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Home > Rates, Norms & Durations

By PP Wiki
Created 5 Feb 2009 - 05:54

Rates, Norms & Durations


What is needed to come up with a production rate?
A duration of time, the manhours involved, and an amount of work produced?
This section is here to document this. What information do you have that you can share?

Automotive
Automotive Production Rates & Build Times:

Bridges
Bridges Production Rates & Buld Times:

Bridge Decking
Traffic Decking
Installation of temporary traffic decking, consisting of steel beam decking and concrete panels.
A typical rate of = 1.6 m2/hr.

Cable Stringing
Covered Steel Footbridge
Simple universal beam steel bridge in modular sections, welded on site. 16 truss sections each 15 m in length, supported
on H-frame vertical columns / supports.

Support Steelwork Fabrication (4 bays) = 25 days


Support Steelwork Erection (4 bays) = 30 days
Truss erections (4 bays) = 18 days
Paintwork To Steel (16 bays) = 35 days
Bridge Deck Concrete Works (16 bays) = 60 days (staggered)
Bridge Lighting, Roof etc (16 bays) = 40 days
Bridge Finishing, Handrails and Grano = 14 days

Structural Steelwork...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Simple Universal Beam Steel Bridge, erect support steel H frames

1.2

days/no

Simple Universal Beam Steel Bridge, erect 15m truss

3.3

m/day

Design
Final Finishes

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Formwork & Bases


Paintwork
Structural Steelwork
Steel Frames
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

3.4

4.6

Tons/day

Wall Frame, Bow String Truss and Frame

1.6

Tons/day

Roof Frame, Curved Truss and Frame

5.2

Tons/day

Wall Frame, Glazed Frame and Atrium

0.3

Tons/day

Steel Frame and Roof Members

Units

Building & Construction


Building & Construction Production Rates & Build Times:

Blockwork
Blockwork
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Thermalite Blockwork, under 100mm thick

1.8

2.5

3.2

m2/hr

Thermalite Blockwork, under 100-150mm thick

1.4

1.9

2.5

m2/hr

Thermalite Blockwork, over 150mm thick

1.2

1.6

2.1

m2/hr

Lightweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100mm thick

1.5

2.2

2.9

m2/hr

Lightweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100-150mm thick

1.4

1.9

2.1

m2/hr

Lightweight Concrete Blockwork, over 150mm thick

1.2

1.6

2.0

m2/hr

Heavyweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100mm thick

1.4

2.1

2.9

m2/hr

Heavyweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100-150mm thick

1.2

1.6

2.1

m2/hr

Heavyweight Concrete Blockwork, over 150mm thick

1.1

1.4

1.8

m2/hr

Face Finish, Raked Out

71.4

m2/hr

Face Finish, Bag Rubbed

29.4

m2/hr

Face Finish, Flush Pointing

17.6

m2/hr

Building Frameworks
Curtain Walling
Curtain Walling rate
Assume 30m2 per week for general curtain walling
Slow

Ave

Fast

Vertical Glazed Lights, 6m x 2.5m

Task / Description

14.5

m2/day

Vertical Glazed Walls, large scale

70.0

m2/day

Clerestory Frame/Glazing, 3m x 4m

28.0

m2/day

Oriel Window Frame/Glazing, 4m x 2m

35.0

m2/day

Glazed Curtain Wall, First Fix

1.2

m2/hr

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Glazed Curtain Wall, Second Fix

1.1

m2/hr

High Quality Glazed Curtain Walling

25.0

m2/day

Holding Down Bolts Stanchion Bases


stanchion.

Bolt
4 No
Numbers
-->

6 No

8 No

Make
Softwood
Framework

0.50

0.70

0.93

Fix Bolts /
Framework

1.32

1.54

1.73

Strike
Framework

0.38

0.44

0.49

Item

Metal Frameworks
Roof Structure
Structural Steel Structures

For medium sized applications with a single crane and fixing gang.

A typical rate

3.4 - 4.6 tonnes/day.

Structural steel for glazed wall, made of 18 no "bow string" strusses 25 m tall, cross braced and wired together,
consisting of 69 tonnes of steelwork. Erection in 6 weeks.

Erection Rate

1.65 tonnes/day

Strucural steelwork for curved building roof, 18 number curved complex trussess and cross pearlins etc. Consisting of
500 tonnes of steel. Initially programmed for 14 weeks site installation period.

