in general we take

e

r

a

r

a

r

k 1

a

r

k 2

a

r

2k 1

a

r

2k 3

a

r

a

, ar, ar3, in general we take

e

r

a

,...... , ar, ....... ar2k 1 in case we have to take 2k terms in a G.P..

r

(xi) If a1, a2, a3, ... and b1, b2, b3......., are two G.P.'s with common ratio r1 and r2 respectively then the sequence a1b1, a2b2, a3b3,.. is also a G.P. with common ratio r1r2.

(xii) If a1, a2, a3,....... are in G.P. where each ai > 0, then log a1, log a2, log a3.............. are

in A.P. and its converse is also true.

(6)

If a, b, c are in G.P., b is the G.M. between a and c.

b2 = ac

n-Geometric Means Between a, b:

If a, b are two given numbers and a, G1, G2, ....., Gn, b are in G.P.. Then

G1, G2, G3,...., Gn are n G.M.s between a and b.

G1 = a(b/a)1/n+1, G2 = a(b/a)2/n+1 ,........., Gn = a(b/a)n/n +1

Note:

The product of n G.M.s between a and b is equal to the nth power of the single G.M.

between a and b

n

r 1

(7)

Harmonic Progression :

The sequence a1 , a2 , .... , an , ..... where ai 0 for each i is said to be in harmonic

progression (H.P.) if the sequence 1/a1, 1/a2 , ... , 1/an , ... is in A.P. Note that an , the nth

term of the H.P. , is given by

an

1

1

1

1

where a

and d

.

a (n 1)d

a1

a2 a1

Note:

(i) If a and b are two non-zero numbers, then the harmonic mean of a and b is number H

such that the sequence a , H , b is an H.P. We have

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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7

(ii) The n numbers H , H , ... , H are said to be harmonic

a and

8be btheif

5

Er,.... ,8means

0are2between

1

a, H , H , .... , H , b are in H.P., that is, if 1/a, 1/H , 1/H

1/b

in A.P.

Let

d

0

9 8015

common difference of this A.P. Then

39

8

1 1

(n 2 1)d

1 1 1

1

1

...

H n a1 a2

an

1

...

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 64

1 1 1

ab

n 1 b a (n 1)ab

Thus

1

1

ab

,

H1

a (n 1)ab

1

1

2(a b)

1

1

n(a b)

,...,

H2

a (n 1)ab

Hn

a (n 1)ab

(8)

If A, G, H are respectively A.M., G.M., H.M. between a and b both being unequal and

positive then,

G2 = AH A, G, H are in G.P..

Let a1, a2, a3,.......... an be n positive real numbers, then A.M. G.M. H.M. , where

A.M.

H.M.

a1 a2 a3 ........ an

, G.M. (a1.a2 .a3.a4.........an )1 / n and

n

n

1

1

1 .

.....

a1 a2

an

Note:

(i) The inequality of A.M. , G.M. and H.M. is only applicable for positive real numbers and

the sign of equality holds for equal number.

a1 a2 a3 ........ an.

(ii) If a, b , c R , then

(9)

ab c

3abc

(abc)1 / 3

3

ab bc ac

Arithmetico-Geometric Series :

A series each term of which is formed by multiplying the corresponding term of an A.P. and

G.P. is called the Arithmetico-Geometric Series. e.g. 1 + 3x + 5x2 + 7x3 + ...

Here 1, 3, 5, ........... are in A.P. and 1, x, x2, x3...... are in G.P...

Sum of n terms of an Arithmetico-Geometric Series :

Let Sn = a + (a + d)r + (a + 2d) r2 + ........ + [a + (n1)d]rn1 , then

Sn

a

dr(1 rn-1 ) [a (n 1)d]rn

, r 1.

1r

1r

(1 r)2

ma

r

a

h

S

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82

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a

dr

Sum To Infinity : If |r| < 1 & n , then S 1 r

(1 r)2

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 65

n

(i)

(ar br )

r 1

ar

r 1

br

(ii)

r 1

kar k

r 1

r 1

(iii)

r 1

n

r 1 2 3 ........ n

(iv)

r 1

n(n 1)

2

(v)

12 22 32 ......... n2

r 1

n(n 1)(2n 1)

6

2

n(n 1)

r3 13 23 33 ......... n3

(vi)

r 1

(vii) 2.

ai.aj = (a + a + ......... + a )2

1

2

n

1 i j n

(viii)

ar a1.a2.a3.........an

(ix)

r 1

r 1

(x)

kar kn.

a

r 1

r n!

r 1

(xi)

n

n

(ar .br )

ar

br

r 1

r 1 r 1

If the differences of the successive terms of a series are in A.P. of G.P. , we can find nth term

of the series by the following steps :

Step 1: Denote the nth term by Tn and the sum of the series upto n terms by Sn.

Step 2: Rewite the given series with each term shifted by one place to the right.

Step 3: By subtracting the later series from the former, find Tn.

Step 4: From Tn , Sn can be found by appropriate summation.

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(1) Definition :

Function is a particular case of relation, from a non empty set A to a non empty set B, that

associates each and every member of A to a unique member of B. Symbolically, we write f :

A B. We read it as "f is a function from A to B".

Note:

(i) Let f : A B, then the set A is known as the domain of f & the set B is known as codomain of f.

(ii) If a member 'a' of A is associated to the member 'b' of B, then 'b' is called the f-image

of 'a' and we write b = f(a). Further 'a' is called a pre-image of 'b'.

(iii) The set {f(a) : a A} is called the range of f and is denoted by f(A). Clearly f(A) B.

(iv) Sometimes if only definition of f(x) is given (domain and s are not mentioned),

then domain is set of those values of 'x' for which f(x) is defined, while codomain is

considered to be ( , ).

(v) A function whose domain and range both are sets of real numbers is called a real

function. Conventionally the word "FUNCTION" is used only as the meaning of real

function.

On the basis of mapping functions can be classified as follows:

(i) One-One Function (Injective Mapping)

A function f : A B is said to be a one-one function or injective mapping if different

elements of A have different f images in B.

Thus for x1, x2 A & f(x1), f(x2) B, f(x1) = f(x2) x1 = x2 or x1 x2 f(x1) f(x2).

Diagrammatically an injective mapping can be shown as

OR

(ii) Many - One function :

A function f : A B is said to be a many one function if two or more elements of A

have the same f image in B.

Thus f : A B is many one iff there exists at least two elements x1, x2 A , such that

f(x1) = f(x2) but x1 x2.

Diagrammatically a many one mapping can be shown as

ma

r

a

(i) If x , x A & f(x ), f(x ) B, f(x ) = f(x ) x = x or x x f(x.)S

f(x ), then2

h

K

.

68

function is ONE-ONE otherwise MANY-ONE.

L

7

7

.

(ii) If there exists a straight line parallel to x-axis, which

graph

function

58

Ercuts the

02 of the

1

0

5

8

atleast at two points, then the function is MANY-ONE, otherwise

ONE-ONE.

9 8

01 where

9

(iii) If either f'(x) 0, x complete domain or f'(x) 0 x complete

domain,

83

equality can hold at discrete point(s) only, then function is ONE-ONE, otherwise

Note:

MANY-ONE.

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 67

If the function f : A B is such that each element in B (co-domain) must have

atleast one pre-image in A, then we say that f is a function of A 'onto' B. Thus

f : A B is surjective iff b B, there exists some a A such that f(a) = b.

Diagrammatically surjective mapping can be shown as

OR

(iv) Into function :

If f : A B is such that there exists atleast one element in co-domain which is not the

image of any element in domain, then f(x) is into.

Diagrammatically into function can be shown as

OR

Note:

(i) function can be one of following four types :

(ii) If f is both injective & surjective, then it is called a bijective mapping. The bijective

functions are also named as invertible, non-singular or biuniform functions.

(iii) If a set A contains 'n' distinct elements then the number of different functions

defined from A A is nn and out of which n! are one one.

ma

r

a

h

S

same image in B. Thus f : A B; f(x) = c, x A, c B is a constant

function.82

.

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L. 2776 8

.

Note:

r

E 810 505

(i) Constant function is even and f(x) = 0 is the

9 801

only function which is both even and odd

39

8

(ii) Constant function is periodic with indeterminate

A function f : A B is said to be a constant function if every element of A has the

periodicity.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 68

The function f : A A defined by f(x) = x x A is called the identity function on A

and is denoted by IA. It is easy to observe that identity function is a bijection.

(iii)Polynomial function :

If a function f is defined by f(x) = a0xn + a1xn1 + a2xn2 + ... + an1x + an where n

is a non negative integer and a0, a1, a2, .........., an are real numbers and a0 0,

then f is called a polynomial function of degree n.

for example: linear functions, quadratic functions, cubic functions etc.

(iv) Algebraic Function :

y is an algebraic function of x, if it is a function that satisfies an algebraic equation

of the form, P0(x) yn + P1 (x) yn1 + ..... + Pn1 (x)y + Pn(x) = 0 where n is a positive

integer and P0(x), P1(x).....are polynomials in x. e.g. y = |x| is an algebraic functiontion, since it satisfies the equation y2 x2 = 0.

Note:

(i) All polynomial functions are algebraic but not the converse.

(ii) A function that is not algebraic is called Transcendental Function.

(v) Fractional/Rational Function :

g(x)

A rational function is a function of the form y = f(x) = h(x) , where g(x) & h(x) are

(vi)Exponential Function :

A function f(x)=ax=exlna (a 0, a 1, x R) is called an exponential function.

Graph of exponential function can be as follows :

For a > 1

For 0 < a < 1

f(x)

f(x)

(0,1)

(0,1)

0

(vii) Logarithmic Function : f(x) = logax is called logarithmic function where a > 0 and

a 1 and x > 0. Its graph can be as follows

For a > 1

For 0 < a < 1

ma

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x

if

x 0

x if

x 0

y

y

y = |x|

Note:

(i)

x2 | x | and | x | max{x, x}

(ii) Absolute value function is piece-wise defined function and its domain and range are R

and [0, ) respectively

(iii) If 'a' and 'b' are non-negative real numbers, then

| x | a x [a, a];{i.e. a x a}

| x | a x R /(a, a);{i.e. x a or x a}

a | x | b x [b, a] [a, b]

|x | | y | | x y |

| x | | y | | x y |

| x y | | x | | y | xy 0.

| x y | | x | | y | xy 0.

(v) min{f(x), g(x)}

2

2

2

2

y = 1 if x > 0

1 ; x0

1; x 0

y = 1 if x > 0

y = sgn x

Note:

(i)

|x|

x 0

sgn x = x

0; x 0

(ii)

|f(x)|

;

f(x)

sgn f(x) =

;

0

f(x)0

f(x)0

The function y = f(x)=[x] is called the greatest integer function

where [x] equals to the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

Note:

(i) [x] x x I.

(ii)

0; x I

1; x I

(iv) [x] + [ x] =

Er. L.K.Sharma

ma

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3 2 1

[x n] [x] n n I.

9810277682/8398015058

3

2

1

1 2 3

1

2

3

Page 70

y

graph of y = {x}

y=1

Note:

(i)

y sin x ; x R ; y [1, 1]

(v) y cosec x ;

(vi) y sec x ;

x R n, n I;y R /(1, 1)

(i) y = sin1 x, |x| 1, y ,

2 2

ma

r

a

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Mathematics Concept Note

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(iii) y = tan1 x, x R, y ,

2 2

(iv)

(v) y = sec1 x, |x| 1, y 0 , 2 2 ,

y = cot1 x, x R, y (0, )

(vi) y = cosec1 x, |x| 1,y 2 ,0 0 , 2

Two functions f(x) and g(x) are said to be identical (or equal) iff :

(i) The domain of f the domain of g.

(ii) The range of f the range of g and

(iii) f(x) = g(x), for every x belonging to their common domain, e.g. f(x) =

g(x) =

x

2

x2

x

1

and

x

The function f(x) is said to be bonded above if there exists M such that y=f(x) M (i.e. not

greater that M) for all x of the domain and M is called upper bound. Similarly f(x) is said to be

bounded below if there exists in such that y=f(x) m(i.e. never less that m) for all x of the

domain and m is called the lower bond.

If however, there does not exist M and m as stated above, the function is said to be

unbounded.

ma

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If f (x) = f(x) for all x in the domain of 'f' then f is said to be an even function .

If f(x) f(x) = 0 f(x) is even.

Er. L.K.Sharma

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If f(x) = f(x) for all x in the domain of 'f' then f is said to be an odd function.

If f(x) + f(x) = 0 f(x) is odd.

Note:

(i) Even functions are symmetrical about the y-axis and odd functions are symmetrical

about origin

(ii) Any given function can be uniquely expressed as the sum of even function and odd

function for example: f(x)

1

1

f(x) f(x) f(x) f(x)

2

2

(iii) For any given function f(x), g(x)=f(x)+f(x) is even function and h(x)=f(x)f(x) is

odd function.

(iv) If an odd function is defined at x = 0, then f(0) = 0.

(v) Let the definition of the function f(x) is given only for x 0. Even extension of this

function implies to define the function for x < 0 assuming it to be even. In order to get

even extension replace x by x in the given definition. Similarly, odd extension implies to

define the function for x < 0 assuming it to be odd. In order to get odd extension,

multiply the definition of even extension by 1.

A function f(x) is called periodic with a period T if there exists a positive real number T such

that for each x in the domain of f the numbers x T and x + T are also in the domain of f and

f(x) = f(x + T) for all x in the domain of 'f'. Domain of a periodic function is always unbounded. Graph of a periodic function with period T is repeated after every interval of 'T'.

e.g. The function sin x & cos x both are periodic over 2 and tan x is periodic over .

The least positive period is called the principal or fundamental period of f or simply the

period of f.

Note:

(i) sinn, cosnx, secnx, and cosecnx are periodic function with period when n is even and 2

when n is odd or fraction. e.g. period of sin2x is but period of sin3x, sin x is 2 .

(ii) tannx and cotnx are periodic functions with period irrespective of 'n'.

(iii) |sin x|, |cos x|, |tan x|, |cot x|, |sec x|, and |cosec x| are periodic functions with

period .

(iv) If f(x) is periodic with period T, then:

(a) k. f(x) is periodic with period T.

(b) f(x+b) is periodic with period T.

(c) f(x)+c is periodic with period T.

1

(v) If f(x) has a period T, then f(x) and

T

(vi) If f(x) has a period T then f(ax + b) has a period |a| .

(vii)If f(x) has a period T1 and g(x) has a period T2 then period of f(x) g(x) or f(x).

f(x)

g(x) or g(x) is L.C.M of T1 & T2 provided their L.C.M. exists. However that L.C.M. (if

ma

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exists) need not to be fundamental period. If L.C.M. does not exists f(x) g(x) or

f(x).g(x) is not periodic.

e.g. |sin x| has the period , |cos x| also has the period .

|sin x| + |cosx| also has a period . But the fundamental period of

|sin x | + |cos x| is

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

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Let f : X Y1 and g : Y2 Z be two functions and the set D = {x X : f(x) Y2}. If D then

the function h defined on D by h(x) = g{f(x)} is called composite function of g and f and is

denoted by gof. It is also called function of a function.

Note:

(i) Domain of gof is D which is a subset of X (the domain of f). Range of gof is a subset

of the range of g . If D = X, then f(x) Y2.

(ii) In general gof fog (i.e. not commutative)

(iii) The composite of functions are associative i.e. if three functions f, g, h are such

that fo(goh) and (fog)oh are defined, then fo(goh)=(fog)oh.

(iv) If f and g both are one-one, then gof and fog would also be one-one.

(v) If f and g both are onto, then gof or fog may or may not be onto.

(vi) The composite of two bijections is a bijection iff f & g are two bijections such that

gof is defined, then gof is also a bijection only when co-domain of f is equal to the

domain of g.

(vii) If g is a function such that gof is defined on the domain of f and f is periodic with T,

then gof is also periodic with T as one of its periods.

Let f : A B be a function, then f is invertible iff there is a function g : B A such that

gof(x) is an identity function on A and fog(x) is an identity function on B, g(x) is called

inverse of f and is denoted by f1. For a function to be invertible it must be bijective.

Note:

(0,1)

f(

x)

>

(i) The graphs of f & g are the mirror images of each other in the line y = x. For example

f(x) = ax and g(x) = loga x are inverse of each other, and their graphs are mirror images of

each other on the line y = x as shown below.

g(

x)

lo

g

(1,0)

(ii) Normally points of intersection of f and f1 lie on the straight line y = x. However it

must be noted that f(x) and f1 (x) may intersect otherwise also.

(iii) In general fog(x) and gof(x) are not equal but if they are equal then in majority of

cases f and g are inverse of each other or atleast one of f and g is an identity

function.

ma

r

a

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S

2

.

(iv) If f & g are two bijections f : A B , g : B C then the inverse

of

gof exists

8and

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(gof) = f o g .

Er. 810271 5058

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01

(v) If f(x) and g(x) are inverse function of each other then f'(g(x))

9

83

1

Er. L.K.Sharma

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If x, y are independent variables, then :

(i) f(xy) = f(x) + f(y) f(x) = k ln x or f(x) = 0.

(ii) f(xy) = f(x). f(y) f(x) = xn, n R

(iii) f(x + y) = f(x). f(y) f(x) = akx.

(iv) f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) f(x) = kx, where k is a constant.

1

1

(v) f(x).f x =f(x)+f x f(x)=1 xn where n N.

x y

(vi) f

f(x) f(y)

f(x)=ax+b, a and b are constants.

2

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Mathematics Concept Note

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11. LIMITS

(1) Definition :

Let f(x) be a function , if for every positive number there exists a positive number ,

such that 0 < |x a| < and |f(x) L| < , then f(x) tends to limit L as x tends to a and

f(x)

the limiting value of f(x) at location x = a is represented by xlim

a

In above definition of limit if x tends to a from the values of x greater than a , then

limiting value is termed as right hand limit (RHL.) and represented by lim f(x) or f(a+)

x a

h 0

In above definition of limit if x tends to a from the values of x less than a , then limiting

f(x) or f(a)

value is termed as left hand limit (LHL.) and represented by xlim

a

h 0

Note:

(i) Finite limit of a function f(x) is said to exist as x approaches a , if :

lim f(x) lim f(x) some finite value.

x a

x a

(ii) If LHL and RHL both approaches to or , then limit of function is said to be infinite

limit.

Let f(x) be a function which is defined is same neighbourhood of location x = a , but

functioning value f(a) is indeterminate because of the form of indeterminacy

0

, ,

, 0 , o , 0o and 1 .

i.e.

0

For example :

f(x)

x2 4

1

1

is at x 2 , f(x) 2

at x 0 , f(x) (1 cos x)x at x 0 , etc.

x2

x

sin2 x

To know the behavior of function at indeterminate locations , limiting values are calculated ,

f(x) , where x = a is the location of indeterminacy for function

which is represented by xlim

a

f(x).

Note:

f(x) f(a) , provided the limit

If function f(x) is determinate at locations x = a , then xlim

a

exists (i.e. RHL = LHL).

f(x) f(0)

For example : If f(x) cos x , then xlim

0

a

m

r

a

x 4

h

If f(x)

, then lim f(x) f(2).

S

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Fundamental Theorems on Limits :

9 801

39

8

lim

g(x)

lim

f(x)

Let

= L and

= M. If L and M exists , then :

2

x 2

(3)

x a

Er. L.K.Sharma

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Page 76

{L M }

{L.M 0 }

x a

x a

(iii) lim

xa

f(x)

L

0

L

, provided m 0

,

g(x) M

M 0

(L)

xa

0o , o , 1

x a

x a

(vi) lim f(g(x)) f lim g(x) f(M) ; provided f is continuous at lim g(x) M.

x a

x a

xa

x a

(viii) lim

xa

x a

d

d

(f(x))

lim f(x)

dx

dx x a

1

0

x a f(x)

x a

sin x

tan x

1 , lim

1

x 0

x0

x

x

xn an

n(a)n 1

x a x a

cos x

0

x

x

(c) lim

sin1 x

1

x 0

x

(e) lim

ex 1

1

x 0

x

(g) lim

loge (1 x)

1

x 0

x

(i) lim

(b) lim

tan1 x

1

x 0

x

(d) lim

ax 1

loge a

x 0

x

(f) lim

loga(1 x)

loga e

x 0

x

(h) lim

a0 xn a1xn 1 a2 xn 2 ....... an

lim

x b xm b xm 1 b xm 2 .... b

0

1

2

m

x

(k) lim a

x

; a1

; | a | 1

; a1

oscillates finitely

a0

;mn

b0

0

;nm

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(l) lim(1

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1/x

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oscillates infinitely ; a 1

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

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x 0

Page 77

(m) lim 1 e

x

x

g(x)

ex a

(n) lim(f(x))

x a

lim(f(x) 1)g(x)

g(x)

1 for x a , then lim(f(x))g(x) ex a

(o) If (f(x))

xa

Let f(n) be a function which is differentiable for all orders throughout some interval containing location x = 0 as an interior point , then Taylor's series generated by f(x) at x = 0

( i.e. Maclaurin's series ) is given by:

f(x) f(0)

f '(0)

f "(0) 2 f '''(0) 3

x

x

x ................

1!

2!

3!

x

x2

x3

+

+

+ ......

1!

2!

3!

In solving limits sometimes standard series are more convenient than standard methods and

hence following series should be remembered.

(i) ex = 1 +

x

x2

x3

+

+

+ ......

1!

2!

3!

(ii) ax = 1 +

x lna

x2 ln2 a

x3 ln3 a

+

+

+ .......

1!

2!

3!

(iii) ln (1+x) = x

(iv) sin x = x

x2

x3

x4

+

+ ......

2

3

4

x3

x5

x7

+

+

+ ...

3!

5!

7!

(vi) tan x = x +

(1 < x < 1)

(v) cos x = 1

x3

2x5

+

+ .....

3

15

12 3

12.32 5

12.32.52 7

x +

x +

x + ......

3!

5!

7!

(ix) sec1 x = 1 +

x2

5x4

61x6

+

+

..........

2!

4!

6!

n(n1)

2!

x2 +

x2

x4

x6

+

+ ...

2!

4!

6!

(vii) tan1 x = x +

(viii) sin1 x = x +

(x) (1 + x)n = 1 + nx +

(a > 0 , a 1)

x3

x5 x7

+

+......

3

5

7

n(n1)(n2) 3

x + ................. ( |x| < 1 , n R )

3!

ma

r

a

h

Let f(x) and g(x) are differentiable function of x at location x = a such

that:

S

.

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lim f(x) lim g(x) 0 or lim f(x) lim g(x)

Er. 81027 5058

Now , according to L' Hospital Rule

9 801

f(x)

f '(x)

839

lim

lim

x a

x a

x a

g(x)

x a

x a

x a

g'(x)

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 78

Note:

f '(x)

0

or

and f '(x) , g'(x) satisfy the condiassumes the indeterminate form

g'(x)

0

If xlim

a

f(x)

f '(x)

f "(x)

lim

lim

.

x a g(x)

x a g'(x)

x a g"(x)

lim

Let f(x) , g(x) and h(x) be functions of x such that g(x) f(x) h(x) x (a h , a h),

g(x) lim f(x) lim h(x).

where 'h' is infinitely small positive number , then xlim

a

x a

x a

g(x) lim h(x) L lim f(x) L .

Now , if xlim

a

x a

x a

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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9 801

839

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 79

(1) Continuity of a function :

A function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = c , if :

lim f(x) lim f(x) f(c)

x c

x c

Geometrically is not if a function f(x) is continous at x = c the graph of f(x) at the corresponding point (c , f(c)) will not be broken , but if f(x) is discontinuous at x = c the graph

have break at the corresponding point.

A function f(x) can be discontinuous at x = c because of any of the following three reasons:

(i)

lim f(x) does not exist ( i.e. lim f(x) lim f(x) )

x c

x c

x c

f(x) f(c)

(iii) xlim

c

Following graph illustrates the different cases of discontinuity of f(x) at x = c.

(a) Discontinuity of First Kind:

Let f(x) be a function for which left hand limit and right hand limit at location x = a are

finitely existing. Now if f(x) is discontinous at x = a is termed as discontinuity of first kind

which may be removable or non-removable.

Removable Discontinuity of 1st kind:

ma

r

a

h

S

.

8a 2

K

.

6

If case lim f(x) exists but is not equal to f(a) then the function

is said to have

L

7

27 0such

58 that

Er. can81be0redefined

removable discontinuity at x = a. In this case function

5

1

9

lim f(x) f(a) and hence function can become continous at x = a. 80

9

83

x a

x a

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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9810277682/8398015058

Page 80

f(x) exists finitely but f(a) is not defined.

Where xlim

a

x2 4

has a missing point discontinuity at x = 2.

x2

sin x

has a missing point discontinuity at x = 0.

x

Isolated Point Discontinuity :

f(x)

f(x) exists and f(a) also exists but lim f(x) f(a) .

At locations x = a where xlim

a

x a

x2 9

; x3

For example: f(x) x 3

has isolated point discontinuity at x = 3

10

; x3

0 ; xI

f(x) [x] [x]

is discontinous at integral x.

1 ; x I

If LHL and RHL exists for function f(x) at x = a but LHL RHL , then it is not possible to make

the function continous by redefining it and this discontinous nature is termed as nonremovable discontinuity of Ist kind.

For example: (i) f(x) = sgn (x) at x = 0

(ii) f(x) = x [x] at all integral x.

Note:

In case of non-removable discontinuity of the first kind the non-negative difference

between the value of the RHL at x = a and LHL at x = a is called the jump of discontinuity.

Jump of discontinuity = |RHLLHL|

A function having a finite number of jumps in a given interval is called a Piece Wise

Continuous or Sectionally Continuous function in this interval.

For example: f(x) = {x} , f(x) = [x].

(b) Discontinuity of Second Kind:

Let f(x) be a function for which atleast one of the LHL or RHL is non-existent or infinite at

location x = a , then nature of discontinuity at x = a is termed as discontinuity of second

kind and this is non-removable discontinuity.

Infinite discontinuity:

At location x = a , either LHL or RHL or both approaches to or .

For example: f(x)

1

1

or f(x)

at x 3 .

x3

(x 3)2

Oscillatory discontinuity:

At location x = a , function oscillates rigorously and can not have a finite limiting

ma

r

a

1

h

S

For example: f(x) sin at x 0

.

82

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x

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Er. 81027 5058

Note:

1 kind.

9 8of0second

Point functions which are defined at single point only are discontinous

9

83

For example: f(x) x 4 x 4 at x 4.

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 81

(a) A function f(x) is said to be continuous in open interval (a,b) if f(x) is continuous at

each and every interior point of (a,b).

For example:

f(x) = tanx is continous in ,

2 2

f(x) is left continuous at x = a lim f(x) f(a) a finite quantity.

y.

x a

y.

x b

(a) If f and g are two functions which are continuous at x = c then the functions defined by

G(x) = f(x) g(x) ; H(x) = Kf(x) ; F(x) = f(x).g(x) are also continuous at x = c , where K is

f(x)

any real number. If g(c) is not zero , then Q(x) = g(x) is also continuous at x = c.

(b) If f(x) is continuous and g(x) is discontinuous at x = a then the product function

(x) = f(x).g(x) may be continuous but sum or difference function (x) = f(x) g(x) will

necessarily be discontinuous at x = a.

sin x 0

For example: f(x) = x and g(x) = x

.

0 x 0

(c) If f(x) and g(x) both are discontinuous at x = a then the product function

(x) = f(x).g(x) is not necessarily be discontinuous at x= a.

For example:

1 x 0

f(x) = g(x) =

.

1 x 0

continuous at x = c.

For example:

(gof) (x) =

(5)

f(x) =

x sin x

x sinx

x2 2

ma

r

a

h

S

Differentiability of a function at a point :

.

82

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7

7

58

Er. 81+0h))2lies

0

Let y = f(x) be a function and points P (a , f(a)) and Q (a + h , f(a

on

the curve of

5

9 801

f(x).

839

f(a h) f(a)

x2 2

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 82

If positive scalar h tends to zero , then point Q approaches to point P from right hand side

and the secant becomes tangent to curve f(x).

Slope of tan gent at P lim

h0

f(a h) f(a)

f '(a )

h

Similar to the above discussion , if P(a , f(a)) and R(a h , f(ah)) are two points on the

f(a h) f(a)

.

h

Now , if positive scales h tends to zero , then point R approaches to point P from left hand

side and the secant becomes tangent to curve f(x).

h 0

f(a h) f(a)

f '(a )

h

(i) Necessary condition: function mast be continuous at x = a.

lim f(x) lim f(x) f(a)

x a

...(1)

x a

(ii) Sufficient condition: function must have finitely equal left hand and right hand

derivative. (i.e. f ' (a) = f ' (a+))

lim

h0

f(a h) f(a)

f(a h) f(a) = some finite quantity..

lim

h

0

a

h

necessary condition and sufficient condition).

ma

r

a

h

S

.

If function is differentiable at a location than it is always continuous

at that location

K

. are7continous

682butbut

L

7

the converse is not always true. Hence all differentiable .function

all

Er 8102 5058

continous functions are not differentiable.

9 at8x0= 10

For example: f(x) = e is continous at x = 0 but not differentiable

If f(x) is differentiable at location x = c, then alternative formula

839for calculating differenNote:

|x|

x c

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

f(x) f(c)

xc

Page 83

Geometrically a function is differentiable at x = a if there exists a unique tangent of finite

slope at location x = a.

Non-differentiability of a function y = f(x) at location x = a can be visualized geometrically in

the following cases:

(i) Discontinuity in the graph of f(x) at location x = a.

(ii) a corner or sharp change in the curvature of graph at x = a , where the left hand and

right derivatives differ.

(iii) A cusp , where the slope of tangent at x = a approaches from one side and from

the other side.

(iv) Location of vertical tangent at x = a , where the slope of tangent approaches from

both side or from both sides.

ma

r

a

Note:

h

S

2

.

8corner

K

.

6

If the graph of a function is smooth curve or gradual curve

without

any

sharp

(or

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

kink) then also it may be non-differentiable at some location.

9 sharp8corner

For example: f(x) = x represents a gradual curve without any

01 but it is non9

differentiable at x = 0.

83

If a function is non-differentiable at some location then also it may have a unique

1/3

tangent.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 84

For example: y = sgn (x) is discontinous at x = 0 and hence non-differentiable but have a

unique vertical tangent at x = 0.

Geometrically tangent is defined as a line which joins two closed points on the curve.

f(x) is said to be differentiable over an open interval if it is differentiable at each and every

point of the interval and f(x) is said to be differentiable over a closed interval [a,b] if f(x) is

continuous in [a , b] and :

(i) for the boundary points f'(a+) and f'(b) exist finitely , and

(ii) for any point c such that a < c < b , f'(c+) and f '(c) exist finitely and are equal.

(i) If f(x) and g(x) are differentiable at x = a then the functions f(x)g(x)) , f(x).g(x) will

also be differentiable at x = a and if g(a) 0 then the function f(x)/g(x) will also be differentiable at x = a.

(ii) If f(x) is not differentiable at x = a and g(x) is differentiable at x = a, then the product

function f(x).g(x) may be differentiable at x = a

For example: f(x) = |x| and g(x) = x2.

(iii) If f(x) and g(x) both are not differentiable at x= a then the product function f(x).g(x)

may be differentiable at x = a

For example: f(x) = |x| and g(x) = |x|.

ma

r

a

h

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839

(iv) If f(x) and g(x) both are non-differentiable at x = a then the sum function f(x) g(x)

may be a differentiable function.

For example: f(x) = |x| & g(x) = |x|.

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 85

(1)

The derivative of a given function y = f(x) at a point x = a on its domain is represented by

f '(a) or

dy

f(a h) f(a)

and f '(a) lim

, provided the limit exists , alternatively the

dx x a

h0

h

derivative of y = f(x) at x = a is given by f '(a) lim f(x) f(a) , provided the limit exists.

xa

xa

represented by f '(x) or

(2)

dy

f(x h) f(x)

and f '(x) lim

, provided the limit exists.

dx

h0

h

f(x)

f'(x)

1.

xn

nxn1

2.

ax

ax

3.

n|x|

1

x

4.

logax

1

loga e

x

5.

sin x

cos x

6.

cos x

sin x

7.

sec x

sec x tan x

8.

cosec x

cosec x cot x

9.

tan x

sec2x

10.

cot x

cosec2 x

11.

sin1 x

12.

cos1 x

13.

tan1 x

14.

cot1 x

15.

sec1 x

16.

cosec1 x

(x R, n R)

na

(a > 0 , a 1)

(x 0)

1

1 x2

|x| < 1

|x| < 1

1

1 x2

1

1 x2

1

1 x2

; x R

; x R

1

| x | x2 1

; |x| > 1

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

| x | x2 1

; |x| > 1

ma

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(3)

(4)

1.

d

(f(x) g(x))= f '(x) g '(x)

dx

2.

d

d

(k(f(x)) = k

f(x)

dx

dx

3.

d

(f(x). g(x)) = f(x) g'(x) + g(x) f'(x)

dx

4.

d

dx

f(x)

=

g(x)

g(x)f '(x)f(x)g'(x)

g2 (x)

If f(x) and g(x) are differentiable functions , then fog(x) is also differentiable and

d

(f(g(x))) f '(g(x)).g'(x) is known as chain rule can be extended for two on move funcdx

tions.

For example :

dy dy dz du

.

.

.

dx dz du dx

Note:

dy

dy dx

dy

1

1

.

.

dy

dx dy

dx dx

dy

d2 y

dx2

1

d2 x

2

dy

If y f(x) and x g(y) are inverse functions of each other , then g(f(x)) = x and

1

g'(x)

g'(y).f '(x) 1 .

(4.2) Implicit differentiation :

If f(x,y) = 0 is an implicit function , then

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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r. 1027 058

E

to x and y respectively.

98 8015

Note:

39

8

Partial differential coefficient of f(x , y) with respect to x means the ordinary differential

f

x

dy

f

f

and

, where

are partial differential coefficients of f(x,y) with respect

x

x

dx

f

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 87

f1 (x).f2 (x).......

If function is of the form y = (f(x))g(x) or y g (x).g (x)...... , where gi (x) 0 and fi(x) ,

1

2

log of LHS and RHS is convenient and this method of differentiation is termed as logarithmic

differentiation.

y (f(x))g(x) loge y g(x).loge f(x)

y eg(x).loge f(x)

f '(x)

dy

eg(x).loge f(x)

.g(x) g'(x).loge f(x)

dx

f(x)

dy dg

If x = f( ) and y = g( ) , then

dx

df

dy

dy g'() d

.

dx

f '() dx

d

Note:

d2 y

2

dx

g "()

.

f "()

Let u = f(x) and v = g(x) be two functions of x , then derivative of f(x) w.r.t. g(x) is given

by:

du

dx

df(x) f '(x)

dv dg(x) g'(x)

dx

If y is given in the form of infinite series of x and we have to find out

dy

then we remove

dx

(i) If y

2y

dy

dy

dy

f '(x)

f '(x)

,

dx

dx

dx 2y 1

f(x)f(x)....

f(x)

(ii) If y f(x)

then y f(x)y

1 dy y.f '(x)

dy

y2 f '(x)

log f(x),

y dx

f(x)

dx f(x)[1 y log f(x)]

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

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f(x) y y2 f(x) y

Page 88

(iii) If y f(x)

f(x)

1

f(x) ....

then

dy

yf '(x)

dx 2y f(x)

Inverse trigonometric functions can be differentiation directly by use of standard results

and the chain rule , but is is always easier by use of the proper substitution however the

conditions of substitution must be applied carefully.

For example:

(4.8) Differentiation using substitution :

In case of differentiation of irrational function , method of substitution makes the calculations simpler and there the following substitution must be remember.

Some suitable substitutions

S. N.

Functions

Substitutions

(i)

a2 x2

x 0 sin or a cos

(ii)

x2 a2

x a tan or a cot

(iii)

x2 a2

x a sec or a cosec

(iv)

a x

a x

x a cos 2

a2 x2

(v)

a2 x2

x2 a2 cos 2

(vi)

ax x2

x a sin2

(vii)

x

a x

x a tan2

(viii)

x

ax

x a sin2

(ix)

(x a)(x b)

x a sec2 b tan2

(x)

(x a)(b x)

x a cos2 b sin2

f(x) g(x) h(x)

If F(x) = l(x) m(x) n(x) , where f, g, h, l, m, n, u, v, w are differentiable functions of

u(x) v(x) w(x)

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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9 801

(4.10) Differentiation of definite integral :

839 at point x (a,b)

If g (x) and g (x) both functions are defined on [a , b] and differentiable

f'(x) g'(x) h'(x)

f(x) g(x) h(x)

f(x) g(x) h(x)

x then F'(x) = l(x) m(x) n(x) + l'(x) m'(x) n'(x) + l(x) m(x) n(x)

u'(x) v'(x) w'(x)

u(x) v(x) w(x)

u(x) v(x) w(x)

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 89

Then

(5)

d

dx

g2

g1

d

d

g2 (x) f[g1 (x)]

g1 (x).

dx

dx

Let a function y = f(x) be defined on an open interval (a,b). It's derivative, if it exists on

(a,b) is a certain function f'(x) [or (dy/dx) or y'] and is called the first derivative

of y w.r.t. x.

If it happens that the first derivative has a derivative on (a,b) then this derivative is

d2y

called the second derivative of y w.r.t. x & is denoted by f''(x) or 2 or y''.

dx

Similarly, the 3rd order derivative of y w.r.t. x, if it exists, is defined by

d3y

dx3

d

=

dx

d2y

dx2 .

r

a

h

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Page 90

(1)

Let y = f(x) be the equation of a curve and poit P(x1 , y1) lies on the curve. For the curve

y = f(x) , geometrically f '(x1) represents the slope to tongent to curve at location x = x1,

hence the equations of tangent can be obtained by point slope form of line.

y y1

f '(x1 ) is the equation of tangent at point P(x , y ) to curve y = f(x).

1

1

x x1

1

Slope of noraml to cuver y = f(x) at point P(x1 , y1) is given by f '(x )

y y1

1

x x1

f '(x1 )

Note:

If slope of tangent is zero , then tangent is termed as 'horizontal tangent' and if slope of

targent approaches infinite , then tangent is termed as 'vertical tangent'.

(2)

Let P(x1 , y1) be any point on curve y = f(x). If tangent drawn at point P meets x-axis at

T and normal at point P meets x-axis at N , then the length PT is called the length of

tangent and PN is called length of normal.

Projection of segment PT on x-axis (i.e. QT) is called the subtangent and similarly

projection of line segment PN on x-axis (i.e. QN) is called subnormal. (refer figure (1)).

dy

Let m

slope of tangent at P(x1 , y1) to curve y = f(x).

dx P

dy

m tan

dx P

In PTQ , sin

y1

PT

PT | y1cosec |

2

dx

Length of tangent PT y1 1

dy P

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

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a

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In PQN , sin(90 )

y1

PN | y1sec |

PN

2

dy

Length of normal PN y1 1

dx P

y1

QT | y1 cot |

QT

y1

Length of subtangent

dy

dx

In PTQ , tan

In PQN , tan(90 )

y1

QN | y1 tan |

QN

dy

Length of subnormal y1

dx P

(3)

Angle between two intersecting curves is defined as the angle between their

tangents or the normals at the point of intersection of two curves.

m1 m2

1 2

intersection.

Note:

The curves must intersect for the angle between them to be defined.

If the curves intersect at more than one point then angle between the curves is

mentioned with references to the point of intersection.

Two curves are said to be orthogonal if angle between them at each point of

intersection is right angle (i.e. m1m2 = 1).

(4)

If shortest distance is defined between two non-intersecting curves , then it lies along

the common normal.

r

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Page 92

(1)

Rolle's Theorem:

If a function f(x) is

(i) continuous in a closed interval [a, b]

(ii) derivable in the open interval (a, b)

(iii) f(a) = f(b),

then there exists at least one real number c is in (a, b) such that f '(c) = 0

(2)

If a function f(x) is

(i) continuous in the closed interval [a,b] and

(ii) derivable in the open interval (a, b),

then there exists at least one real number c in (a,b) such that

f '(c)

f(b) f(a)

.

ba

Geometrical Illustration:

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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f(b) f(a)

The slope of chord AB is

and that of the tangent

point0

P2

is7

f'(c). These

58being

Er.of 8

ba

1

0

5

9 the8tangent

01 at which is

equal, by (i), it follows that there exists a point P on the curve,

9

parallel to the chord AB.