All Rates in Weeks...

GA drawings

0- 6

Shop Drawings

4 - 13

Buildings Dept Approval

14 - 17

Shop Fabrication

18 - 30

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Corrosion Protection

22 - 32

Site Pre-Assembly

32 - 34

Erection Time

35 - 38 (24 hr working)

Erection Rate

8.95 tonnes/day

Structural steelwork for glazed wall and atria over, 4 number bow string trussess in wall and in roof. Consisting of 7.5
tonnes of steelwork. Erection in 6.5 weeks.

Erection Rate

0.23 tones/day

Timber Frameworks
Roof Structure
Usually carried out with a minimum of a 2 man gang, sometimes with an additional labourer.
For a typical semi-detached house structure or similar...

Roof Trusses 1.28 no/hr

Wall Plates

2.76 m/hr

Rafters

1.17 m/hr

Ceiling Joists 32.10 m/hr

Timber frame superstructure


Timber framing rates for hospital of 3173m2 GIFA
Assuming that the labour is a 4 man squad working an 8 hour day as this would be normal practice
Wall panels up to 3m in hieght including both external and internal panels ; 30 panels per day (average panel 3.5m
long)
Wall panels over 3m in height including both internal and external panels ; 20 panels per day (average panel 2.5m
long)
Loose floor joists position and fix 175m sq per day
Loose floor joists position, fix & position and fix floor decking 125m sq per day
Floor/roof cassette assumed simple 12 X 2.4m 300m sq per day
Floor/roof cassette complex shape 150 200 m sq per day
Trussed roof erect, brace,sark and felt 100m sq per day (up to 8m span measured at horizantial)
Trussed roof erect, brace,sark and felt 80m sq per day (up to 12m span measured at horizantial)

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Hip or valley up to 12m long 1 man a day


Medium dormer window (2.4m wide) 1 man a day
I hope this helps , but please bare in mind that the more complex projects will take longer.
Timber Frames...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Roof Trusses

1.3

no/hr

Wall Plates

2.7

m/hr

Roof Rafters

1.2

m/hr

Ceiling Joists

32.1

m/hr

Roof Carcass, Common Rafters, under 3m

18.2

20.0

21.7

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Common Rafters, 3-6mm

13.3

16.6

18.2

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Common Rafters, over 6m

14.1

15.6

16.1

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Jack Rafters, under 3m

18.8

20.1

21.7

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Jack Rafters, 3-6mm

10.4

16.1

16.6

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Purlins, under 3m

5.1

5.4

5.8

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Purlins, 3-6mm

4.3

4.8

5.1

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Purlins, over 6m

3.5

4.3

4.6

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Binders, under 3m

5.7

6.6

7.6

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Binders, 3-6mm

2.1

2.3

2.5

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Binders, over 6m

1.3

1.5

1.6

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Hangers, under 3m

8.2

9.0

9.6

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Collars under 3m

7.6

8.0

9.1

no/hr

Roof Carcass, Collars 3-m

6.5

7.4

8.3

no/hr

12.0

13.1

15.3

no/hr

142.0

166.0

175.0

no/hr

Roof Soffits, Softwood, nailed

9.2

m/hr

Roof Soffits, Softwood, screwed

3.9

m/hr

Roof Soffits Asbestos, under 300mm nailed

9.1

m/hr

Roof Soffits Asbestos, under 300mm screwed

3.8

m/hr

Roof Soffits, Asbestos, over 300mm nailed

3.5

m/hr

Roof Soffits, Asbestos, over 300mm screwed

1.3

m/hr

Roof Facia Panels, Softwood

5.1

7.2

9.3

m/hr

Roof Facia Panels, Asbestos

1.3

2.5

3.9

m/hr

Roof Facia Panel Studding, nailed

7.3

8.1

9.0

m/hr

Roof Facia Panel Studding, screwed

4.6

5.2

5.8

m/hr

Roof Facia Panel Studding, bolted to beams

5.4

5.9

6.6

m/hr

Roof Works, Fix Herringbone Strutting

5.1

m/hr

Roof Works, Fix Firing Strips

25.0

m/hr

Roof Works, Fix Drip/Tilt Filleting

20.5

m/hr

Roof Carcass, Ridge Boards under 3m


Roof Carcass, Cut Rafter Feet to line

Chases
Chases

Cutting Chases In Brickwork


In Brickwork (m/hr)