83

Let P be a point on the curve f(x) such that

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

f(b) f(a)

f '(c)

ba

...(i)

Page 93

There may exist more than one point between A and B, the tangents at which are parallel to

the chord AB. Lagrange's mean value theorem ensures the existence of at least one real

number c in (a,b) such that f '(c)

(3)

f(b) f(a)

ba

If a function f(x) is

(i) continuous is a closed interval [a, a + h]

(ii) differentiable in a open interval (a, a + h), then their exists at least one number lying

between 0 and 1 such that f '(a h)

f(a h) f(a)

h

(4)

(0 1)

Physical Illustration:

[f(b) f(a)]

is

(b a)

the average rate of change of the function over the interval [a,b]. Also f'(c) is the actual

rate of change of the function for x = c. Thus, the theorem states that the average rate of

change of a function over an interval is also the actual rate of change of the function at

some point of the interval. In particular, for instance, the average velocity of a particle over

an interval of time is equal to the velocity at some instant belonging to the interval. i.e.

[f(b)f(a)] is the change in the function f as x changes from a to b so that

x(t2 ) x(t1 )

i.e. instantaneous velocity =

t2 t1

average velocity.

(5)

ma

r

a

h

S

.

Intermediate Value Theorem (IVT)

82

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If a function f is continuous in a closed interval [a,b] then

15at least one

98there8exists

0

f(a) f(b)

39

8

c (a,b) such that f(c)

for all R .

1

Er. L.K.Sharma

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Page 94

16. MONOTONOCITY

Basic Definitions

(i) Strictly increasing function:

A function f(x) is said to be strictly increasing in an interval 'D', if for any two locations

x = x1 and x = x2, where x1 > x2 f(x1) > f(x2) x1 , x2 D .

If function f(x) is differentiable in interval 'D', then for strictly increasing function

f'(x) > 0. for example: f(x) = ex x R

(ii) Strictly decreasing function:

A function f(x) is said to be strictly decreasing in an interval 'D', if for any two locatious

x = x1 and x = x2, where x1 > x2 f(x1) < f(x2) x1 , x2 D .

If function f(x) is differentiable in interval 'D', then for strictly decreasing function

f'(x) < 0. for example: f(x) = ex x R

Note:

For strictly increasing or strictly decreasing functions, f'(x) 0. For any point location or

sub interval

A.

1.

neighbourhood around x = a.

f(a h) < f(a) < f(a + h)

f(a+h)

f(a)

f(a+h)

f(a)

f(ah)

f(ah)

ah

2.

a+h

neighbourhood around x = a.

f(a h) > f(a) > f(a + h)

f(ah)

f(a)

f(ah)

f(a+h)

f(a)

f(a+h)

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If x = a is a boundary point then use the appropriate oneE

sided

58

0

1

0

5

8

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9 801

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ah

a+h

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

x=a

Page 95

f(a)

f(a+h)

f(ah)

f(a)

x=a

f(a) > f(ah)

increasing at x = a

3.

x=a

f(a+h) < f(a)

decreasing at x = a

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(a)

(b)

(c)

B.

1.

A function f(x) is said to be monotonically increasing for all such interval (a, b) where

f'(x) 0 and equality may hold only for discreet values of x. i.e. f'(x) does not identically

become zero for x (a,b) or any sub interval.

2.

f(x) is said to be monotonically decreasing for all such interval (a,b) where f'(x) 0 and

equality may hold only for discrete values of x.{By discrete points, it mean that points

where f'(x) = 0 don't form an interval}

Note:

C.

(i)

(ii)

The points for which f'(x) is equal to zero or doesn't exist are called critical points.

Here it should also be noted that critical points are the interior points of an interval.

(iii)

The stationary points are the points where f'(x) = 0 in the domain.

Classification of functions

Depending on the monotonic behaviour, functions can be classified into following cases.

1.

3.

Increasing functions

Decreasing functions

2.

4.

Non-increasing functions

This classification is not complete and there may be function which cannot be classified into

any of the above cases for some interval (a, b).

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(1)

Basic definitions:

(i) Stationary points: For a given function f(x), stationary points are those locations of x

(let it be 'x0') for which f'(x0) = 0, and functioning value f(x0) is termed as the stationary

value of function.

(ii) Critical points: For a given function f(x), critical points are those locations of x(let it be

'x') in the domain of f(x) for which f'(x0) = 0 or f'(x0) doesn't exist.

exist

(iii) Points of extremum: critical points of a function at which either maxima or minima

exists is termed as points of extremum.

(iv) Point of inflection: critical locations of function at which neither maxima nor minima

exists is termed as point of in flection, it is also known as point of no extremum.

(v) Local maxima/regional maxima: A function f(x) is said to have a local maximum at

critical point x= a if f(a) f(x) x (a h,a + h) , where h is a very small positive

arbitrary number.

If x = a is the point of local maxima, then f(a) lim f(x) and f(a) lim f(x) .

xa

xa

(vi) Local minima/regional minima: A function f(x) is said to have local minimum at

critical point x = a if f(a) f(x) x (a h, a + h), where h is a very small positive

arbitrary number.

If x = a is the point of local minima, if then f(a) lim f(x) and f(a) lim f(x) .

xa

xa

ma

r

a

h

S

Note:

.

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7 in the

(i) local maxima of a function at x = a is the largest value

function

8nearby

5

Er.of 8

02only

1

0

neighbourhood of critical point x = a.

9 8015

(ii) local minima of a function at x = a is the smallest value of

function

39 only in the nearby

8

neighbourhood of critical point x = a.

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 97

(iii) If a function f(x) is defined on [a,b], then f(x) is having point of extremum at the

boundary points.

(iv)for function f(x), if local maxima on local minima doesn't exist at critical point x = a, then

point of inflection exists.

Following figure illustrates the point of inflection or point of no extremum

(2)

1. Ist derivative Test

First derivative test is applicable only in those function for which the critical points are

the points of continuity.

(i) If f '(x) changes sign from negative to positive while passing through x = a from

left to right then x = a is a point of local minima.

(ii) If f '(x) changes sign from positive to negative while passing through x = a from

left to right then x = a is a point of local maxima.

(iii) If f '(x) does not changes its sign about x = a then x = a is neither a point of

maxima nor minima. (i.e. x=a is point of inflection)

following figure illustrates the Ist derivative test

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Page 98

If f(x) is continuous function in the neighborhood of x = 0 such that f'(x) = 0 and

f''(a) exists then we can predict maxima or minima at x = 0 by examining the sign of

f''(a)

(i) If f''(a) > 0 then x = a is a point of local minima.

(ii) If f''(a) < 0 then x = a is a point of local maxima.

(iii) If f''(a) = 0 then second derivative test does not give any use conclusive results.

3. nth derivative test

Let f(x) be function such that f'(a) = f''(a) = f''(a) = ............. = f n1 (a) = 0 and

n

th

f n (a) = 0, where f denotes the n derivative, then

(i) If n is even and f n (a) < 0, there is a local maximum at a, white if f n (a) > 0, there is a

local minimum at a.

(ii) If n is odd, there is no extremum at the point a.

(3)

Let a function y = f(x) be defined parametrically as y = g(t) and x = h(t) where g and h both

are twice differentiable functions for a certain interval of t and h'(t) 0.

Now,

dy dy / dt g'(t)

0 g'(t) 0

dx dx / dt h'(t)

d2 y

d g'(t)

d g'(t)

1

h'(t) g'(t)h "(t)

.

Now

2

3

dx g'(t) dt h'(t) dx / dt

dx

{h'(t)}

d2 y

g "(t)

2

dx

{h '(t)}2

Thus sign of

d2 y

is same as that of the sign of g"(t)

dx2

if g "(t) t t0 0, f(x) has a minm. at x = x0 = h(t0) and so on.

(4)

Global maximum or minimum value of f(x) x [a, b] refers to the greatest value and least

value of f(x), mathematically

(i) If f(c) f(x) for x [a, b] then f(c) is called global maximum or absolute maximum

value of f(x).

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Er. 81027 5058

For function f(s) defined on [a,b], is c , c , c , ...... c are 9

the locations

01of critical point,

8

9

then

83

Global maximum value = max{f(a), f(c ), f(c ), ...... f(c ), f(b)}

(ii) Similarly if f(d) f(x) x [a,b] then f(d) is called global minimum or absolute minimum

value.

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 99

(5)

(6)

1.

2.

3.

Volume of cube = a3

4.

5.

Volume of a cone =

6.

7.

8.

9.

Volume of a sphere =

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

Volume of a pyramid =

16.

1

r2h.

3

4

r3.

3

1 2

r , when is in radians.

2

1

(area of the base) (height).

3

1

(perimeter of the base) (slant height)

2

Curvature of function

For continuous function f(x), If f''(x0) = 0 or doesnot exist at points where f'(x0) exists

and if f''(x) changes sign when passing through x = x0 , then x0 is called a point of inflection . At the point of inflection the curve changes its concavity i.e.

(i) If f''(x) < 0, x (a,b) then the curve y = f(x) is convex in (a,b)

ma

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(ii) If f''(x) > 0, x (a,b) then the curve y = f(x) is concave in (a,b).

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 100

If f and g are functions of x such that g'(x) = f(x), then

f(x)dx = g(x) + c

d

dx {g(x) + c} = f(x), where c is called the constant of integration.

Note:

(i) Integral of a function is also termed as primitive or antiderivative

(ii) The indefinite integral of a function geometrically represents a family of curves having

parallel tangents at their points of intersection with the line orthogonal to the axis of

variable of integration.

(1)

Theorems on Integration

(i)

(ii)

(f(x) g(x))dx

(iii)

d

dx

(iv)

(v)

(2)

f(x)dx g(x)dx

f(x)dx f(x)

d

(f(x)).dx f(x) c .

dx

f(x)dx g(x)+c

f(ax+b)dx

g(ax+b)

+c

a

Standard Formula :

xn1

(i)

x dx n 1 C , n 1

(ii)

x dx ln |x| + C

(iii)

e dx e

lna + C

(iv) ax dx ax/

( a x b ) n 1

+ c, n

a ( n 1)

(v) (ax+b)n dx =

(vi)

dx

1

=

a

ax+b

(vii) eax+bdx =

ln |(ax + b)| + c

1 ax + b

e

+c

a

(viii) apx+qdx = p

(ix)

sin(ax+b)dx

apx q px+q

a

/

na

lna + c; a > 0

a cos (ax + b) + c

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

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Page 101

(x)

cos(ax+b)dx = a

sin (ax + b) + c

(xi) tan(ax+b)dx =

1

a

(xii) cot(ax+b)dx =

1

a

ln |sin(ax + b)| + c

1

tan(ax + b) + c

a

(xiii) sec2(ax+b)dx =

1

cot(ax + b) + c

a

1

sec (ax + b) + c

a

(xv) sec(ax+b).tan(ax+b)dx =

(xvi) cosec(ax+b).cot(ax+b)dx =

(xvii) sec x dx =

(xviii) cosec x dx =

dx

(xx)

(xxi)

dx

2

x x a

(xxiii)

(xxiv)

dx

2

dx

a x2

dx

2

x a

1

x

sec1

+c

a

a

x2 a2 |+ C

ln | x

x2 a2

dx

x

+c

a

ln | x

x a

x2 a2

ln |tan 4 2x | + c

1

x

tan1

+c

a

a

a2 x2

(xxii)

(xxv)

= sin1

a2 x2

or

or

dx

1

cosec (ax + b) + c

a

or

(xix)

1

2a

ln aaxx

+c

1

2a

ln xx aa

+c

x

(xxvi) a2 x2 dx =

2

x

(xxvii) x2 a2 dx =

2

x

(xxviii) x2 a2 dx =

2

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

|+C

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c r.

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0

1

98 8015

839

x x a

x

a2

1

a2 x2 + 2 sin a + c

a2

x2 a2 + 2

x a

a2

ln

+ c

Page 102

(xxix) eax.sin bx dx =

eax

2

a b

(xxx) eax.cos bx dx =

(3)

b cos bx) + c or

eax

b

sin bx tan1 C

a

a b

eax

eax

2

(a sin bx

a b

b

cos bx tan1 C

a

a b

Integration by Subsitutions

If x = (t) is substituted in a integral, then

dx gets converted in terms of dt.

(t) should be able to take all possible value that x can take.

Note:

(i)

[f(x)n f'(x) dx =

(ii)

(iii)

f '(x)

dx

f(x)

f '(x)

f(x)

(f(x))n+1

+C

n+1

ln|f(x)| + C

dx 2 f(x) C

3

(4)

Integration by Part :

If f(x) and g(x) are the first and second function respectively then

The choice of f(x) and g(x) is decided by ILATE rule. The function which comes later is

taken as second function (integral function).

I

Inverse function

L Logarithmic function

A

Algebraic function

T Trigonometric function

E Exponential function

Note:

(5)

(i)

(ii)

ma

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f(x)

15function of a

98 algebraic

g(x) defines a rational

0

8

839

PARTIAL FRACTIONS :

If f(x) and g(x) are two polynomials, then

rational function of x.

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 103

f(x)

If degree of f(x) < degree of g(x), then g(x) is called a proper rational function.

f(x)

If degree of f(x) degree of g(x then g(x) is called an improper rational function

f(x)

If g(x) is an improper rational function, is divided f(x), by g(x) so that the rational function

f(x)

(x)

g(x) is expressed in the form (x) + (g)x where (x) and (x) are polynomials such that

f(x)

the degree of (x) is less than that of g(x). Thus, g(x) is expressible as the sum of a

f(x)

Any proper rational function g(x) can be expressed as the sum of rational functions, each

having a simple factor of g(x). Each such fraction is called a partial fraction and the process

f(x)

of obtaining them is called the resolution or decomposition of g(x) into partial fractions.

f(x)

The resolution of g(x) into partial fractions depends mainly upon the nature of the factors

CASE I When denominator is expressible as the product of non-repeating linear factors.

Let g(x) = (x a1) (x a2)..........(x an). Then, we assume that

A1

A2

A2

f(x)

=

+

+.....

+

x

a

x

a

x

an

g(x)

1

2

where A1, A2, ...... An are constants and can be determined by equating the numerator on

R.H.S. to the numerator on L.H.S. and then substituting x = a1, a2, ......., an.

(Refer section 14,15,16,17 in A List of Evaluation Techniques )

Note:

In order to determine the value of constants in the numerator of the partial fraction corresponding to the non-repeated linear factor px + q in the denominator of a rational expression, we may proceed as follows :

Replace x =

sion except in the factor px + q itself. For example, in the above illustration the value of A is

obtained by replacing x by 1 in all factors of

3x 2

except (x 1) i..e

(x 1)(x 2)(x 3)

312

5

A = (12)(13) =

2

Similarly, we have

B=

32 1

=

(12)(2 3)

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

8 and, C =

33 2

11

=

(3 1)(3 2)

2

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S.NO. Form of Integrate

1.

x cosn x dx where

sin

where m, n N

Value/Evaluation Techique

If n is odd put sin x = t

If both m and n are odd, put sin x = t if m n

and cos x = t otherwise.

If both m and n are even, use power reducting formulae

sin2 x

1

(1 cos 2x)

2

1

(1 cos 2x)

2

If m + n is a negative even integer , put tan x = t

cos2 x

2.

a sin x b cos x c

p sin x q cos x r dx

aex be x

pe

dx

qex

a tan x b

p tan x q dx

pe

2x

Change to

dx

or

(p , q 0, at least one

of a , b 0)

4.

sin x and constant term (or ex, ex) write the integral as

d

(DEN)

dx

dx dx

dx

DEN

DEN

of a, b 0)

ae2x b

d

(DEN) +

dx

3.

dx

a sin x b cos x

a sin x b cos x

p sin x q cos x dx

aex be x

be

qex

dx

form

1

r

(Both a, b 0)

5.

dx

Q

or

dx

or

or

Q dx

or

Q or

Q dx

where L px q, p 0

dx

c

2 b

Write Q a x x

a

a

ma

r

a

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S

b

.

82

K

t

.

and put

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2a

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

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and Q = ax2 + bx + c, a 0

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 105

6.

7.

L1

dx

L2

Value/Evaluation Techique

Write as

L1

dx

L1L2

where L1 = ax+b, a 0

L2 = px + q , p 0

to reduce to form

Q

dx

L

Put L

L

dx

Q

1

to reduce to form

t

dx

Q

where L = px + q, p 0

and Q=ax2 + bx + c, a 0

8.

Q

Rewrite the integrand as L Q

Q

dx

L

where

L = px + q, p 0

Q = ax2 + bx + c,

a 0

Divide Q by L to obtain

Q = L1(L) +

where L1 is a linear expression in x and is a constant.

The integral reduces to

9.

Q1

dx

Q2

Write Q1 Q2

L1

Q

dx

dx

d

[Q2 ]

dx

where

Q1 = ax2+bx+c , a 0

d

dx

Q2 dx

[Q2 ]dx y

Q

dx

Q2

Q2 = px2+qx+r , p 0

10.

dx

Put L2 = t2

L2

where L1 = ax + b

and

L2 = px + q,

with a , p 0, a p.

11.

dx

with a, p 0 , p 0

12.

1 / p, 1 / q,

R(x

ma

r

a

h

x=1/t and simplify then put

S

.

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p + qt = u

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Er. 81027 5058

Let l = lcm (p, q, r, ...) 9

01

8

9

83

and put x = t

First put

Q2

x1 / t ...)dx

where R is a rational

function.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 106

13.

P(x)

Value/Evaluation Techique

Q(x) dx

when

P(x) is divided by Q(x). Now,

polynomials in x

P(x)

B(x)

A(x)

Q(x)

Q(x)

where deg B(x) < deg Q(x)

Now use techniques 22 to 29

14.

P(x)

Q(x) dx

Write

A1

A2

An

P(x)

...

Q(x) x 1 x 2

x n

distinct linear factors,

that is

Q(x)=A(x- 1 )(x 2 )...

dx

x a log | x a |

(x r )

where ai ' s are

distinct and A 0

P(x)

15.

dx

(x a)

Put xa = t,

polynomial in x.

P(x)dx

16.

(x a)

(x b)n

where m , n 1, a b ,

and deg P(x) < m + n.

A1

A2

Am

B1

B2

Bn

...

...

2

m

2

x a (x a)

x b (x b)

(x a)

(x b)n

P(x)dx

17.

(x a)(x

bx c)

P(x) < 3

18.

19.

x

x

x2 1

4

kx 1

x2 1

4

kx2 1

dx

dx

A

Bx C

x a x2 bx c

a

k

S

2

.

8

K

Now, put x1/x = t

L. 2776 8

.

r

E 810 505

Divide the numerator by9

x to obtain

01

8

9

83

m

hax r 1 / x

(1 1 / x2 )dx

x

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

(1 1 / x2 )

1 / x2 k

Page 107

20.

xP(x2 )

Q(x ) dx

Value/Evaluation Techique

Put x2 = t

polynomials in x

21.

22.

23.

24.

P(x2 )

Q(x ) dx

Put x2 = t

polynomials in x

(x

a2 )n

dx An

A n 1

Universal substitution

where R is a rational

function Special Cases

(a) If R(sinx , cosx)

=R(sinx , cosx)

(b) If R(sinx , cosx)

=R(sinx , cosx)

(c) If R(sinx, cosx)

=R(sinx , cosx)

tan (x/2) = t.

1. (x

where n > 1

a2 )n 1

dx

Put cos x = t

Put sin x = t

Put tan x = t

(a bxn )p dx

(a) p is a positive integer

Expand (a + bxn)n by using binomial theorem

(b) p is a negative integer,

Put x = tk

m

(c)

a

c

,n

,

b

d

where k = L CM (b,d)

a, b, c, d I, b > 0, d > 0

where k = L CM (b,d)

m1

+ p is an integer

n

Put a + bxn = ts

where p = r/s, r, s I, s > 0

(d)

m 1

p is an integer

n

where p = r/s, r , s I, s > 0

25.

Pn (x)

2

dx

ax bx c

degree n in x

ma

r

a

h

P (x)

S

2dx

.

dx Q (x) ax K

bx

c k

8

ax bx c

.

6

. L 0277 ax58bx c

r

E

where Q (x) is polynomial

of

in x and k

1degree1(n1)

50w.r.t.

98both

is a constant. Differentiate

the

sides

x and

0

8

9

3

multiplying by ax bx 8

c to get the identiy

Write

n 1

n1

Compare coefficients to obtain Qn1(x) and k.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 108

(1)

Newton-Leibnitz formula

Let f(x) be a continuous function defined on [a,b] and

f(x)dx = F(b) F(a) is called definite integral and this formula is known as Newton-

Leibnitz formula.

Note:

(i) Newton-Leibnitz formula is only applicable iff integrand f(x) is continous in [a,b].

b

a

by integrand f(x) with the x-axis, lines x = a and x = b, bounded area above the x-axis is

treated as positive and bounded area below the x-axis is treated as negative.

f(x)dx A

A 2.

(2)

b

f(x)dx ,

() a and () b, then

b

f(x)dx

f((t)). '(t)dt.

Note:

Substitution x = (t) must satisfy the following conditions.

ma

r

a

h

continuous derivative '(t);

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

7 the5limits

with t varying on [, ] the values of the function xr.(t) do not

8 of

E 8102leave

0

[a, b];

9 8015

() a and () b .

839

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 109

(3)

b

Property:1

f(x)dx =

f(t)dt

b

Property:2

f(x)dx =

f(x)dx

Property:3

f(x)dx = f(x)dx +

a

f(x)dx,

c

b

Property:4

f ( x )d x =

f(a b x)dx

a

a

f(x)dx =

f(a x)dx

Note:

b

(i) If I

a

a

(ii) If I

f(x)

a

Property:5

f(x)dx =

2a

Property:6

(f(x) f(x))dx

ba

.

2

f(x)dx

a

2 f(x)dx ; if f(x) f(x) ( i.e. f(x) is even function)

0

0

0

a

m

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

Note:

9 is symmetrical about

(i) If function f satisfy the condition f(2ax) = f(x), then graph

8of3f(x)

2a

a

2 f(x)dx ; if f(2a x) f(x)

f(x)dx

0

; if f(2a x) f(x)

0

the line x = a.

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 110

(ii) If function f satisfy the condition f(2ax) = f(x), then graph of f(x) is symmetrical

about point (a, 0)

/2

(iii)

/2

Property:7

nT

(i)

T

anT

(iii)

nT

mT

anT

(iv)

f(x) dx =

z, a R

b nT

f(x) dx =

a nT

(4)

f(x) dx, n

nT

(v)

loge 1 / 2

2

f(x)dx = n f(x)dx, n z

(ii)

loge (sin x) dx

f(x)dx n z, a, b R

a

b

f(x)dx 0

a

f(x)dx 0

a

(x) dx

f(x) dx

(x) dx

f(x) dx

M(b a)

b

f(x) dx

ma

r

a

b

h

S

.

82

K

f(a)(b a) < f(x) dx < f(b) (b a).

.

6

L

7

a

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

9 of equality holds if

(v) If f(x) is continous in [a,b], then | f(x) | dx f(x)dx ; 8

the3sign

f(b) (b a) <

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 111

(vi)If f(x) is continous and increasing function in [a,b] and have concave graph, then

b

(b a)f(a)

f(a) f(b)

f(x)dx (b a)

a

(vii) If f(x) is continous and increasing function in [a,b] and have convex graph, then

f(a) f(b)

(b a)

f(x)dx (b a)f(b).

a

(viii) If f(x) and g(x) are continous function for all x [a,b] and f2(x), g2(x) are integrable

b

functions, then

b

b

f2 (x)dx g2 (x)dx

a

a

f(x). g(x) dx

f(x)dx f(c)(b a)

(x)

If F(x)

(x)

(5)

If f(x) is the continuous function in the interval [a,b] where a and b are finite and b > a and

if the interval [a,b] be divided into n equal parts, each of width h so that n h = b a ,

[h{f(a) f(a h) f(a 2h) ......... f(a (n 1)h}] is called the definite integral of

Then hlim

0

f(x) between limits a and b,

b

f(x)dx

a

h0

n 1

h 0

r 0

nh = b a

Putting a = 0 b = 1, so that h = 1/n.

We get

f(x) dx lim

1

.

n

n 1

f n

r 0

Working Rule

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

.

27 058

1 r Er

0

lim

.

f

1

(ii) The limit when n is its sum

n n Replace9r/n8by x, 1/n

1by5dx and

0

8

39

8

lim by the sign of integration .

n f n

n 1

r 0

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 112

(iii) The lower and upper limits of integration will be the value of r/n for the first and last

term (or the limits of these values respectively).

Note:

qn b

1

lim

n n

(6)

r

f

n

r pn a

f(x)dx.

p

Important Results:

/2

If

In =

/2

n

sin xdx =

n1 n3 n5

....... I0 or I1

n n2 n 4

In =

, I1 = 1

2

n5 1

n1 n3

; n is even

... .

n n2

n

4 2 2

Hence In =

n1 n3 n5 2

n n2 n 4 ... 3 .1 ; n is odd

/2

If Im,n =

(n1)(n3)(m5)......(n1)(n3)(n5).....

(m1)(mn2)(mn 4)......

2

Im,n =

(m1)(m3)(m5)......(n1)(n3)(n5).....

(mn)(mn2)(mn 4)......

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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839

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 113

Following cases illustrates the method of computation of bounded area under different

conditions:

(i)

f(x)dx.

a

(ii)

A f(x)dx.

A A1 A2

(iii)

f(x)dx

A f(x)dx

a

(iv)

a

ma

r

a

h

S

A f(x) g(x) dx.

.

82

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839

b

(v)

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 114

(vi)

a

(vii)

a

(viii)

f(y)dy

a

(ix)

A f(y)dy

ma

r

a

A A A .S

h

82

K

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6

L

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58

ErA. 8 f(y)dy

027 f(y)dy.

1

0

5

9 801

839

1

(x)

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 115

(xi)

f(y) g(y) dy

a

(xii)

f(y) g(y) dy

a

(xiii)

f(y) g(y) dy

a

(xiv)

f(y) g(y) dy

a

ma

r

a

h

Curve Tracing :

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

To find the approximate shape of a non-standard curve,

must

8 be

5

Er. the81following

027 steps

0

checked .

9 8015

(1)Symmetry about x-axis :

839

If all the powers of 'y' in the equation are even then the curve is symmetrical about

the x-axis.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 116

If all the powers of 'x' in the equation are even then the curve is symmetrical about

the y-axis.

(3) Symmetry about both axis :

If all the powers of 'x' and 'y; in the equation are even, the curve is symmetrical

about the axis of 'x' as well as 'y'.

(4) Symmetry about the line y = x :

If the equation of the curve remains unchanged on interchanging 'x' and 'y', then the

curve is symmetrical about the line y = x.

a>0

E.g.: x2 +y3= 3axy.

(5)Symmetry in opposite quadrants :

If the equation of the curve remains unaltered when 'x' and 'y' are replaced

by x and y respectively then there is symmetry in opposite quadrants.

(6) Intersection points of the curve with the x-axis and the y-axis.

(7) Locations of maxima and minima of the curve.

(8) Increasing or decreasing behaviour of the curve.

(9) Nature of the curve when x or x .

(10) Asymptotes of the curve.

Asymptoto(s) is (are) line(s) whose distance from the curve tends to zero as point on curve

moves towards infinity along branch of curve.

(i) If

(ii) If

Lt f(x) =

x a

or xLt

f(x) =

a

x

f(x)

(iii) If xLt

= m1 , xLt

f(x) = m1(x) = c, then y = m1x + c1 is an asymptote.

x

(inclined to right)

(iv) If

2

2

2

2

2

x

x

(inclined to left).

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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839

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 117

(1)

Introduction :

An equation involving independent and dependent variables and the derivatives of the

dependent variables is called a differential equation. There are two kinds of differential

equation .

Ordinary Differential Equation : If the dependent variables depend on one independent

variable x, then the differential equation is said to be ordinary. For example:

d3y

dy

+ xy = sin x,

dx

dx

+2

dy

+ y = ex,

dx

3/2

2

2

dy

dy

dy

k 2 = 1 + dx , y = x

+ k 1 + dx

dx

dx

d2y

independent variables, then it is known as partial differential equation. For example

2z

2z

z

2z

y

+y

= ax,

+

= xy..

x

y

y2

x2

2

(2)

A differential equation is a linear differential equation if it is expressible in the form

P0

dny

n

dx

P1

dn 1y

n 1

dx

P2

dn 2 y

n2

dx

... Pn 1

dy

Pn y Q

dx

where P0, P1, P2, ... , Pn1 , Pn and Q are either constants of function of independent

variable x.

Thus, if a differential equation when expressed in the form of a polynomial involves the

derivatives and dependent variable in the first power and there are no product of these,

and also the coefficient of the various terms are either constants or function of the independent variable, then it is said to be linear differential equation. Otherwise, it is a non

linear differential equation.

If follows from the above definition that a differential equation will be non-linear differential

equation if

(i) its degree is more than one.

(ii) any of the differential coefficient has exponent more than one

(iii) exponent of the dependent variable is more than one.

(iv)products containing dependent variable and its differential coefficients are present.

(3)

ma

r

a

h

S

2

.

8

K

.

6

Degree: degree of differential equation is the highest exponent

with which

the highest

L

7

27 0equation

order derivative is raised in the differential equation, provided

58 is

Er. 8the10differential

5

expressed in the polynomial form.

9 801

Note:

839

Order: Order of differential equation is the order of highest order derivative which is present

in the equation.

If differential equation can't be expressed in the polynomial form, then its degree is not

defined.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 118

d2 y

d3 y

x

3 y 0 is differential equation of 3 order and 2 degree.

Example:

dx2

dx

(4)

Geometrically, differential equation represents a family of curves which is having as many

number of parameters as that of the order of differential equation. For example

(i)

dy

ex represents y ex c.

dx

(ii) y

(iii)

(5)

dy

x 0 represents x2 y2 c.

dx

d2 y

dx2

ex represents y ex c1x c2 .

In order to formulate a differential equation for a given family of curves of n parameter

(independent arbitrary constants), following steps is used.

Step (1): differentiate the family of curves 'n' times to obtain n set of equations.

Step (2): from the set of equations of step(1) and the equation of curve, all the arbitrary

constants are eliminated to get the differential equation.

Note:

Differential equation for a family of curves should not have any arbitrary constant and its

order must be same as that of the number of parameters in family of curves.

(6)

Finding the dependent variable from the differential equation is called solving or integrating

it. The solution or the integral of a differential equation is , therefore, a relation between

dependent and independent variables (free from derivatives) such that it satisfies the given

differential equation

Note:

The solution of the differential equation is also called its primitive, because the differential

equation can be regarded as a relation derived from it.

There can be three types of solution of a differential equation :

(i) General solution (or complete integral or complete primitive) :A relation in x and y

satisfying the given differential equation and involving exactly same number of arbitrary

constants as that of the order of differential equation.

(ii) Particular solution : A solution obtained by assigning values to one or more than one

arbitrary constant of general solution of a differential equation.

(7)

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Variables separable : If the differential equation can be r

form,7f(x) dx = 8

(y) dy

2 05each

E put. in8the1by0

we say that variables are separable and solution can be obtained

integrating

side

9 8015

separately.

39

8

f(x)

dx

(y)

dy

A general solution of this will be

=

+ c,

Equations :

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 119

If a differential equation can be reduced into a variables separable form by a proper substitution, then it is said to be "Reducible to the variables separable type". Its general form is

dy

= f(ax + by + c) where a, b 0.

dx

Homogeneous differential Equations :

f(x,y)

dy

= g(x,y) where f and g are homogeneous

dx

function of x and y and of the same degree, is called homogeneous differential

equation and can be solved by putting y = vx.

Equations of the form

ax by c

dy

= Ax By C

dx

.......... (1)

y = Y + k, where h and k are constants, we get

aX bY (ahbk c)

dY

= AX BY (AhBk C) ...........(2)

dX

differential equation can now be solved by putting Y = vX.

Note:

If the homogeneous equation is of the form :

yf(xy) dx + xg(xy) dy = 0, the variables can be separated by the substitution xy = v.

Exact Differential Equation :

The differential equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0

..........(1)

where M and N are functions of x and y is said to be exact if it can be derived by direct

differentiation of an equation of the form f(x,y) = c

Note:

M

N

(i) The necessary condition for exact differential equation is y =

x

(ii) For finding the solution of exact differential equation, following exact differentials

must be remembered:

(a) xdy + ydx = d(xy)

(b)

xdy ydx

y

= d ln x

xy

(e)

(d)

xdy ydx

x2

xdy ydx

2

x y

y

=d x

= d tan

y

x

(f)

xdy ydx

= d(ln xy)

xy

a

m

r

a

xy

x y

h

S

.

82

K

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r. 1027 058

E

Linear differential equations of first order and first degree:8

9 8015

dy

The differential equation

+ Py = Q, is linear in y..

839

dx

xdy ydx

(g)

1

= d xy

(h)

xdx ydy

2

d ln(x2 y2 )

2

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 120

Integrating Factor (I.F.) : It is an expression which when multiplied to a differential equation converts it into an exact form.

I.F for linear differential equation = e Pdx

(constant of integration need not to be considered)

after multiplying above equation by I. F it becomes ;

dy

. e Pdx + Py.. e Pdx = Q.. e Pdx

dx

d

Pdx

Pdx

) = Q.. e

dx (y.. e

y.. e

Pdx

Q.e Pdx

+C

(General solution).

Bernoulli's equation :

Equations of the form

dy

+ Py = Q.yn, n 0 and n 1

dx

1

n 1

is substituted as t.

dy

dy

f

is termed as clairaut's

dx

dx

equation. To get the solution of this form , the equation is differentiated as , explained in

the next step:

dy

d2 y

dy

dy d2 y

x

f

'

. 2

dx

dx

dx2

dx dx

d2 y

dy

x f '

0.

2

dx

dx

d2 y

2

dx

or

dy

Constant=c

dx

by y = cx + f(c).

dy

x f '

0.

dx

dy

f '

x . gives

dx

singular solution

Differential equation reducible to the linear differential equation of first order and

first degree.

(i)

dx

P(y)x Q(y).

dy

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

39

8

dt

P(x)t Q(x).

x(I.F.)

(ii) f '(y)

Q(y)I.F.dy c

dy

P(x).f(y) Q(x)

dx

Put f(y) t

f '(y)

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

dy

dt

dx dx

dx

Page 121

(iii) f '(x)

dx

P(y)f(x) Q(y).

dy

Put f(x) t

(8)

f '(x)

dx

dt

dy dy

dt

P(y)t Q(y).

dy

Orthogonal Trajectory :

An orthogonal trajectory of a given system of curves is defined to be a curve which cuts

every member of the given family of curve at right angle.

(i) Let f(x,y,c) = 0 be the equation of the given family of curves, where 'c' is an arbitrary

constant.

(ii) Differentate the given equation with respect to x and then eliminate c.

(iii) Replace

dy

by

dx

dx

(iv)Solving the differenetial equation obtained in step (iii) gives the required orthogonal

trajectory.

r

a

h

S

.

82

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Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 122

In 2-dimensional coordinate system any point P is represented by (x,y), where |x| and |y|

are the distances of 'P' from the y-axis and x-axis respectively

Note:

(i) If both x and y I , point 'P' is termed as integral point.

(ii) If both x and y Q , point 'P' is termed as rational point.

(iii) If atleast one of x, y Q , point 'P' is termed as irrational point.

The distance between the points A(x1,y1) and B(x2,y2) is

(x1 x2 )2 (y1 y2 )2

If P(x,y) divides the line joining A(x1,y1) and B(x2,y2) internally in the ratio m : n, then :

mx2 nx1

my 2 ny1

;y

and for external division P(x, y) is

m n

m n

mx2 nx1

my2 ny1

;y

m n

m n

Note:

x1 x2 y1 y2

,

(i) The mid-point of AB is

.

2

2

(ii) If P divides AB internally in the ratio m : n and Q divides AB externally in the ratio m : n

then P and Q are said to be harmonic conjugates to each other with respect to A and B.

Mathematically,

1

2

1

=

+ AQ

AB

AP

.)

If A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3) are the vertices of triangle ABC, whose sides BC, CA, AB are of

lengths a, b, c respectively, then the coordinates of the special points of triangle ABC are as

follows :

(i) Centroid G

x1 x2 x3 y1 y2 y3

,

3

3

(iii) Excentre I1

(ii)Incentre I

ax1 bx 2 cx 3 ay1 by 2 cy 3

,

ab c

ab c

,

ab c

ab c

x

(iv) Orthocentre H 1

x

(v) Circumcentre C 1

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

ma

r

a

hC 2

tan A x tanB x tan C y tan y tanB .yStan

,

K

8

. tan7C 76

tan A tanB tan C

tan A.L

tanB

Er 8102 5058

sin2A x sin2B x sin2C y sin2A

9 y sin2B

01y sin2C

,

8

9

sin 2A sin 2B sin C

sin 2A 3

8 sin 2B sin2C

2

Page 123

Note:

(i) Orthocentre, Centroid and Circumcentre are collinear and centroid divides the

line joining orthocentre and circumcentre in the ratio 2 : 1.

(ii) In an isosceles triangle G, H, I and C lie on the same line and in an equilateral triangle

all these four points coincide with each other.

(iii) Incentre and excentre are harmonic conjugate of each other with respect to the

angle bisector on which they lie.

(iv) In right angle triangle, orthocentre lies at the vertex of right angle and circumcentre

lies at midpoint of hypotenuse.

If A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3) are the vertices of triangle ABC, then its area is equal to

x1

1 x

ABC = 2 2

x3

y1 1

y2 1

y3 1

Note: Area of n-sided polygon formed by points (x1,y1); (x2,y2) ; ........ (xn,yn) is given by

x1 x2 x2 x3

y y

+ ..........

1 2 y2 y3

(5) Change of Axes:

1

2

xn 1 xn

yn 1 yn

xn x1

yn y2

(i) Rotation of Axes: If the axes are rotated through an angle in the anticlockwise

direction keeping the origin fixed, then the coordinates (X,Y) of point P(x,y) with respect to

the new system of coordinate are given by X = x cos +y sin and Y = y cos x sin .

(ii) Translation of Axes: The shifting of origin of axes without rotation of axes is called

Translation of axes. If the origin (0, 0) is shifted to the point (h,k) without rotation of the

axes then the coordinates (X,Y) of a point P(x,y) with respect to the new system of

coordinates are given X = x h, Y = y k.

If is the angle at which a straight line is inclined to the positive direction of x-axis and

If A(x1,y1) and B(x2,y2), x1 x2, are points on a straight line , then the slope m of the line is

y y

given by x2 x 1 .

2 1

Points A(x1,y1), B(x2,y2), C(x3,y3) are collinear if

(i) mAB = mBC = mCA

(ii)

x1

x2

x3

y1 1

y2 1 = 0

y3 1

ma

r

a

h

Locus:

S

2

.

8

K

.

6

The locus of a moving point is the path traced out by that point

under one

or

more

given

L

7

condition.

Er. 81027 5058

1 points say

Approach to find the locus of a point: Let (h,k) be the co-ordinates

9 of the

0moving

8

P. Now apply the geometrical condition on h, k. This gives a relation

between

h and k. Now

9

3

replace h by x and k by y in th eleminant and resulting equation8

would be the equation of the

(iii) AC = AB + BC or |AB BC|

(8)

locus.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 124

23.STRAIGHT LINE

(1) Equation of a straight Line in various forms :

(i) Point-Slope form : y y1 = m(x x1) is the equation of a straight line whose slope is

m and which passes through the point (x1,y1).

(ii) Slope-intercept form : y = mx + c is the equation of a straight line whose slope is

m and which makes an intercept c on the y-axis.

(iii) Two point form : y y1 =

y y1

2

(iv) Determinant form : Equation of line passing through (x1,y1) and (x2,y2) is

x

x1

x2

y1 1 = 0

y2 1

x

y

+ = 1 is the equation of a straight line which makes intercepts

a

b

(vi) Perpendicular/Normal form : xcos +ysin = p (where p 0, 0 2 ) is the

equation of the straight line where the length of the perpendicular from the origin

on the line is p and this perpendicular makes an angle with positive x -axis.

x x

y y

equation of the line in parametric form , where 'r' is the parameter whose absolute

value is the distance of any point (x, y) on the line from the fixed point (x1,y1) on

the line. 'r' is take as positive for co-ordinate in increasing direction of 'y' and negative

for decreasing direction of 'y'. is angle of inclination of the line and [0, )

(viii) General Form : ax + by + c = 0 is the equation of a straight line in the general form

a

in this case, slope of line =

b

If m1 and m2 are the slopes of two intersecting straight lines (m1m2 1) and is the acute

m m2

1

angle between them, then tan = 1+m

.

1m2

Note:

(i) Let m1, m2, m3 are the slopes of three lines L1 = 0; L2 = 0; L3 = 0 where m1 > m2 > m3

then the interior angles of the ABC formed by these lines are given by,,

ma

r

a

h

S

2 line

.

(ii) The equation of lines passing through point (x , y ) and making

angle

8the

with

K

.

6

L

7

y = mx + c are given by :

r. 1027 058

E

(y y ) = tan( )(x x ) and (y y ) = tan ( + ) (x x ),

tan15= m.