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By Hand

Chase depth
-->

0-25mm

25-37mm

37-50mm

Ne 25 mm
wide

4.17

2.78

2.08

25-50 mm
wide

3.45

2.27

1.69

50-75 mm
wide

2.86

1.92

1.45

75-100 mm
wide

2.50

1.67

1.23

Ne 25 mm
wide

11.1

5.56

4.17

25-50 mm
wide

6.67

4.55

3.33

50-75 mm
wide

6.67

4.55

3.33

75-100 mm
wide

5.00

3.33

2.50

Machine

Cutting Chases In Concrete


In Concrete (m/hr)
By Hand

Chase depth
-->

0-25mm

25-37mm

37-50mm

Ne 25 mm
wide

3.03

2.04

1.54

25-50 mm
wide

2.50

1.67

1.25

50-75 mm
wide

2.13

1.41

1.05

75-100 mm
wide

1.82

1.22

0.92

Chase depth
-->

0-25mm

25-37mm

37-50mm

Ne 25 mm
wide

5.88

4.00

3.03

25-50 mm
wide

5.00

3.33

2.50

50-75 mm
wide

4.17

2.86

2.13

75-100 mm
wide

3.70

2.44

1.81

Machine

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Cutting Chases In Heavyweight Blockwork


In Heavyweight Blockwork (m/hr)
By Hand

Chase
depth -->

0-25mm

25-37mm

37-50mm

Ne 25 mm
wide

3.85

2.63

1.96

25-50 mm
wide

3.23

2.17

1.64

50-75 mm
wide

2.70

1.82

1.36

75-100 mm
wide

2.33

1.56

1.18

Machine

Ne 25 mm
wide

7.69

5.00

3.85

25-50 mm
wide

6.25

4.17

3.13

50-75 mm
wide

5.26

3.57

2.70

75-100 mm
wide

4.55

3.13

2.33

Cutting Chases In Lightweight Blockwork


In Lightweight Blockwork (m/hr)
By Hand

Chase depth
-->

0-25mm

25-37mm

37-50mm

Ne 25 mm
wide

7.69

5.00

3.85

25-50 mm
wide

6.25

4.17

3.13

50-75 mm
wide

5.26

3.45

2.63

75-100 mm
wide

4.55

3.03

2.27

Chase depth
-->

0-25mm

25-37mm

37-50mm

Ne 25 mm
wide

14.2

10.0

7.69

25-50 mm
wide

11.1

7.69

5.88

50-75 mm
wide

10.0

7.14

5.26

Machine

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75-100 mm
wide

9.09

6.25

4.76

Cutting Switch Boxes


Cutting Switch Boxes etc (No/hr)

Box Type
-->

Small

Large

Hand

7.14

3.57

Machine

12.5

5.56

Hand

6.67

4.17

Machine

12.5

6.25

Lightweight
Blockwork
Hand

Hand
Machine

20.0 25.0

10.0 14.3

Heavyweight
Blockwork
Hand

Hand
Machine

7.69 12.5

3.85 5.88

Concrete

Brickwork

Computer Room / Raised Floors


Typically installed by a 2 man gang
Medium sized room incl cutting 2.67 m2/hr

Concrete Related Works


Formwork
Beam Falsework Formwork
Rates include for making, fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr.
Soffits - On runners and props, including erection of props etc.

Hight of
Beam
Soffit--->
Width

0 - 3.5 m

Fix

3.5 - 5.0 m

Strike

Fix

Strike

100 0.70
200 mm

1.23

0.58

1.02

200 0.81
300 mm

1.39

0.68

1.15

300 0.93
500 mm

1.54

0.78

1.28

500 1.16
750 mm

1.85

0.96

1.54

1.23

2.17

1.03

1.82

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exc 750
mm

Soffits - On runners and props, on previously erected props etc.

Hight of 0 - 3.5 m
Beam
Soffit--->

3.5 - 5.0 m

Width

Strike

Fix

Strike

100 0.96
200 mm

1.69

0.91

1.67

200 1.11
300 mm

1.92

1.05

1.82

300 1.27
500 mm

2.08

1.20

2.00

500 1.56
750 mm

2.50

1.49

2.44

exc 750 1.64


mm

2.86

1.39

2.70

Fix

Sides - Strutted from soffit bearers etc.

Hight of 0 - 3.5 m
Beam
Soffit--->

3.5 - 5.0 m

Depth

Strike

Fix

Strike

100 0.78
200 mm

1.23

0.74

1.18

200 0.93
300 mm

1.39

0.88

1.32

300 1.06
500 mm

1.54

1.02

1.47

500 1.47
750 mm

2.08

1.39

2.00

exc 750 1.54


mm

2.33

1.47

2.33

Fix

Sides - Using clamps and struts etc.


Hight of 0 - 3.5 m
Beam
Soffit--->

3.5 - 5.0 m

Depth

Strike

Fix

Strike

100 0.91
200 mm

1.47

0.87

1.39

200 1.09
300 mm

1.64

1.04

1.56

300 1.27
500 mm

1.82

1.20

1.72

Fix

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Columns Formwork
Rates include for fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr unless otherwise stated.

Cross
Sectional
Area-->

Ne 0.2 m2

Exc 0.2 m2

Item

Fix

Strike

Fix

Strike

KickersDirect to
slab (no/hr)

4.00

12.50

2.63

8.33

KickersSuspended
(no/hr)

2.08

12.50

1.39

8.33

Square Sides-Timber Clamped and Propped


Column
Height-->
Item
Cross
Section

2-3m

Fix

3-4m

Strike

Fix

Strike

0.00 1.35
0.05 m2

2.70

1.67

3.57

1.69
0.05 0.10 m2

3.45

1.82

3.85

0.10 1.82
0.20 m2

4.00

2.33

4.55

2.04
0.20 0.40 m2

4.55

2.44

5.00

exc
2.33
0.40 m2

5.26

2.50

5.88

Footing formwork
Activity

Labor (L) Helper


(Mandays)

Material (M)

Material
(M)

Material (M)

Sqm

0.8
Mandays/10Sqm

1.5
Mandays/10Sqm

MS Wall Form
Panel - 1250 x
500 :
16Nos/10Sqm

Props 2m to 3m
Long : 2
Nos/Rm

Shuttering
Oil :
4Ltr/10Sqm

Footing Deshuttering & Sqm


insitu Stacking

0.48
Mandays/10Sqm

0.9
Mandays/10Sqm

TASKS

Footing Footing
Shuttering &
formwork Providing
Support

Task Labor (L) Carpenter


UOM (Mandays)

Formwork & Falsework - Ground Foundation Formwork


FORMWORK & FALSEWORK
Ground Foundation Formwork All formwork rates in m2/hr.

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Item

Shutter size

Fix

Strike

1.64

3.85

1.82

4.55

1.50 - 2.25 m2 2.00

5.00

2.25 - 3.00 m2 2.22

5.56

exc 3.00 m2

2.50

7.14

1.72

4.55

0.75 - 1.50 m2 1.82

4.55

1.50 - 3.00 m2 2.50

6.25

3.00 - 5.00 m2 2.63

6.67

To Pilecaps 0.75 m

0.75 - 1.50 m

To
0.75 m2
Foundations

To Ground
Beams

1.82

4.55

1.50 - 3.00 m2 2.63

6.67

3.00 - 5.00 m2 2.70

7.14

1.50 m

Formwork
Formwork
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Pilecaps, < 0.7m2