98where

0

8

(iii) When two straight lines are parallel their slopes are equal. Thus

any

line parallel to

839

y = mx + c is of the type y = mx + k, where k is a parameter.

m m2

m m3

m3 m1

3 1

1 2

2 3

1

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 125

a

b

c

=

.

a'

b' c'

parameter.

(v) The distance between two parallel lines with equations ax + by + c1 = 0 and

ax + by + c2 = 0 is

c1 c2

a2 b2

p1p2

, where p1 & p2 are

sin

angle between any two adjacent sides.

(vii)Area of the parallelogram bounded by the lines y = m1x + c1, y = m1x + c2 and

y = m2x + d1, y = m2x + d2 is given by

(c1 c2 )(d1 d2 )

.

m1 m2

(viii) When two lines of slopes m1 and m2 are at right angles, the product of their slopes

is 1, i.e. m1 m2 = 1. Thus any line perpendicular to y = mx + c is of the form

y=

1

x + d where d is any parameter..

m

(ix) Two lines ax + by + c = 0 and a'x + b'y + c' = 0 are perpendicular if aa' + bb' = 0.

Thus any line perpendicular to ax + by + c = 0 is of the from bx ay + k = 0, where

k is any parameter.

(3) Position of the point (x1, y1) with respect to the line ax + by + c = 0 :

If ax1 + by1 + c is of the same sign as c, then the point (x1,y1) lie on the origin side of

ax + by + c = 0. But if the sign of ax1 + by1 + c is opposite to that of c, the point (x1, y1) will

lie on the non-origin side of ax + by + c = 0.

In general two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) will lie on same side or opposite side of

ax + by + c = 0 according as ax1 + by1 + c and ax2 + by2 + c are of same or opposite sign

respectively.

Note:

If b is positive in line ax+by+c = 0, then point P(x1,y1) lies above the line if

ax1 + by1 + c > 0 and point P lies below the line if ax1 + by1 + c < 0.

ax1 by1 c

a2 b2

ma

r

a

h

S

ax by c

x x

y y

.

82

K

= b =

.

6

a

L

7

a b

7

r. is given

58

02by:

1

0

The image of a point (x ,y ) about the line ax + by E

+ c = 08

5

9 801

ax by c

x x

y y

39

8

=

=

2

a

b

a b

(i) Foot of the perpendicular from a point (x1 , y1 ) on the line ax+by+c = 0 is given by:

1

(ii)

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Er. L.K.Sharma

Page 126

Equations of the bisectors of angles between the lines ax + by + c = 0 and

ax by c

a2 b2

a' 2 b' 2

Note:

(i) Equation of straight lines passing through P(x1, y1) and equally inclined with the lines

a1x +b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 are those which are parallel to the bisectors

between these two lines & passing through the point P.

(ii) If be the angle between one of the lines and one of the bisectors and |tan | < 1,

then this bisector is the acute angle bisector, if |tan | > 1, then the bisector is obtuse

angle bisector.

(iii) If aa' + bb' < 0, then the equation of the bisector of this acute angle is

ax by c

2

=+

a' 2 b' 2

a b

If aa' + bb' > 0, the equation of the bisector of the obtuse angle is :

ax by c

=+

a2 b2

a' 2 b' 2

(iv) To discriminate between the bisector of the angle containing the origin and that of the

angle not containing the origin. the equations are written as ax + by + c = 0 and

a'x + b'y + c' =0 such that the constant terms c, c' are positive. Then

ax by c

=+

a2 b2

ax by c

origin &

a' 2 b' 2

a2 b2

a' 2 b' 2

containing the origin. In general equation of the bisector which contains the point

( , ) is

ax by c

a2 b2

=+

or

a' 2 b' 2

ax by c

a2 b2

a' 2 b' 2

according as a +b +c

Three non parallel lines a1x + b1y + c1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2 = 0 & a3x + b3y + c3 = 0 are

a1 b1 c1

a

concurrent if 2 b2 c2 = 0

a3 b3 c3

a1

a

a

2 3

b2

b3

b1

Alternatively : If three constants A, B and C (not all zero) can be found such that

A(a1x + b1y + c1) + B(a2x + b2y + c2) + C(a3x + b3y + c3)=0, then the three straight lines are

concurrent.

(8)

a

m

r

a

Family of Straight Lines :

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

7

The equation of a family of straight lines passing through

of

r.the point

2intersection

E

0

1

0L5=8of0 the

lines. L a x + b y + c = 0 and L a x + b y + c = 0 9

is 8

given by L 1+

i.e.

5

0

8

(a x + b y + c ) + (a x + b y + c ) = 0, where is an arbitrary real

number.

.

39

8

Note:

1

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 127

u 3= 0

C

0

A

(ii)

u2 =

u4 =

The diagonal BD can be given by u2u3 u1u4 = 0.

u1= 0

u2 + u3 = 0, if the two equations are identical

for some real and .[For getting the values

of & compare the coefficients of x, y & the constant terms].

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

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(1) A Pair of Straight lines through origin :

(i) A homogeneous equation of two degree ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 always represents a pair

of straight lines passing through the origin if :

(a) h2 > ab lines are real and distinct.

(b) h2 = ab lines are coincident.

(c) h2 < ab lines are imaginary with

real point of intersection i.e. (0,0)

(ii) If y = m1x and y = m2x be the two equations represented by ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0,

then;

m1 + m2 = -

2h

a

and m1 m2 = .

b

b

(iii) If is the acute angle between the pair of straight lines represented by

2 h2 ab

ax + 2hxy + by = 0, then; tan =

.

ab

2

(a) At right angles to each other is a + b = 0. i.e. coefficient of x2 + co-efficient

of y2 = 0.

(b) Coincident is h2 = ab.

(c) Equally inclined to the axis of x is h = 0. i.e. coeff. of xy = 0.

Note:

origin.

(v) The equation to the pair of straight lines bisecting the angle between the straight

lines, ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

xy

x2 y2

=

.

h

ab

lines:

ma

r

a

h

S

a h g

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

h

b

f

abc + 2fgh af bg ch = 0, i.e. if

= 0. r.

E 81027 5058

g f c

9 801

9

83equation

The angle between the two lines representing by a general

is the same

(i) ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represents a pair of straight lines if :

(ii)

as that between the two lines represented by its homogeneous part only.

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 129

(3) Homogenization :

The equation of a pair of straight lines joining origin to the points of intersection of the line

L x + my + n = 0 and a second degree curve.

S ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0

2

x my

x my

x my

+ 2fy

+ c

= 0.

n

n

n

The equation is obtained by homogenizing the equation of curve with the help of equation of

line.

NOTE: Equation of any curve passing through the points of intersection of two curves

C1 = 0 and C2 = 0 is given by C1 + C2 = 0 where & are parameters.

(i) If ax2 + 2hxy + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 represent a pair of parallel straight lines, then the

distance between them is given by 2

g2 ac

f 2 bc

or 2

a(a b)

b(a b)

ax 2 + 2hxy + by 2 + 2gx = 0 and a' x 2 + 2h' xy + b' y 2 + 2' gx = 0 will be mutually

perpendicular, if g'(a + b).

(iii) If the equation hxy + gx + fy + c = 0 represents a pair of straight lines, then fg = ch.

(iv) The pair of lines (a2 3b2)x2 + 8abxy + (b2 3a2) y2 = 0 with the line ax+by+c = 0 form

an equilateral triangle and its area

c2

3(a2 b2 )

(v) The area of a triangle formed by the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 and lx + my + n = 0 is

given by

n2 h2 ab

am2 2hlm bl2

(vi) The lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of line y = mx + c and the circle

x2 + y2 = a2 will be mutually perpendicular, if a2(m2 + 1) = 2c2.

(vii)If the distance of two lines passing through origin from the point (x1,y1) is d, then the

equation of lines is (xy1 yx1)2 = d2(x2 + y2)

(viii) The lines represented by the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 will be

equidistant from the origin, if f4 g4

= c(bf2 ag2)

(ix) The product of the perpendiculars drawn from (x1,y1) on the lines ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 is

given by

(a b)2 4h2

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

(x) The product of the perpendiculars drawn from origin on the lines

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 130

(a b)2 4h2

(xi) If the lines represented by the general equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 are

perpendicular, then the square of distance between the point of intersection and origin

f 2 g2

f 2 g2

or

.

h2 b2

h2 a2

(xii) The square of distance between the point of intersection of the lines represented by

is

c(a b) f 2 g2

.

ab h2

(xiii) If one of the line given by the equation ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 coincide with one of these

given by a'x2 + 2h'xy + b'y2 = 0 and the other lines represented by them be perpendicular,

then

(aa'bb ').

b ' a' b a 2

(xiv)The straight lines joining the origin to the points of intersection of the straight line

kx + hy = 2hk with the curve (x h)2 + (y k)2 = c2 are at right angles, if h2 + k2 = c2.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

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839

Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 131

25. CIRCLES

(1) Equations of a Circle

(i) An equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is (xh)2 + (yk)2 = r2

(ii) An equation of a circle with centre (0, 0) and radius r is x2+y2 = r2

(iii) An equation of the circle on the line segment joining (x1, x1) and (x2, y2) as diameter is

(x x1) (x x2) + (y y1) (y y2) = 0

(iv) General equation of a circle is x2 + y2 + 2g x + 2f y + c = 0 where g, f and c are

constants.

Centre of this circle is (g, f)

Its radius is

g2 f 2 c, (g2 f 2 c).

(v) The intercepts made by the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 on the x-axis and y-axis is

given by 2 g2 c and 2 f 2 c respectively..

(vi) General equation of second degree ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 in x and y,

represents a circle if and only if

coefficient of x2 equals coefficient of y2, i.e., a = b 0.

coefficient of x y is zero, i.e., h = 0.

g2 + f2 ac 0

Note:

(i) Equation of circle circumscribing a triangle whose sides are given by L1 = 0; L2 = 0 and

L3 = 0 is given by ; L1L2 + L2L3 + L3L1 = 0, provided co-efficient of xy = 0 and

coefficient of x2 = co-efficient of y2.

(ii) Equation of circle circumscribing a quadrilateral whose side in order are represented

by the lines L1 = 0, L2 = 0, L3 = 0 and L4 = 0 are u L1 L3 + L2L4 = 0 where values of u

and can be found out by using condition that co-efficient of x2 = co-efficient of y2

and co-efficient of xy = 0.

Parametric equation of circle (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 is given by

x h y k

r , where (h, k)

cos sin

Any point P() on the circle (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 can be assumed in parametric form as

P (h r cos , k r sin )

Note:

The equation of chord PQ to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 joining two points P( ) and Q( ) on it is

given by x cos

(3)

+ y sin

= a cos

.

2

2

2

ma

r

a

Position of a point with respect to a circle :

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Let equation of the circle is given by S x + y + 2gx

+ c2

=7

0, then following

58

Er.+ 2fy

0

1

0

condition illustrates the relative position of point P.

5

8

9 801

(i) Point 'P' lies on the circle if:

839

2

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 132

(iii) Point 'P' lies outride the circle if:

Note:

The greatest and the least distance of a point P from a circle with centre C and radius r is

PC + r and PC r respectively..

If line y = mx + c intersects the circle x2 + y2 = a2 at point A and B, then the x-co-ordinate

of the points of intersection is given by x2 + (mx + c)2 a2 = 0.

........(1)

(1 + m2) x2 + 2cm x + c2 a2 = 0

In equation (1), if discriminant 'D' is positive, then two distinct real

values of 'x' is obtained which confirms the intersection of line and

circle at two distinct points

(refer figure no. (1)).

D 0 c2 a2 (1 m2 ) p a.

line is outside the circle (refer figure (2))

c2 a2 (1 m2 ) p a

is tangential to the circle (refer figure(3)).

c2 a2 (1 m2 ) p a

(a) Slope Form :

Straight line y = mx + c is tangent to the circle x2 + y2 = a2 if c2 = a2(1 + m2). Hence,

a2m a2

Note:

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 point 8

= a at its

(x0

,y1

) is given by

9

3

8

Equation of tangent of slope 'm' to the circle (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2 is given by:

(y k) = m(x h) r 1 m2

(b) Point form :

(i) The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2

x x1 + y y1 = a2.

(ii) The equation of the tangent to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at its point

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 133

Note: In general the equation of tangent to any second degree curve at point (x1, y1) on it

can be obtained by replacing x2 by xx1 , y2 by yy1 , x by

x x1

y y1

x y xy1

, y by

, xy by 1

2

2

2

and c remains as c.

(c) Parametric form :

The equation of a tangent

x cos + y sin = a.

to

circle x2 + y2 = a2 at

(a cos , a sin ) is

Note:

a sin

a cos

2

2

,

The point of intersection of the tangents at the points P( ) & Q( ) is

cos cos

2

2

If a line is normal/orthogonal to a circle then it must pass through the centre of the circle.

Using this fact normal to the circle x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 at (x1 y1) is given by:

y1 f

y y1 = x g (x x1).

1

The equation of a pair of tangents drawn from the point P(x1, y1) to the circle

x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is given by SS1 = T2.

Where S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c ; S1 x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c

T xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c.

Note:

The locus of the point of intersection of two perpendicular tangents is called the director

circle of the given circle. The director circle of a circle is the concentric circle having radius

equal to

The length of a tangent from an external point (x1,y1) to the circle

S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 is given by L =

Note:

x 12 y 12 2g x 1 2 f1y c =

S1

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

39

8

are drawn from the point P(x ,y ) to the circle S

x + y + 2gx

called the power of point with respect to a circle.

(ii) Power of a point with respect to a circle remains

constant i.e. PA.PB = PT2.

2

1

1

+ 2fy + c = 0, then the equation of the chord of contact T1 T2 is given by: T 0.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

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Page 134

Note:

(i) Chord of contact exists only if the point 'P' is

outside the circle.

2LR

R 2 L2

(iii) Area of the triangle formed by the pair of the tangents and its chord of contact

is given by

RL3

R2 L2

2RL

L R2

2

(v) Quadrilateral PT1OT2 is cyclic and the equation of the circle circumscribing the triangle

PT1T2 is given by (x x1) (x + g) + (y y1) (y + f) = 0.

The equation of the chord of the circle S x2 + y2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0 in terms of its mid point

M(x1,y1) is given by T = S1.

xx1 + yy1 + g(x + x1) + f(y + y1) + c = x12 + y12 + 2gx1 + 2fy1 + c

Direct (or external) common tangents meet at a point which divides the line joining

centre of circles externally in the ratio of their radii.

Transverse (or internal) common tangents meet at a point which divides the line joining

centre of circles internally in the ratio of their radii.

If (x g1)2 + (y f1)2 = r12 and (x g2)2 + (y f2)2 = r22 are two circles with centres

C1(g1, f1) and C2(g2, f2) and radii r1 and r2 respectively, then 'P' and 'Q' are the respective

points from which direct and Transverse common tangents can be drawn (as shown in

figure).

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

Note:

.

6

L

7

Length of an external (or direct) common tangent & internal

58

Er.(or8transverse)

027 common

1

0

5

9

01

tangent to the circles are given by : L = d (r r ) & L = d (r8

r ) ,

9

8r3, r are the radii of

where d = distance between the centres of the two circles and

ext

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

int

Page 135

Case

Condition

(i)

4 common tangents

r1 + r2 < c1 c2.

(ii)

3 common tangents.

r1 + r2 = c1 c2.

(iii)

2 common tangents.

(iv)

1 common tangent

|r1 r2| = c1 c2

(v)

No common tangent

Two circles S1 = 0 and S2 = 0 are said to be orthogonal or said to intersect orthogonally if

the tangents at their point of intersection include a right angle. The condition for two circles

to be orthogonal is : 2g1g2 + 2f1f2 = c1 + c2.

Note:

(i) The centre of a variable circle orthogonal to two fixed circles lies on the radical axis

of two circles.

(ii) The centre of a circle which is orthogonal to three given circles is the radical centre

provided the radical centre lies outside all the three circles.

The radical axis of two circles is the locus of a point whose powers with respect to the two

circles are equal. The equation of radical axis of the two circles S1 = 0 and S2 = 0 is given by

S1S2 = 0 i.e: 2(g1g2)x + 2(f1f2)y + (c1c2) = 0.

ma

r

a

h

Note:

S

.

82

K

. are equal.

6

(i) The length of tangents from radical centre to the three.circles

L

7

r

27 058

E

0

1

(ii) If two circles intersect, then the radical axis is the common

15two circles.

98chord8of0the

(iii) If two circles touch each other then the radical axis is the common

39 tangent of the

8

two circles at the common point of contact.

The common point of intersection of the radical axes of three circles taken two at a time is

called the radical centre of three circles.

(iv) Radical axis is always perpendicular to the line joining the centres of the two circles.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

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Page 136

(v) Radical axis will pass through the mid point of the line joining the centres of the two

circles only if the two circles have equal radii.

(vi) Radical axis bisects a common tangent between the two circles.

(vii) A system of circles, every two of which have the same radical axis, is called a coaxial

system.

(viii) Pairs of circles which do not have radical axis are concentric circles.

(i) The equation of the family of circles passing through the points of intersection of

two circles S1 = 0 and S2 = 0 is : S1 + S2 = 0 ; R {1}

( 1 if the co-efficient of x2 and y2 in S1 and S2 are same)

Note:

then the common chord of circles is given by: S1 S2 = 0

(ii) The equation of the family of circles passing through the point of intersection of a

circle S = 0 and a line L = 0 is given by S + L = 0 ; R

(iii) The equation of a family of circles passing through two given points (x1,y1) and (x2,y2)

can be written in the form :

x

x

{(x x1) (x x2) + (y y1)(y y2)} + 1

x2

y 1

y1 1 = 0 where R .

y2 1

(iv) The equation of a family of circles touching a fixed line ax+by+c = 0 at the fixed

point (x1, y1) is {(x x1)2 + (y y1)2} + (ax+by+c) = 0 where is a parameter..

(v) The equation of family of circles touching a fixed circle S = 0 at fixed point (x1,y1) is

given by: {(x-x1 )2 +(y-y1 )2 }+S=0 ; R .

ma

r

a

h

S

.

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Mathematics Concept Note

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Page 137

26. PARABOLA

(1) Conic Sections :

A conic section is the locus of a point which moves in a plane so that its distance from a

fixed point (i.e. focus) is in a constant ratio (i.e. eccentricity) to its perpendicular distance

from a fixed straight line (i.e. directrix). Let point P be (x,y) then equation of conic is given

by:

PF

e = constant ratio

PM

(x )2 (y )2 e

px qy r

p2 q2

Note:

All conic sections can be derived from a right circular cone, as shown in the figure

The equation of conics is represented by the general equation of second degree

ax2 + 2hxy + by2 + 2gx + 2fy + c = 0..............(1)

where = abc + 2fgh af2 bg2 ch2

Different conics can be recognized by the conditions given in the tabular form.

Case I: when 0

In this case equation (1) represents the Degenerate conic whose nature is given in the

following table:

Condition

0 and h2 ab = 0

0 and h2 ab 0

0 and h2 ab > 0

0 and h2 ab < 0

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

ma

r

a

h

S

Nature of Conic

.

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A pair of coincident

r. lines

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0

1

8 of straight

Real or imaginary9

pair

15lines

0

8

9 line.

A pair of intersecting3

straight

8

Point.

Page 138

In this case equation (1) represents the Non-degenerate conic whose nature is given in

the following table:

Condition

Nature of Conic

0, h = 0, a = b

a circle

0, h2 ab = 0

a parabola

0, h ab < 0

0, h2 ab > 0

a Hyperbola

0, h2 ab > 0 and a + b = 0

a Rectangular hyperbola

PARABOLA

(3) Basic Definitions

A parabola is the locus of a point, whose distance from a fixed point (focus) is equal to

perpendicular distance from a fixed straight line (directrix). Standard forms of the parabola

are y2 = 4ax; y2 = 4ax; x2 = 4ay; x2 = 4ay

Focal Distance : The distance of a point on the parabola from the focus.

Focal Chord : A chord of the parabola, which passes through the focus. y2 = 4ax.

Double Ordinate : A chord of the parabola perpendicular to the axis of the symmetry

Latus Rectum : A double ordinate passing through the focus or a focal chord perpendicular

to the axis of parabola is called the latus Rectum (L.R.).

For y2 = 4ax.

Length of the latus rectum = 4a.

ends of the latus rectum are L(a, 2a) & L' (a,

2a).

Note:

(i) Perpendicular distance from focus on directrix = half the latus rectum.

(ii) Vertex is middle point of the focus & the point of intersection of directrix & axis.

(iii) Two parabolas are said to be equal if they have the same latus rectum.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

Note:

82

K

.

6

L

7

(i) The equation of a chord joining t and t is 2x (t +

Etr).y +821at0t 2=70. 5058

(ii) If t and t are the ends of a focal chord of the parabola 9

y = 4ax then

01t t = 1. Hence

8

9

2a

a

83

the co-ordinates at the extremities of a focal chord are (at ,2at) and ,

.

Parametric co-ordinates of a point on the parabola is (at2, 2at) i.e. the equations x = at2 and

y = 2at together represents the parabola y2 = 4ax, t being the parameter and t R

1 2

1 2

(iii) Length of the focal chord making an angle with the x-axis is 4acosec .

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 139

The point (x1,y1) lies outside, on or inside the parabola y2 = 4ax according as the expression

y12 4ax1 is positive, zero or negative respectively..

The line y = mx + c meets the parabola y2 = 4ax in two points real, coincident or imaginary

according as c

a

a

a

,c

or c

respectively. Condition of tangency is c = a/m.

m

m

m

(i) yy1 = 2a(x + x1) at the point (x1, y1);

(ii) y = mx +

a 2a

a

(m 0) at 2 ,

m

m

m

Note:

Point of intersection of the tangents at the point t1 and t2 is (at1t2, a(t1 + t2))

y1

(i) y y1 = 2a

(x x1) at (x1, y1) ;

(ii) y = mx 2am am3 at (am2, 2am)

(iii) y + tx = 2at2 + at3 at (at2 2at).

Note:

(i) Point of intersection of normal at t1 and t2 are, (a (t12 + t22 + t1t2 + 2), at1t2 (t1 + t2)).

(ii) If the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax at the point t1 meets the parabola again at

(iii) If the normals to the parabola y2 = 4ax at the points t1 and t2 intersect again on the

parabola at the point 't3' then t1t2 = 2; t3= (t1 + t2) and the line joining t1 and t2

passes through a fixed point ( 2a,0).

The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1,y1) to the

parabola y2 = 4ax is given by : SS1 = T2 where :

S y2 4ax ; S1 = y12 4ax1 ; T yy1 2a(x + x1).

Note:

(i) From any point on the directrix perpendicular tangents can be drawn to the parabola

and their chord of contact is the focal chord.

(ii) If tangents are drawn at the extremity of a focal chord of parabola, then these

tangents are perpendicular and meet on the line of directrix.

(iii) Circle drawn with focal chord as the diameter always touches the directrix of parabola.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

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Er. 81027 5058

(10) Chord of Contact :

9 801

39

8

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x ,y ) is

1

yy1 = 2a (x + x1).

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 140

Note:

The area of the triangle formed by the tangents from the point (x1,y1) and the chord of

contact is (y12 4ax1)3/2/2a.

Equation of the chord of the parabola y 2=4ax whose middle point is (x 1,y 1) is

T = S1, where, S1 = y12 4ax1 ; T yy1 2a(x + x1).

(i) If the tangent and normal at any point 'P' of the parabola intersect the axis at T and G

then ST=SG=SP where 'S' is the focus. In other words the tangent and the normal at a

point P on the parabola are the bisectors of the angle between the focal radius SP and

the perpendicular from P on the directrix. From this we conclude that all rays emanating

from S will become parallel to the axis of the parabola after reflection.

(ii) The portion of a tangent to a parabola cut off between the directrix and the curVe

subtends a right angle at the focus.

(iii) The tangents at the extremities of a focal chord intersect at right angles on the

directrix, and hence a circle on any focal chord as diameter touches the directrix. Also a

circle on any focal radii of a point P(at2,2at) as diameter touches the tangent

at the vertex and intercepts a chord of length a 1 t2 on a normal at the point P..

(iv) Any tangent to a parabola & the perpendicular on it from the focus meet on the

tangent at the vertex.

(v) If the tangents at P and Q meet in T, then :

TP and TQ subtend equal angles at the focus S.

ST2= SP. SQ and

The triangles SPT and STQ are similar.

(vi) Semi latus rectum of the parabola y2 = 4ax, is the harmonic mean between segments

of any focal chord of the parabola.

(vii)The area of the triangle formed by three points on a parabola is twice the area of

the triangle formed by the tangents at these points.

(viii) If normal are drawn from a point P(h,k) to the parabola y2 = 4ax then

k = mh 2am am3 i.e. am3 + m(2a h) + k = 0.

2ah

k

; m1m2m3 = .

a

a

where m1 m2 & m3 are the slopes of the three concurrent normals.

m1 + m2 + m3 = 0; m1m2 + m2m3 + m3m1 =

Note:

algebraic sum of the ordinates of the three co-normal points on the parabola is zero.

Condition for three real and distinct normals to be drawn from a point P(h,k) is

4

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

(ix) Length of subtangent at any point P(x,y) on the parabola y2 = 4ax equals twice the

abscissa of the point P and the subtangent is bisected at the vertex.

(x) Length of subnormal is constant for all points on the parabola and is equal to the

semi latus rectum.

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 141

27. ELLIPSE

Ellipse is the locus of a point which moves in such a way so that sum of its distances from

two fixed points is always constant

Note:

(i) PS + PS' = AA'

(ii) Eccentricity (e) < 1

Standard equation of an ellipse

referred to its principal axes

along the co-ordinate

axes is

x2

a

y2

b2

Eccentricity : e = 1

b2

a2

, (0 < e < 1)

Equations of Directrix : x =

a

a

and x = .

e

e

Major Axis : The line segment AA' in which the foci S and S' lie is of length 2a and is called

the major axis (a > b) of the ellipse. Point of intersection of major axis with directrix is called

the foot of the directrix (Z and Z').

Minor Axis : The y-axis intersects the ellipse in the points B' (0, b) & B (0,b). The line

segment BB' is of length 2b (b<a) is called the minor axis of the ellipse.

Principal Axis : The major & minor axes together are called principal axis of the ellipse.

Vertices : Point of intersection of ellipse with major axis. A' ( a,0) & A (a,0).

Focal distances: The focal distance of the point (x,y) on the ellipse

x2 y2

1 are a+ex

a2 b2

and aex

Focal Chord : A chord which passes through a focus is called a focal chord.

Double Ordinate : A chord perpendicular to the major axis is called a double ordinate.

Latus Rectum : The focal chord perpendicular to the major axis is called the latus rectum.

2

(minor axis)

2b2

=2

= 2a(1 e2)

major axis

a

Centre : The point which bisects every chord of the conic drawn through it, is called the

centre of the conic. C = (0,0) the origin is the centre of the ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1.

ma

r

a

h

If the equation of the ellipse is given as

+ =1 and nothing is.mentioned

then

S

2 the

a

b

8

K

.

6

standard form (a > b) is assumed.

r. L 10277 058

E

If b > a is given, then the y-axis become major axis and x-axis

5 minor

1the

98 become

0

axis and all other points and lines change accordingly. (as shown 8

if figure)

39

8

x

y

Note:

(i)

(ii)

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

x2

y2

1 ; (a < b)

Page 142

Vertical Ellipse:

A circle described on major axis of ellipse as diameter is called the auxiliary circle.

Let Q be a point on the auxiliary circle x2 + y2 = a2 such that line through Q perpendicular to

the x-axis on the way intersects the ellipse at P, then P & Q are called as the Corresponding Points on the ellipse and the auxiliary circle respectively. ' ' is called the Eccentric Angle of the point P on the ellipse (0 2) .

Note:

(i)

(PN)

b

=

= Semi major axis

(QN)

a

are drawn upon a fixed diameter then the locus of

the points dividing these perpendiculars in a given

ratio is an ellipse of which the given circle is the

auxiliary circle.

The equations x = a cos & y = b sin together represent the ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1.

P( ) (acos , a sin ) is on the auxiliary circle.

The equation to the chord of the ellipse joining two points with eccentric angles & is

given by

(4)

x

y

cos 2 + sin 2 =cos 2

a

b

a

m

r

a

Position of a Point with respect to an Ellipse :

h

S

.

82

K

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L

7

7

58

Er. 8102

x

y50

9 as 8

01 1 is posiThe point P(x ,y ) lies outside, inside or on the ellipse according

b

a

9

3

8

tive, negative or zero respectively.

1

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

2

1

2

1

Page 143

The line y = mx + c meets the ellipse

x2

a2

according as c2 is < = or > a2m2 + b2.

y2

b2

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 if c2 = a2m2 + b2.

x 2 y2

(a) Slope form : y = mx a2m2 b2 is tangent to the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1.

a

b

xx 1

2

yy 1

b

x2

a

y2

b2

= 1 at (x1, y1).

x cos

y sin

x2 y2

+

= 1 is tangent to the ellipse 2 + 2 = 1 at the

a

b

a

b

point (a cos ,b sin ).

Note:

(i) There are two tangents to the ellipse having the same slope m, i.e. there are two

tangents parallel to any given direction. These tangents touches the ellipse at

extremities of a diameter.

(ii) Point of intersection of the tangents to the ellipse at the points

a cos

b sin 2

2

,

cos

cos 2

(iii) The eccentric angles of the points of contact of two parallel tangents differ by .

(i) Equation of the normal at (x1, y1) to the ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 is

a2 x b2y

= a2 b2.

x1

y1

(ii) Equation of the normal at the point (acos ,bsin ) to the ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 is

Note:

(i) Atmost four normals can be drawn to an ellipse from a point in its plane.

(ii) In general, there are four points A, B, C and D on the ellipse the normals at which pass

through a given point. These four points A, B, C, D are called the co-normal points.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

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6

L

7

The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn

any 2

point

y )8

to the

7 (x , 5

Er.from

0

ellipse is given by : SS = T where :

1

0

98 8015

xx

yy

x

y

x

y

39

8

S

+

+

+

1 ; S =

1 ; T

1.

a

b

a

b

a

b

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

2

1

2

1

Page 144

Note:

Locus of the point of intersection of the tangents which meet at right angles is called the

Director Circle. The equation to this locus is x2 + y2 = a2 + b2 i.e. a circle whose centre is

the centre of the ellipse & whose radius is the length of the line joining the ends of the major

and minor axes.

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1, y1) to the ellipse

x2

2

y2

2

= 1 is T = 0, where T =

xx1

yy1

b2

where S1 =

x 21

2

y 21

2

1 ; T

xx1

2

x2

a2

yy1

b2

y2

b2

1.

Refering to the ellipse

x2

a2

y2

b2

=1

The tangent & normal at a point P on the ellipse bisect the external & internal angles

between the focal distances of P. This refers to the reflection property of the ellipse which

states that rays from one focus are reflected through other focus & vice-versa. Hence we

can deduce that the straight lines joining each focus to the foot of the perpendicular from

the other focus upon the tangent at any point P meet on the normal PG and bisects it where

G is the point where normal at P meets the major axis.

The product of the lengths of the perpendicular segments from the foci on any tangent to

the ellipse is b2 and the feet of these perpendiculars lie on auxiliary circle and the tangents

at these feet to the auxiliary circle meet on the ordinate of P and that the locus of their

point of intersection is a similar ellipse as that of the original one.

The portion of the tangent to an ellipse between the point of contact and the directrix

subtends a right angle at the corresponding focus.

If the normal at any point P on the ellipse with centre C meet the major and minor axes in G

and g respectively and if CF be perpendicular upon this normal then

(i) PF. PG = b2

(ii) PF. Pg = a2

(iii) PG. Pg = SP. S'P

(iv) CG. CT = CS2

(v) locus of the mid point of Gg is another ellipse having the same eccentricity as that of

the original ellipse.

[S and S' are the focii of the ellipse and T is the point where tangent at P meet

the major axis]

The circle on any focal distance as diameter touches the auxiliary circle. Perpendiculars from

the centre upon all chords which join the ends of any perpendicular diameters of the ellipse

are of constant length.

If the tangent at the point P of a standard ellipse meets the axes in Q and R and CT is the

perpendicular on it from the centre then,

(i) QR. PT = a2 b2

(ii) least value of QR is a + b.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

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IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 145

28. HYPERBOLA

Hyperbola is the locus of a point which moves is such a ways so that difference of its

distances from two fixed points is always constant.

Note:

(i) |PSPS'|=AA'; AA' is the length of transverse axis.

(ii) eccentricity (e) > 1.

Standard equation of the hyperbola is

x2

2

y2

b2

= 1,where b2 = a2(e2 1)

Eccentricity (e) :

e 1

b2

a2

Equations Of Directrix :

x=

a

a

and x =

e

e

Transverse Axis :

The line segment AA' of length 2a in which the foci S and S' both lie is called the transverse

axis of the hyperbola.

Conjugate Axis :

The line segment BB' between the two points B' (0, b) and B (0, b) is called as the

conjugate axis of the hyperbola.

Principal Axes :

The transverse and conjugate axis together are called Principal Axes of the hyperbola.

Vertices :

A (a, 0) and A' (a, 0)

Focal distance: the focal distance of any point (x,y) on the hyperbola

x2 y2

1 are ex

a2 b2

a and ex+a.

Focal Chord :

A chord which passes through a focus is called a focal chord.

Double Ordinate :

A chord perpendicular to the transverse axis is called a double ordinate.

Latus Rectum ( ) :

The focal chord perpendicular to the transverse axis is called the latus rectum.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

39

y

8

= 1.

2b2

= 2a (e2 1) = 2e (distance from focus to directrix)

a

Centre :

The point which bisects every chord of the conic drawn through it is called the centre of the

conic.

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

x2

a2

b2

Page 146

Note:

Since the fundamental equation to the hyperbola only differs from that to the ellipse in

having b2 instead of b2 it is found that many propositions for the hyperbola are derived

from those for the ellipse by simply changing the sign of b2.

Two hyperbolas such that transverse and conjugate axes of one hyperbola are respectively

the conjugate & the transverse axes of the other are called Conjugate Hyperbolas of each

other.

for example:

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 and

x2

a2

y2

b2

Note:

(i) If e and e' are the eccentricities of the hyperbola & its conjugate then

1/e2 + 1/e'2 = 1.

(ii) The foci of a hyperbola and its conjugate are concyclic and form the vertices

of a square.

(iii) Two hyperbolas are said to be similar if they have the same eccentricity.

(iv) Two similar hyperbolas are said to be equal if they have same latus rectum.

(v) If a hyperbola is equilateral then the conjugate hyperbola is also equilateral.

A circle drawn with centre C and transverse axis as a diameter is called the Auxiliary Circle

of the hyperbola. Equation of the auxiliary circle is x2 + y2 = a2.

In the figure P and Q are called the "Corresponding Points" on the hyperbola and the

auxiliary circle.

y

a

m

ara b

h

S

2

38

K. 7, 6

.[0, 2) 7

where is a parameter, which is termed as eccentric angle,. L

Er 8102 2 520 58

9 point

If P( ) (asec , btan ) is on the hyperbola then corresponding

01

8

9

Q( ) (acos , asin ) is on the auxiliary circle.

83

The equations x = a sec and y = b tan together represents the hyperbola

x2

2

=1

The equation to the chord of the hyperbola joining two points with eccentric angles &

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 147

x

y

cos 2 sin 2

= cos 2 .

a

b

is given by

x12 y12

b

a

lies inside, on or outside the curve respectively.

The straight line y=mx+c is a secant, a tangent or passes outside the hyperbola

x2

2

y2

b2

=1

(i) Slope Form : y = mx a2m2 b2

x2

hyperbola

a2

y2

b2

can

be

taken

xx1

yy1

a2

b2

the

x2

a2

y2

b2

to

the

= 1.

point.

tangent

is

as

(a sec , b tan ) is

x2

a2

y2

b2

= 1 at the

x sec y tan

= 1.

a

b

Note:

a cos 2 b sin 2

(i) Point of intersection of the tangents at ' ' and ' ' is

cos

cos

2

2

(ii) If | | = , then tangents at these points ' ' and ' ' are parallel.

ma

r

a

h

a

b

S

.

82

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Er. 81027 5058

9 801

point P(acos , btan

) on the hyperbola

839

is

a2 x

b2y

+

= a2 + b2.

x1

y1

(ii) The

equation

x2

2

y2

2

= 1 is

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

x2

2

y2

2

ax

by

+

= a2 + b2 or

sec

tan

Page 148

The equation to the pair of tangents which can be drawn from any point (x1,y1) to the

x2

hyperbola

x2

2

a2

y2

y2

b2

S1 =

x 21

2

y 21

; T

xx1

a2

yy1

b2

1.

Note:

The locus of the intersection point of tangents which are at right angles is known as the

Director Circle of the hyperbola. The equation to the director circle is : x2 + y2 = a2 b2.

If b2 < a2 this circle is real.

If b2 = a2 (rectangular hyperbola) the radius of the circle is zero & it reduces to a point circle

at the origin. In this case the centre is the only point from which the tangents at right

angles can be drawn to the curve.

If b2 > a2, the radius of the circle is imaginary, so that there is no such circle & so no pair of

tangents at right angle can be drawn to the curve.

Equation to the chord of contact of tangents drawn from a point P(x1,y1) to the hyperbola

x2

2

y2

2

= 1 is T = 0, where T

xx1

yy1

b2

Equation of the chord of the hyperbola

where S1

x 21

2

y 21

2

1 ; T

xx1

2

yy1

b2

x2

a2

y2

b2

1.

(12) Diameter :

The locus of the middle points of a system of parallel chords with slope 'm' of a hyperbola is

called its diameter. It is a straight line passing through the centre of the hyperbola and has

the equation y =

b2x

a2m

(13) Asymptotes :

Definition : If the length of the perpendicular let fall from a point on a hyperbola to a

straight line tends to zero as the point on the hyperbola moves to infinity along the hyperbola, then the straight line is called the Asymptote of the hyperbola.

ma

r

a

Equations of Asymptote :

h

S

.

82

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x

b

x

y

x

y

r. 1027 058

+

= 0 and

=0

=0

E

a

b

a b

a

a

98 8015

Note:

39

8

(i) A hyperbola and its conjugate have the same asymptote.

2

(ii) The equation of the pair of asymptotes differs from the equation of hyperbola

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 149

(iii) The asymptotes pass through the centre of the hyperbola & are equally

inclined to the transverse axis of the hyperbola. Hence the bisector of the

angles between the asymptotes are the principle axes of the hyperbola.

(iv) The asymptotes of a hyperbola are the diagonals of the rectangle formed by

the lines drawn through the extremities of each axis parallel to the other axis.

The hyperbola in which the lengths of the transverse & conjugate axis are equal is called an

Equilateral Hyperbola, the eccentricity of the rectangular hyperbola is

Rectangular Hyperbola (xy = c2) :

2.

Vertices: (c, c) and ( c, c) ;

Foci: ( 2 c,

2 c) and ( 2 c, 2 c)

Directrix: x + y =

2c

Latus Rectum: = 2 2 c

Parametric equation x = ct, y = c/t , t R {0}

Note:

(i) Equation of a chord joining the points P(t1) and Q(t2) is x + t1t2y = c(t1+t2).

x

t

1

1

(iii) Equation of the normal at P(t) is xt3 yt = c(t4 1).

(iv) Chord with a given middle point as (h,k) is kx + hy = 2hk.

Locus of the feet of the perpendicular drawn from focus of the hyperbola

Light Ray

The ellipse

x2

y2

YTangent

Q

Xa

S rm

a

x

y

h

S

= 1 (a > k > b > 0) are confocal

.

82

K

a k

k b

.

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L

7

and therefore orthogonal.

Er. 81027 5058

9tangent8meets

The foci of the hyperbola and the points P and Q in which any

01 the tangents

at the vertices are concyclic with PQ as diameter of the circle. 39

8

If from any point on the asymptote a straight line be drawn perpendicular to the transverse

2

y2

= 1 upon

a2

b2

any tangent is its auxiliary circle i.e. x2+y2=a2 and the product of these perpendiculars is b2.

The portion of the tangent between the point of contact and the directrix subtends a right

angle at the corresponding focus.

The tangent & normal at any point of a hyperbola bisect the angle between the focal

radii. This spells the reflection property of the hyperbola as "An incoming light ray" aimed

towards one focus is reflected from the outer surface of the hyperbola towards the other

focus. It follows that if an ellipse and a hyperbola have the same foci, they cut at right

angles at any of their common point.