0.9

1.6

2.0

m2/hr

Pilecaps, 0.7-2.5m2

1.6

2.0

2.3

m2/hr

Pilecaps, 2.5-3.0m2

2.0

2.3

2.5

m2/hr

Pilecaps, > 3.0m2

2.3

2.5

3.1

m2/hr

Ground Beams, < 0.7m2

1.1

1.7

1.8

m2/hr

Ground Beams, 0.7-1.5m2

1.7

1.8

2.5

m2/hr

Ground Beams, 1.5-3.0m2

1.8

2.5

2.6

m2/hr

Ground Beams, 3.0-5.0m2

2.5

2.6

3.5

m2/hr

Elevated Plain Slab Soffit

0.6

0.8

1.2

m2/hr

Beams, on erected falsework, width 100-200mm

0.9

1.0

1.1

m2/hr

Beams, on erected falsework, width 200-300mm

1.0

1.1

1.3

m2/hr

Beams, on erected falsework, width 300-500mm

1.2

1.3

1.5

m2/hr

Beams, on erected falsework, width 500-750mm

1.5

1.6

1.8

m2/hr

Beams, on erected falsework, width over 750mm

1.4

1.5

1.7

m2/hr

Walls, Construct Kickers

5.3

7.1

10.0

m2/hr

Walls, Fully Framed Formwork/Struts, 1.0-2.0m2

0.9

1.8

1.9

m2/hr

Walls, Fully Framed Formwork/Struts, 2.0-5.0m2

1.0

2.2

2.5

m2/hr

Walls, Fully Framed Formwork/Struts, over 5.0m2

1.2

2.5

2.9

m2/hr

Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 1.0-3.0m2

1.0

1.4

2.0

m2/hr

Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 3.0-5.0m2

1.9

2.3

3.3

m2/hr

Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 5.0-10.0m2

2.3

2.8

3.5

m2/hr

Walls, StoriForm Shutters, 10.0-15.0m2

3.2

4.5

4.0

m2/hr

Walls, StoriForm Shutters, over 15.0m2

3.8

4.8

5.4

m2/hr

Ground Slabs

1.0

1.5

1.8

m2/hr

Columns, Construct Kickers, direct to slab

3.2

4.1

5.4

no/hr

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Columns, Construct Kickers, suspended from soffit slab

1.2

2.8

3.2

no/hr

Columns, Square Sides, Timber Clamp/Prop, csa < 0.1m2

1.3

1.6

1.8

m2/hr

Columns, Square Sides, Timber Clamp/Prop, csa 0.1-0.4m2

1.8

2.1

2.4

m2/hr

Columns, Square Sides, Timber Clamp/Prop, csa over 0.4m2

2.0

2.3

2.5

m2/hr

Columns, Square Sides, Steel Forms, 1.5 x 1.5 x 9.0m high

7.9

9.5

10.3

m2/hr

Columns, Square Sides, Steel Forms, 2.0 x 2.0 x 9.0m high

6.9

7.5

8.3

m2/hr

Columns, Square Sides, Steel Forms, 2.0 x 4.0 x 9.0m high

8.5

10.2

12.0

m2/hr

Columns, Round Sides, Sacrificial Plastic Mould, 3.0-4.0m dia

3.5

4.5

6.0

m2/hr

Columns, Round Sides, Steel Mould, 3.0-4.0m dia

5.2

6.5

7.5

m2/hr

Columns, Sloping Column Heads, extra over rate

2.5

3.5

hrs/no

Staircases, Stair Soffit, Sloping

0.7

0.8

1.0

m2/hr

Staircases, Stair Soffit, Flat Landing

0.8

0.9

1.2

m2/hr

Staircases, Wall Strings

0.4

0.6

m2/hr

Staircases, Open Strings

0.7

0.8

m2/hr

Staircases, Riser Boards fixed to strings

2.5

2.8

m2/hr

Staircases, Risers fixed to Strings

2.3

2.6

m2/hr

1.1

1.4

1.8

m2/hr

300.0

500.0

mm/hr

Table Form, Aluminum System, 400m2 bays

2.1

3.2

3.8

m2/hr

Table Form, H-Frame Steel Falsework, 400m2 bays

1.9

3.0

3.5

m2/hr

Tunnel Forms, Wall and Slab poured as one

15.6

17.5

m2/hr

Hollorib Decking, lay deck

43.5

47.5

m2/hr

Hollorib Decking, shear connecting studs

29.3

31.2

m2/hr

Stop Ends, no perforations

2.8

3.5

4.2

m2/hr

Stop Ends, minor perforations

1.2

1.5

1.9

m2/hr

Stop Ends, dense perforations

0.9

1.1

1.4

m2/hr

Box Outs, 0.01-0.05m2

7.6

8.2

9.1

no/hr

Box Outs, over 0.05m2

3.1

3.9

4.5

no/hr

Dummy Frames, under 3.0m2

4.5

6.2

7.1

no/hr

Dummy Frames, over 3.0m2

3.1

3.7

4.5

no/hr

Waffle Flooring, 2.4m grid


Shaft Slip Forming

Formwork Re-Use
Typical rate for number of formwork uses before shutter remake. NOTE: This varies significantly depending on care
taken with shutters and programme time available etc.
Walls = 20 uses
Slab Soffits = 10 - 15 uses
Beam & Column Boxes = 30 uses

Hollorib Decking
Hollorib Decking
Lay decking = 350 m2/day
Shear Connecting Studs 235 m2 studded per day per gun (4,000 studs/week)
Concrete topping = 4,000 m2/week or 2,000 m2/week incl power floating