Note:

x2

b2

axis, the product of the segments of this line, intercepted between the point & the curve is

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Perpendicular from the foci on either asymptote meet it in the same points as the corresponding directrix & the common points of intersection lie on the auxiliary circle.

x2

a2

y2

b2

totes in Q and R and cuts off a CQR of constant area equal to ab from the asymptotes &

the portion of the tangent intercepted between the asymptote is bisected at the point of

contact. This implies that locus of the centre of the circle circumscribing the CQR in case

of a rectangular hyperbola is the hyperbola itself & for a standard hyperbola the locus would

be the curve: 4(a2x2 + b2y2) = (a2 + b2)2.

x2

y2

A rectangular hyperbola circumscribing a triangle also passes through the orthocentre of

a2

b2

c

i = 1, 2, 3 be the angular points P, Q, R then orthocentre is

t 1

, ct1 t 2 t 3 .

t1t 2 t3

If a circle and the rectangular hyperbola xy = c2 meet in the four points t1, t2, t3 & t4,then

(i) t1 t2 t3 t4 = 1

(ii) the centre of the mean position of the four points bisects the distance between the

centres of the two curves.

(iii) the centre of the circle through the points t1, t2 & t3 is:

1 c

c

2 t1 t2 t3

,

t1t2 t3 2

1

1

1

t1 t 2 t3

t1

t2

t3

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29. VECTORS

(1)

Basic Definitions :

Vector is a physical quantity having magnitude and definite direction. A directed line seg

ment AB represents a vector having initial point 'A' and the terminal point 'B'.

In 3-dimensional space if a point P is represented by (x1 , y1 , z1) , then position vector of 'P'

is given by OP x1i y1j z1k.

1

1

1

2

2

2

then :

and OQ x i y j z k

2

2

2

(z z )k

PQ (x2 x1 )i (y2 y1 )j

2

1

A vector having zero magnitude and indeterminate direction is termed as zero vector.

For example : AA 0 (i.e. vector having same initial and terminal point).

(ii) Unit Vector :

A vector having unit magnitude is termed as unit vector. Unit vector in the direction of a is

represented by

a.

a

a

or a | a |

a.

| a|

(iii) Parallel Vector or Collinear Vectors :

A set of vectors is termed as parallel (or collinear) vectors if they have common line of

support or parallel line of support.

Parallel vectors are termed as like vectors if they have same direction and further if like

vectors have same magnitude , then vectors are termed as equal vectors.

Parallel vectors are termed as unlike vectors if they have opposite sense of direction and

ma

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are all collinear (or parallel)8

vectors

Vectors a , b , c , d , e and f

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Vectors a and b are unlike vectors , similarly b and d are unlike vectors.

I f a(a1 , a2 , a3 ) and b (b1 , b2 , b3 ) are col l i n ear or paral l el vect ors , t hen .

(b i b j b k)

(a1i a2j a3 k)

1

2

3

a1

a

a

2 3.

b1 b2 b3

Note:

Three points A(a) ,B(b) and c(c) are collinear , if there exists scalars x , y and z such that

xa yb zc 0 , where x + y + z = 0 and x , y , z are not simultaneously zero.

Vectors which lie one the same plane of support or parallel plane of support are termed as

coplanar vectors.

Note:

Two vectors are always coplanar and if three vectors a , b and c are coplanar then any

y

one of the vector can be expressed as a linear combination of other tow vectors.

If a , b and c are coplanar vectors , then (a b).c 0

a1 a2 a3

a b c b b b 0

1

2

3

c1 c2 c3

ma

r

a

h

2

S

.

Three points in space are always coplanar and if A(a) , B(b)

are four

8

,

C(c)

and6

D(d)

K

.

L

7

7

.

r

8

002and x5,0

coplanar points , then xa yb zc wd 0 , where x +E

y + z + w1=

y ,5

z , w are

8

9 801

scalars which are not simultaneously zero.

39

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Vectors which are having same initial points are termed as co-initial vectors.

For example : AB , AC , AD are coinitial vectors.

(vi) Coterminous Vectors :

Vectors which have same terminal point are termed as coterminous vectors.

For example : PA , QA ,RA are coterminous vectors.

(2)

Linearly Independent Vectors :

x1 a1 x2 a2 ... xn an 0 x1 x2 ... xn 0

Linearly Dependent Vectors:

A set of vectors a1 , a2 , ..., an is said to be linearly dependent iff there exists scalars x1 ,

x2 , ... , xn not all zero such that

x1 a1 x2 a2 ... xn an 0

Note:

If two non-zero vectors a and b are linearly dependent , then a and b are collinear or

parallel ( a b 0 )

xa yb 0 x y 0.

0 x y 0.

For example : xi yj

If three non-zero vectors a , b and c are linearly dependent , then any one of the

vector can be other two vectors which further implies that a , b and c are coplanar..

( [a b c] 0)

Any set of four or more non-orthogonal system of vectors is always linearly dependent

(3)

Addition of Vectors :

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8 3c)9

(a b) c a (b

If the vectors a and b are represented by AB and AD , then a b is the vector addition

Note:

ab b a

a o o a a

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Triangle inequality:

| a b | | a| |b |

| a b | | a| |b |

|a b|

(4)

| a |2 | b |2 2 | a | | b | cos

Ka is vector which is parallel to a and having magnitude |K| times the magnitude of vector

a.

Note:

If P , K R , then

(K P)a Ka Pa

(5)

K(a b) Ka Kb.

(i) If a and b are the position vectors of two points A and B , then position vector of points

A and B , then position vector of point C (r) which divides AB in the ratio m : n is given by

mb ba

r

mn

mb ba

r

mn

(for external division).

(ii) If A(a) , B(b) and C(c) are the vertices of ABC , then :

ab c

P.V. of Controid

3

|b c | a | c a| b | a b | c

P.V. of incentre

| a b | |b c | | c a|

(iii) If A(a) , B(b) , C(c) and D(d) are the vertices of a tetrahedron , then P.V. of centroid of

ab c d

tetrahedron is given by . r

4

(6)

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Scalar or Dot Product :

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Scalar product of two vector a and b is denoted by a.b and8

is3

defined as :

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In OBL , OL | b | cos

a.b

a.b

OL

(Projection of b on a ) OL 2 a and LB b

| a |

| a|

a.b

OM (Projection of a on b )

|b|

a.b

OM

| b |2

a.b

b and MA a

| b |2

b.

i.i j.j

k.k

1

i.j j.k

k.i

0

and b

b i b j b k

, then a.b a b a b a b .

If

a a1i a2j a3 k

1

2

3

1 1

2 2

3 3

a.b

cos

| a||b |

2

1

b22 b32

If a1b1 a2b2 a3b3 0, then is obtux angle.

If

a1

a

a

2 3 , then 0 or .

b1 b2

b3

a.a | b |2

a.b b.a

(b.j)j

(c.k)k

a

a.(b c) a.b a.c

(a.i)i

| a || b | a.b | a || b |

| a b |2 | a |2 | b |2 2 a.b

| a b c |2 | a |2 | b |2 | c |2 2(a.b b.c c.a)

ma

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(7)

Vector product of two vectors a and b is denot ed by a b an d is defin ed as:

is the unit

a b | a || b | sin n

, where is the angle between vector a and b , and n

n is determined by right handed screw

rule)

Geometrically | a b | represents the area of parallelogram whose two adjacent sides are

represented by a and b

0

i i j j k.k

a a 0

, j k

i and k

i j

i j k

and b b i b j b k

, then a b a

If a a1i a2j a3k

1

2

3

1

a2

a3

b1 b2 b3

a b b a

a (kb) k(a b)

a (b c) (a b) a c

a b

| a b|

If A(a) , B(b) and C(c) are the vertices of ABC , then area of

1

a b c c a a b b c c a 0 A , B and C are collinear.

2

If A(a) , B(b) , C(c) and D(d) are the vertices of a quadrileteral , then area of Q uad

ABC

(ABCD)

1

a b b c c d d a

2

1

AC BD

2

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8.

The scalar triple product of three vectors a , b and c is defined as : a b.c | a || b || c |

sin cos where is the angle between a and b and is the angle between a b and c .

It is also written as [a b c]

of the parallelopiped whose three coterminous edges are

represented by a , b and c i.e. v [a b c]

Note:

a1 a2 a3

(i) If a a1i a2 j a3k ;b b1i b2 j b3k and c c1i c2 j c3k then [a b c] b1 b2 b3

c1 c2 c3

a .(b c) (a b).c or

a b c b c a c b a

(iii) a.(b c) a,(c b) i.e. [a b c] [a c b]

(iv) If a , b , c are coplanar [a b c] 0.

(v) Scalar product of three vectors, two of which are equal or parallel is 0.

(vi) If a , b , c are non-coplanar then [a b c] 0 for right handed system and [a b c] 0

for left handed system [K a b c] [K a b c]

(vii) The volume of the tetrahedron OABC with O as origin and the pv's of A, B and C being

1

a , b and c respectively is given by V = 6 [a b c]

The position vector of the centroid of a tetrahedron if the pv's of its vertices are

1

a , b , c and d are given by

[a b c d]

4

ma

r

a

h vertices2 to the

Note that this is also the point of concurrency of the lines joining

the

S

.

K

. tetrahedron.

68In case the

centroids of the opposite faces and is also called the centre ofL

the

7

7

.

r the four

8

tetrahedron is regular it is equidistant from the vertices

faces of the5tetraheEand

02

1

0

5

8

dron.

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(9)

Vector quantity a (b c) or (a b) c is termed as the vector triple product for any three

vectors a , b and c .

a (b c) (a.c)b (a.b)c

(a b) c (a.c)b (b.c)a

a.R 0 and R.(b c) 0

b and c .

Note:

a (b c)

Unit vector normal to a and lying in plane of b and c

| a (b c) |

In general , a (b c) (a b) c.

four vectors.

a.b b .c

i.e. , (a b).(c d)

a.d b .d

four vectors.

i.e. ,

(a b) (c d) [ab d]c [ab c]d

(a b) (c d) [a c d]b [a c c]a.

If a

a' ,

a.b '

ma

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, b , c are three non coplanar vector such that [a b c] 0, then the system of vectors

b ' , c whi ch sat isfy t h e con dit i on t h at a.a' = b.b' = c.c' = 1 an d

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bc

a'

[ab c]

ca

ab

b ' and c '

[ab c]

[ab c]

(a) [ab c] [a'b ' c] 1

b ' c '

c ' a'

a' b '

b

c

(b) a

[a'b ' c ']

[a'b ' c ']

[a' b ' c ']

(c) The system of unit vectors i , j , k

' k

Not that any vector can be expressed in terms of a' , b ' and c ' as they also constitute a

system of non coplanar vectors.

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Coordinates of any point 'P' in the space is given by (x, y, z) and the point is located with

reference to three mutually perpendiculer corordinates axes ox, oy and oz.

(1)

Distance formula :

Distance between any two points A(x1,y1,z1) and B(x2,y2,z2) is given by:

Note:

AB = | OB OA |

(2)

AB =

Section Formula :

If point P divides the distance between the points A(x1, y1, z1) and B(x2, y2, z2) internally in

the ratio of m : n , then coordinates of P are given by :

mx2 nx1 my2 ny1 mz2 nz1

,

,

mn

mn

mn

(3)

x x2 x3 y1 y2 y3 z1 z2 z3

G 1

,

,

3

3

3

(4)

ma

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cz 8

I 1

,

,

ab c

ab c

ab c

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(5)

Centroid of a tetrahedron :

A (x1, y1, z1) , B(x2, y2, z2) , C (x3, y3, z3) and D(x4, y4, z4) are the vertices of a tetrahedron

then coordinate of its centroid (G) is given by :

x x2 x3 x 4 y1 y2 y3 y 4 z1 z2 z3 z 4

G 1

,

,

4

4

4

(6)

Direction cosines: Let , , be the angles which a directed

line makes with the positive directions of the axes of x, y and

z respectively, then cos , cos , cos are called the direction

cosines of the line. The direction cosines are usually denoted

by ( , m, n).

Note:

(i) If , m, n be the direction cosines of a line, then 2 + m2 + n2 = 1.

(ii) If , m, n are direction cosines of line L then i mj nk is a unit vector parallel to

the line L.

Direction ratios : Let a, b, c be proportional to the direction cosines , m , n then

a, b, c are called the direction ratios.

m m

a b

c

Note:

(i) If , m, n be the direction cosines and a, b , c be the direction ratios of a vector,,

then

a

b

c

,m

,n

a2 b2 c2

a2 b2 c2

a2 b2 c2

(ii) If the coordinates of P and Q are (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) respectively, then the

direction ratios of line PQ can be assumed as:

a = x2 x1, b = y2 y1 and c = z2 z1 , and the direction cosines of line PQ are

x 2 x1

|PQ|

, m=

y 2 y1

and n =

|PQ|

z2 z1

|PQ|

(iii) If a, b, c are the direction ratios of any line L then a i bj ck is a vector parallel to the

line L.

(iv) Direction cosines of axes:

Direction cosines of x-axis are (1, 0,0)

Direction cosines of y-axis are (0,1,0)

Direction cosines of z-axis are (0,0,1)

(7)

ma

r

a

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Angle Between Two Line Segments :

Er. 81027 5058

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If two lines have direction ratios a , b , c and a , b , c respectively

then

01vectors parallel

9

to the lines are a i + b j + c k and a i + b j + c k and angle between

them

is given as :

83

1

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cos

a12 b12 c12 a22 b22 c22

Note:

(i) The line will be perpendicular if a1a2 + b1b2+ c1c2 = 0

a1

b1

c1

(ii) The lines will be parallel if a b c

2

2

2

(iii) Two parallel lines have same direction cosines i.e. 1 = 2 , m1 = m2 , n1 = n2.

A LINE

(8)

Equation Of A Line

(i) A straight line in space is characterised by the intersection of two planes which are

not parallel and therefore, the equation of a straight line is a solution of the system

constituted by the equations of the two planes, a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and

a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0.

This form is also known as non-symmetrical form.

(ii) The equation of a line passing through the point (x1, y1, z1) and having direction

ratios a, b, c is

x x1

y y1

z z1

a

b

c

quantity

(iii) Vector equation: Vector equation of a straight line passing through a fixed point with

quantity.

(iv) The equation of the line passing through the points (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) is

x x1

y y1

z z1

x2 x1

y2 y1

z2 z1

(v) Vector equation of a straight line passing through two points with position vectors

a and b is r a (b a) .

(vi) Reduction of cartesion form of equation of a line to vector form & vice versa

x x1

y y1

z z1

a

b

c

(ai bj ck)

r (x1i y1 j z1k)

Note:

(a) If lines

x x1

y y1

z z1

a

b

c

and

x x2

y y2

z z2

a'

b'

c'

ma

r

a

h

a

b

c

0

unique point, then :

S

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a'

b'

c'

L

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r. 1027 058

E

98 b0 .1a5 a 0.

(b) If lines r a b and r a b are intersecting, then : b 8

839

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

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(9)

Let equation of the line be

x x1

y y1

z z1

a

b

c

.....(i)

Any point on line (i) is P (a x1 , b y1 , c z1 )

....(ii)

If P is the foot of the perpendicular from A on the line, then AP is perpendicular to the line.

From above equation, value of ' ' is obtained and putting this value of in (ii), we get the

foot of perpendicular from point A on the given line , since foot of perpendicular P is known,

then the length of perpendicular is given by AP.

x x1

y y1

z z1

.

a

b

c

Let image of P(x' , y' , z') be Q( , , ) , hence PQ is perpandiclor to the given line

a( x ') b( y ') c(r z ') 0

......(i)

x'

y'

r z'

x1

y1

z1

2

2

a

b

c

......(ii)

from above equation, point Q( , , ) can be calculeted in terms of , which further satisfy

the equation (i) and hence value of ' ' can be obtained

After getting the value of ' ' point Q( , , ) cam ne calculeted from equation (ii).

The straight lines which are non-parallel and non-intersecting are termed as

skew lines.

If

x x1

y y1

z z1

a

b

c

and

x x2

y y2

z z2

a'

b'

c'

are

skew-li n es

th en

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

a

a'

b'

c'

x2 x1

a

y2 y1 z2 z1

b

c

a

m

r

a

given by : S.D.

.

h

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9 801

(i)

If r a b and r a b are the skew-lines in vector

39form, then

8

a'

b'

c'

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b1 b2 a2 a1

S.D.

| b1 b2 |

(ii)

(a2 a1 ) b

.

r a2 b is given by : d =

|b |

A PLANE

If line joining any two points on a surface is perpendicular to some fixed straight line , then

this surface is called a plane and the fixed line is called the normal to the plane.

(i) Normal form of the equation of a plane is x + my + nz = p, where, , m, n are the

direction cosines of the normal to the plane and p is the distance of the plane from

the origin.

(ii) General form : ax + by + cz + d = 0 is the equation of a plane, where a, b , c are

the direction ratios of the normal to the plane.

(iii) The equat ion of a plane passing t hrough t he point (x 1, y1, z1) is given by

a(x x1) + b(y y1) + c(z z1) = 0 where a, b, c are the direction ratios of the normal

to the plane.

(iv) Plane through three points: The equation of the plane through three non-collinear

points(x1, y1, z1), (x2, y2, z2) and (x3, y3, z3) is given by :

x x1

y y1

z z1

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 0

x3 x1 y3 y1 z3 z1

(iv) Intercept Form : The equation of a plane cutting intercept a, b, c on the axes is

x y z

= 1.

a b c

(v) Vector form : The equation of a plane passing through a point having position vector

a normal to vector n is (r a).n 0 or r .n a.n

(vi) Vector equation of a plane normal to unit vector n and at a distance d from the origin

is r .n d

Note:

(a) Coordinate planes

(i)

Equation of yz-plane is x = 0

(ii)

Equation of xz-plane is y = 0

(iii)

Equation of xy-plane is z = 0.

ma

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(b) Planes parallel to the axes :

.

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r.of the10plane

27 parallel

If a = 0, the plane is parallel to x-axis i.e. equation

58to the

E

0

5

8

x-axis is by + cz + d = 0.

1

9 8l0

S i mi l arl y, equ at i on of pl anes parall el to y-axi s an d paral

el t o z-axi s are

9

83

ax + cz + d = 0 and ax + by + d = 0 respectively.

(c) Plane through origin : Equation of plane passing through origin is ax + by + cz = 0.

Mathematics Concept Note

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Distance between two parallel planes ax + by + cz + d1 = 0 and ax + by + cz + d2=0

| d1 d2 |

is given as

a2 b2 c2

(e) Equation of a plane passing through a given point & parallel to the given

vectors:

The equation of a plane passing through a point having position vector a and

or

r . (b c) a.(b c) (non parametric form)

(f) A plane ax + by + cz +d = 0 divides the line segment joining (x1, y1, z1) and

ax1 by1 cz1 d

(x2, y2, z2) in the ratio ax by cz d

2

2

2

(g) The xy-plane divides the line segment joining the points (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2) in

the ratio

x

z1

y

. Similarly yz-plane in 1 and zx-plane in 1

x2

z2

y2

The points A(x1 , y1 , z1), B(x2 , y2 , z2) C(x3 , y3 , z3) and D(x4 , y4 , z4) are coplanar , then

x2 x1

y2 y1

z2 z1

x3 x1

y3 y1

z2 z1 0

x4 x1 y4 y1 z4 z1

Volume of a tetrahedron with vertices A(x1, y1, z1), B(x2, y2, z2), C(x3, y3, z3) and

D(x4, y4, z4) is given by V

x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1

1

x3 x1 y3 y1 z2 z1

6

x4 x1 y4 y1 z4 z1

A plane divides the three dimensional space in two equal parts.Two points A (x1 , y1 , z1) and

B(x2 , y2 , z2) are on the same side of the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 if ax1 + by1 + cz1 + d

and ax2 + by2 + cz2 + d are both positive or both negative and are opposite side of plane if

both of these values are in opposite sign.

ma

r

a

h

S

.

ax by cz d

82

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p

L

7

.

a b c

Er. 81027 5058

9 80 1

(ii) The length of the perpendicular from a point having position3

9 a to plane

8 vector

(i) Distance of the point (x1 , y1 , z1) from the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0 is given by :

1

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 166

r .n d is given by:

a.n d

p

|n|

(iii) The coordinates of the foot of perpendicular from the point (x1 , y1 , z1) to the plane

ax + by + cz + d = 0 are given by :

x x1

y y1

z z1

(ax1 by1 cz1 d)

a

b

c

a2 b2 c2

The coordinate of the image of point (x1 , y1 , z1) w.r.t. the plane ax + by + cz + d = 0

are given by :

x x1

y y1

z z1

(ax1 by1 cz1 d)

a

b

c

a2 b2 c2

(i) If two planes are ax + by + cz + d = 0 and a'x + b'y + c'z + d' = 0, then angle between

these planes is the angle between their normals. Since direction ratios of their normals are

a,b , c and a', b ', c ' respectively, hence , ' ' the angle betweeen

cos

them, is given by

a2 b2 c2 a'2 b'2 c'2

Planes are perpendicular if aa' + bb' + cc' = 0 and planes are parallel if

a b c

= =

a' b' c'

(ii) The angle between the planes r .n1 d1 and r . n2 d2 is given by,

y,

n1 .n2

cos

| n |.| n |

2

1

(i) If is the angle between line

x x1

y y1

z z1

m

n

a bm cn

ax + by + cz + d = 0 , then sin =

2

2

2

2

2

2

(a b c ) m n

(ii) Vector form : If is the angle between a line r a b and r .n d, then

b.n

sin

| b || n |

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

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m n

.

27 058

(iii) Condition for perpendicularity :

=

= or b E

n r0

0

a

1

b c

8 015

9

(iv) Condition for parallel case : a + bm + cn = 0 or b.n 0 398

8

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 167

x x1

y y1

z z1

m

n

if ax 1 + by1 + cz1 + d = 0 and a + bm + cn = 0. holds simultanously

(ii) Vector form :Line r a b will lie in plane r .n d if b.n 0 and a.n d holds

simultanously.

(i) The equations of the planes bisecting the angle between two given planes

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 are :

a1x b1y c1z d1

a22 b22 c22

(ii) Equation of bisector of the angle containing origin: If both the constant terms d1 and d2

are positive ,then the positive sign in

a1x b1y c1z d1

a12

b12

c12

gives the bisector of the angle which contains

the origin.

(iii) Bisector of acute/obtuse angle: First make both the constant terms positive , then

a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 > 0

origin lies on obtuse angle

a1a2 + b1b2 + c1c2 < 0

origin lies in acute angle

Let equation of the line in non-symmetrical form be a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0, a2x + b2y + c2z

+ d2 = 0. To find the equation of the line in symmetrical form, we must know (i) its direction

ratios (ii) coordinate of any point on it.

Direction ratios : Let , m, n be the direction ratios of the line. since the line lies in both

the planes, it must be perpendicular to normals of both planes. So a1 + b1m + c 1 n = 0 ,

a2 + b2m + c2n = 0. From these equations, proportional values of , m, n can be

calculated by cross - multiplication as

m

n

b1c2 b2c1

c1a2 c2a1 a1b2 a2b1

Alternative method

i

j

The vector a1 b1

a2 b2

k

c1

c2

ma

r

a

h

S

Point on the line : As , m, n cannot be zero simultaneously, so at

least one coordinate

2

.

8

K

6

amust be non-zero. Let a b a b 0, then the line cannot L

be.parallel7

to7xy

plane, so it

intersect it. Let it intersect xy-plane in (x , y , 0). Then

0 an d

Era.x 8+1b0y2 + 5d 0=58

a x + b y + d = 0. solving these, we get a point on the line.

equation

becomes.

1

9Then its

80

9

3

xx

yy

z0

8

=

=

: m : n = (b1c2b2c1) : (c1a2c2a1) : (a1b2 a2b1)

b1c2 b2 c1

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

c1a2 c2a1

a1b2 a2b1

Page 168

If 0, take a point on yz-plane as (0, y1, z1) and if m 0, take a point on xz-plane as

(x1, 0, z1).

(i) Any plane passing through the line of intersection of non-parallel planes

a1x + b1y + c1z + d1 = 0 and a2x + b2y + c2z + d2 = 0 is given by :

(a1x + b1y + c1z + d1) + (a2x + b2y + c2z + d2) = 0

(ii ) The equ at i on of pl an e passin g t h rou gh t h e i nt ersect ion of t h e pl anes

quantity.

ma

r

a

h

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Mathematics Concept Note

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An angle is the amount of revolution which a line OP revolving about the point O has

undergone in passing from its initial position OA into its final position OB.

If the rotation is in the clockwise sense, the angle measured is negative and it is positive if

the rotation is in the anti-clockwise sense.

The two commonly used systems of measuring an angle are

1. Sexagesimal system is which

1 right angle = 90 degrees (90)

1 degree = 60 minutes (60')

1 minute = 60 seconds (60")

2. Circular systems in which the unit of measurement is the angle subtended at the centre

of a circle by an are whose length is equal to the radius and is called a radian.

Relation between degree and radian

radian = 180 degrees

1 radian =

180

degress

The triagonometrical ratios of an angle are numberical quantities. Each one of them represent the ratio of the length of one side to another of a right angled triangle.

1.

3.

(a)

sin2 + cos2 = 1

1 sin 1; 1 cos 1 R

(b)

sec2 tan2 = 1

|sec | 1 R 2 n 1 2 , n I

(c)

coses2 cot2 = 1 ;

|cosec | 1 R {n , n I}

If is any angle, then , 90 , 180 , 270 , 360 etc. are called ALLIED ANGLES.

(a)

sin( ) = sin

cos( ) = cos

(b)

sin(90o ) = cos

cos(90o ) = sin

(c)

sin(90o + ) = cos

(d)

sin(180o ) = sin

(e)

sin(180o + ) = sin

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

ma

r

a

h

S

2

.

K

cos(90 + L

)=

sin 768

.

Er. 81027 5058

cos(180 9

) = cos0

1

8

9

3

cos(180 +8

) = cos

o

Page 170

(f)

sin(270o ) = cos

cos(270o ) = sin

(g)

sin(270o + ) = cos

cos(270o + ) = sin

(h)

tan(90o ) = cot

cot(90o - ) = tan

(i)

y sin x ; x R ; y [1, 1]

(v) y cosec x ;

(vi) y sec x ;

x R n, n I;y R /(1, 1)

5.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

a

m

r

a

cos A sin B = cos B sin A = cos (A+B). cos(A B)

h

S

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tan A tan B

Er. 81027 5058

tan(A B) = 1 t an A tan B

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Page 171

6.

7.

8.

(f)

cot A cot B 1

cot(A B) = cot B cot A

(g)

tan(A+B+C) =

1 tan A tanB tanB tanC tanC tan A

C D

C D

cos

2

2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

cosC cosD =

C D

C D

sin

2

2

C D

C D

cos

2

2

C D

C D

2sin 2 sin 2

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

cos

2

2

(a)

(b)

2cos2

2

2

(c)

2

tan 2A =

; tan =

1 tan2

1 tan2 A

2

(d)

sin 2A =

(e)

(f)

(g)

tan 3A =

2 tan

2 tan A

2 tan A

1 tan2 A

3tan A tan3 A

13tan2 A

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

, cos 2A =

1tan2 A

1 tan2 A

ma

r

a

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.

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Page 172

9.

(a)

(b)

3 1

5

=

= cos 75o or cos

;

12

12

2 2

tan 15o =

(c)

10.

sin

3 1

5

=

= sin 75o or sin

12

12

2 2

3 1

= 2 3 = cot 75o; tan 75o =

3 1

or sin 18o =

10

5 1

4

3 1

=

= cot 15o

3 1 2 3

5 1

=

5

Conditional Identities :

If A + B + C = then :

11.

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

tan

A

B

B

C

C

A

tan

+ tan

tan

+ tan

tan

=1

2

2

2

2

2

2

(vii)

cot

A

B

C

A

B

C

+ cot

+ cot

= cot

. cot

. cot

2

2

2

2

2

2

(viii)

(ix)

A+B+C=

A

B

C

cos cos

2

2

2

A

B

C

sin sin

2

2

2

E = a sin + b cos

E=

=

a2 b 2

a

cos ( ), where tan =

b

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

a2 b2 E

a2 b2

ma

r

a

h

S

.

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Page 173

12.

n

2

n1

sin 2

sin

sin

n

2

n1

cos 2

s in

2

s in

r

a

h

S

.

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Page 174

Trigonometric Equations

Principal Solutions :

The solutions of a trigonometric equation which lie in the interval [0,2 ) are called

Principal solutions.

General Solution :

The expression involving an integer 'n' which gives all solutions of a trigonometric equation

is called General solution.

General solution of some standard trigonometric equations are given below :

(i)

If sin = sin = n + ( 1)n where 2 ,2 , n I.

(ii)

(iii)

If tan = tan = n + where 2 ,2 , n I.

(iv)

If sin2 = sin2 a = n

(v)

(vi)

tan2 = tan2n = n

cos2 = cos2 = n .

v

(i)

(2sinx cosx) (1 + cos x) = sin2 x.

(ii)

3 cos2x 10 cos x + 3 = 0.

(iii)

sin x + cos x = 2

&

3 cos x + sin x = 2.

(iv)

consider the example; cos 3x + sin 2x sin 4x = 0.

(v)

Consider the equation, sin5x. cos 3x = sin 6x. cos 2x.

(vi)

(a)

polynomial, can be solved by the change.

cos x sin x = t

1 2 sin x . cos x = t2.

Consider the equation; sinx + cos x = 1 + sin x . cos x.

(b)

number s and a, b 0 can be solved by changing sin x & cos x into their

corresponding tangent of half the angle.

consider the equation 3 cos x + 4 sin x = 5.

(c)

ma

r

a

h

S

2

.

K

.variable7e.g.

6the8equation,

L

7

Many equations can be solved by introducing a.new

r

02 5058

sin 2x + cos 2x = sin 2x . cos 2x changesE

to

1

8

9 801

1

y

2 (y + 1)

= 0 by substituting, sin 2x . cos

8392x = y..

2

(vii)

Solving equations with the use of the Boundness of the functions sinx & cos x .

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 175

Trigonometric Inequalitities :

Solutions of elementary trigonometric inequalitities are obtained from graphs

_____________________________________________________________

Inequality

Set of solutions of Inequality (n z)

_____________________________________________________________

sin x > a (|a|

sin x < a (|a|

cos x > a (|a|

cos x < a (|a|

tan x > a

<

<

<

<

1)

1)

1)

1)

tan x < a

x (sin 1a + 2 n, sin 1a + 2 n)

x ( sin 1a + 2 n, sin 1a + 2 n)

x ( cos 1a + 2 n, cos 1 a + 2 n)

x (cos 1 a + 2 n, 2 cos 1a + 2 n)

x (tan 1a + n, /2 + n)

1

x 2 n,tan an

___________________________________________________________

Inequalities of the form R(y) > 0, R(y)< 0, where R is a certain rational function and y is

a trigonometric function (sine, cosine or tangent), are usually solved in two stages: first

the rational inequality is solved for the unknown y and then follows the solution of an

elementary trigonometric inequality.

r

a

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Page 176

The angles of a triangle are denoted by capital letters A, B, C and the sides opposite

to them are denoted by small letters a, b, c

In triangle

A+B+C=

also

a + b > c and |a b| < c

b + c > a and |b c| < a

c + a > b and |c a| < b

In any triangle ABC, the sines of the angles are proportional to the opposite sides

i.e.

a

b

c

=

=

= 2R ; 'R' is circum-radius of ABC

sin A

sinB

sinC

(i) cos A =

b2 c2 a2

or a2 = b2 + c2 2bc cosA = b2 + c2 + 2bc cos(B + C)

2bc

(ii) cos B =

c2 a2 b2

2ca

a2 b2 c2

2ab

(iii)

cos C =

(ii)

b = c cosA + a cos C

(ii)

tan

(i) a = b cosC + c cos B

(iii) c = a cosB + b cosA

(i) tan

B C

bc

A

=

cot

2

b c

2

(iii) tan

A B

ab

C

=

cot

2

a b

2

C A

ca

B

=

cot

2

c a

2

(i) sin

A

=

2

(ii)

cos

(iii)

(iv)

B

C

(sb)(s c)

(s c)(s a)

; sin =

; sin =

2

2

bc

ca

A

=

2

B

s(s a)

; cos =

2

bc

C

s(s b)

; cos

=

2

ca

(s a)(s b)

ab

s(s c)

ab

ma

r

a

h

(s b)(s c)

A

a b c

S

2

.

tan

=

= s(s a) where s =

is semi

perimeter

of8

triangle.

K

.

6

2

s(s a)

2

L

7

r. 1027 058

E

2

2

98 8015

sin A =

=

bc s(sa)(sb)(s c)

bc

839

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 177

1

(7) m - n Rule :

(m + n) cot = m cot n cot

= n cot B m cotC

A

B

R=

a

b

c

abc

=

=

=

2 sin A

2 sinB

2 sinC

4

(i) r =

(ii) r = (s a) tan

asin B sin C

(iii) r =

cos 2

A

B

C

= (s b)tan = (s c)tan

2

2

2

(iv) r = 4R sin

A

B

C

sin sin

2

2

2

(ii)

A

B

C

; r2 = s tan

; r3 = s tan

2

2

2

(i) r1 =

,r =

,r =

s a 2

s b 3

s c

r1 = s tan

acos B cos C

(iii) r1

(iv) r1 = 4 R sin

cos 2

A

B

C

. cos . cos

2

2

2

A

ma

Aa

a

(ii) Length of median from the angle A = ma =

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

1

2

ma

r

a

h

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.

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Er2bc. cos81027 5058

9

=

01

b c 98

83

A

2

2b2 2c2 a2

Page 178

2

Note:

2

a

3 2

(a + b2 + c2)

4

m a + mb + m c =

A

and l1a = r1

2

I1 A = r1 cosec

(iv) Orthocentre(H)

1

GA = 3

The triangle which is formed by joining the feet of the altitudes is called the Pedal Triangle.

(i) Its angles are 2a, 2B and 2C.

(ii) Its sides are a cosA = R sin 2A,

b cosB = R sin 2B

and

c cosC = R sin 2C

(iii) Circumradii of the triangles PBC, PCA, PAB and ABC are equal.

The triangle formed by joining the three excentres I1, I2 and I3 of ABC is called the

excentral or excentric triangle.

I3

I2

B/2

B

2

2

90

I1

(i)

2 , 2 2 and 2 2 .

4R cos

A

,

2

B

C

and 4R cos

2

2

(iv) I I1 = 4R sin

A

B

C

; I I2 = 4R sin ; I I3 = 4R sin .

2

2

2

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

ma

r

a

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Page 179

(1) Domain and Range of Inverse Trigonometric/Circular Functions:

No.

Domain

Range

1 x1

2 y 2

(ii) y = cos1x

1 x1

0y

(iii) y = tan1x

x R

(i)

Function

y = sin1x

2 <y< 2

(iv) y = cosec1x

1 or x 1

2 y 2 , y 0

(v) y = sec1x

1 or x 1

0y ; y

2

(vi) y = cot1x

x R

0<y<

Note:

(a) 1st quadrant is common to the range of all the inverse functions.

(b) 3rd quadrant is not used in inverse functions.

(c) 4th quadrant is used in the clockwise direction i.e.

2 y 0.

Property - (i)

, 1 x 1

2

(i)

sin1 x + cos1 x =

(ii)

tan1 x + cot1 x =

(iii)

cosec1 x + sec1 x =

, x R

2

, |x| 1

2

Property - (ii)

(i) sin(sin1x)= x, 1 x 1

(iii) tan(tan1x)= x, x R

(v) sec(sec1x) = x, x 1, x 1

(ii)

(iv)

(vi)

cos(cos1x) = x, 1 x 1

cot(cot1x) = x, x R

cosec(cosec1x) = x, x 1, x 1

(i) sin1(sin x) = x, x

2

2

(ii)

cos1(cos x) = x,

<x<

2

2

(iv)

Property - (iii)

(v) sec1(sec x) = x, 0 x , x

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

(vi)

ma

r

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cot (cot

< 8

5

Er.x) =8x,10270 <5x 0

9 801

= x; x 0, x

2

2

3

8

0x

Page 180

Property - (iv)

(i) sin1(x) = sin1x, 1 x 1

(iii) cos1(x) = cos1x, 1 x 1

tan1(x) = tan1 x,

x R

1

1

cot (x) = cot x, x R

(ii)

(iv)

Note:

The functions sin1x, tan1x and cosec1x are odd functions and rest are neither even nor

odd

Property-(v)

(i) cosec1x = sin1

(ii) sec1 x = cos1

1

;x1 , x 1

x

1

; x 1, x 1

x

tan1 1

; x 0

x

(iii) cot1 x =

1 1

tan x ; x 0

Property - (vi)

(i) sin(cos1 x) = cos (sin1 x) = ,

(ii) tan(cot1 x) = cot (tan1x) =

1 x2 1 x 1

1

, x R, x 0

x

|x|

x2 1

, |x| > 1

Property-(i)

(i) sin1x + sin1y = sin1 [x 1 y2 + y 1 x2 , x 0, y 0 and (x2 + y2) 1

= sin1 [x 1 y2 + y 1 x2 ], x 0, y 0 and x2 + y2 >1

Note:

x2 + y2 1 0 sin 1x + sin1y

2

x2 + y2 > 1

< sin1x + sin1y <

2

(ii)

(iii)

x y

tan1x + tan1y = tan1 1 xy , x > 0, y > 0 & xy < 1

1 y2 ], x 0, y 0

ma

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8

x y

= + tan1 1 xy , x > 0, y > 0 & xy > 1

2

Note:

2

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 181

Property-(ii)

(i) sin1x sin1y = sin1 [x 1 y2 y 1 x2 ], x 0, y 0

(ii) cos1x cos1y = cos1 [xy +

1 x2

1 y2 ], x 0, y 0, x y

x y

(iii) tan1x tan1y = tan1 1 xy , x 0, y 0

Note:

For x < 0 and y < 0 these identities can be used with the help of properties 2(C) i.e. change

x and y to x and y which are positive.

Property-(iii)

1

2 sin1 x

if |x|

2

1

1

2

if x

(i) sin1 2x 1 x = 2 sin x

2

( 2 sin1 x) if x 1

(ii) cos

2 cos 1 x

if

(2x 1) =

1

2 2 cos x if

2

0 x 1

1 x 0)

(iii) tan1

2 tan1 x

if |x| 1

2x

1

if x 1

= 2 tan x

1 x2

( 2 tan1 x) if x 1

(iv) sin1

2 tan1 x

if |x| 1

2x

1

if x 1

= 2 tan x

1 x2

( 2 tan1 x) if x 1

(v)

cos

2 tan1 x if x 0

=

1

1 x2

2 tan x if x 0

1 x2

Property-(iv)

x y z xyz

If tan1x + tan1y + tan1z = tan1 1xy yz zx if, x > 0, y > 0, z > 0 & (xy+yz+zx)<1

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

(ii) If tan x + tan y + tan z =

then xy + yz + zx = 1

6

L

7

2

Er. 81027 5058

(iii) tan 1 + tan 2 + tan 3 =

9 801

1

1

+ tan

=

839

2

3

2

Note:

1

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 182

(i) y = sin1 x, |x| 1, y ,

2 2

(iii) y = tan1 x, x R, y ,

2 2

(iv)

(v) y = sec1 x, |x| 1, y 0 , 2 2 ,

y = cot1 x, x R, y (0, )

(vi) y = cosec1 x, |x| 1,y 2 ,0 0 , 2

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 183

(viii)

(x) y = sin1(sin x), x R, y , , is periodic with period 2

2 2

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

Mathematics for IIT-JEE

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 184

(xii) y = tan1 (tan x), x R (2n 1) 2 , n I , y 2 ,2 is periodic with period

(xiii)

sec 1

(sec

x),

is

periodi c

wi th

peri od

2;

x R (2n 1) 2 , n I ,y 0 , 2 2 ,

(xiv)

y = cosec1(cosec x), y is periodic with period 2 ; x R {n , n I}, y 2 , 2

{0}

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

2

x

ma

r

a

.Sh

2

82

K

2

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

y=

x

y=

x+

y=

y=

y=

Page 185

(xv)

y = cot1 (cot x), y is periodic with period ; x R {n , n I}, y 0,

2

,

2

Part - 3(C)

1

2

(i) graph of y = sin

2 x 1 x 2

1

2

1)

1

1 x

Note:

In this graph it is advisable not to check its derivability just by the inspection of the graph

because it is difficult to judge from the graph that at x = 0 there is a shapr corner or not.

2x

1x 2

(iv)

graph of y = sin1

2x

1 x 2

ma

r

a

h

y .S

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

x

1

1

0

9

3

8

Er. L.K.Sharma

9810277682/8398015058

Page 186

(v)

graph of y = cos1

1 x

1 x 2

ma

r

a

h

S

.

82

K

.

6

L

7

Er. 81027 5058

9 801

839

Mathematics Concept Note

IIT-JEE/ISI/CMI

Page 187

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