Raft formwork

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Activity

Task Labor (L) Carpenter


UOM (Mandays)

Labor (L) Helper


(Mandays)

Material (M)

Material
(M)

Material (M)

Sqm

0.71
Mandays/10Sqm

1.41
Mandays/10Sqm

MS Wall Form
Panel - 1250 x
500 :
16Nos/10Sqm

Props 2m to 3m
Long : 2
Nos/Rm

Shuttering
Oil :
4Ltr/10Sqm

Raft Deshuttering & Sqm


insitu Stacking

0.42
Mandays/10Sqm

0.84
Mandays/10Sqm

TASKS

Raft Raft
Shuttering &
formwork Providing
Support

Ramp formwork

Activity

Ramp
formwork

TASKS

Task - UOM

Ramp Shuttering
&
Sqm
Providing
Support

Ramp Deshuttering
& Stacking
Sqm
Appropriately
at Same
Location

Labor (L) Carpenter


(Mandays)

Labor (L) Helper


(Mandays)

Material (M)

Material (M)

Material
(M)

Adjustable
Props 2.02m to
MS Floor Form MS Floor
3.75 m :
0.22
0.44
Panel - 750 x
Form Panel 2Nos/Sqm
Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm 600 1250 x 500 :
and
13.3Nos/10Sqm 6.4Nos/10Sqm
Shuttering
Oil :
5Ltr/10Sqm

0.13
0.26
Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm

Shades Formwork

Activity

TASKS

Shades
Formwork

Weather
Shade,
Chajjas,
Corbels
Shuttering
(Including
Propping)

Task - UOM

Labor (L) Carpenter


(Mandays)

Labor (L) Helper


(Mandays)

Sqm

Adjustable
MS Floor
Props 0.12
0.14
Form Panel 2.02m to
Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm 750 x 600 3.75 m :
2.2Nos/Sqm
2Nos/Sqm

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Material (M)

Material
(M)

Material
(M)

Shuttering
Oil :
0.3Ltr/Sqm

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Weather
Sqm
Shade,
Chajjas,
Corbels Deshuttering &
Stacking
Appropriately
at Same
Location

0.07
0.08
Mandays/Sqm Mandays/Sqm

Staircase formwork
Task Labor (L) Carpenter
UOM (Mandays)

Activity

TASKS

Staircase
formwork

Staircase
(Excluding Spiral
Staircase) Shuttering &
Providing Support

Sqm

Staircase
(Excluding Spiral
Staircase) Deshuttering &
Stacking
Appropriately at
Same Location

Sqm

Labor (L) Helper


(Mandays)

Material (M)

0.23
Mandays/Sqm

0.46
Mandays/Sqm

Adjustable
MS Floor Form
Props Panel - 750 x
2.02m to
600 3.75 m :
2.2Nos/Sqm
2Nos/Sqm

0.14
Mandays/Sqm

0.28
Mandays/Sqm

Material (M)

Material (M)

Shuttering
Oil :
5Ltr/10Sqm

Tunnel Forms
Concrete - Tunnel Forms A system of forms which enables walls and slabs to be cast in the same pour. suited to
buildings with large number of identically sized rooms, such as hotels or flats. Used in conjunction with high speed
concrete pumps, pre-formed reinforced cages.
Rates
Setup

14 days

Slab & Walls 125 m2/day (equals 3.5 rooms)


Dismantle

7 days

Waffle Flooring
Rate includes for erection of decking and infill beams, cut position & nail plywood ribs, transport position and fix 800 mm
x 800 mm waffle forms, clean and oil plywood and adjust to levels (m2/hr). Conservative Erection Rate...
2.4 m grid, ne 3.5 m high soffit = 1.42 m2/hr
3.5 - 5.5 m high soffit = 1.13 m2.hr
Typical composite rate of 18.5 m2/day per 4 man gang. Rate includes decking, waffles and reinforcement fixing.

Walls formwork

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Activity

TASKS

Task Labor (L) Carpenter


UOM (Mandays)

Walls (Any
Thickness),
Including
Walls
Buttresses formwork Shuttering &
Providing
Support - Up to
3.5m Height

Walls Deshuttering &


insitu Stacking

Labor (L) Helper


(Mandays)

Sqm

2.22
Mandays/10Sqm
(Including Both
Sides)

2.64
Mandays/10Sqm
(Including Both
Sides)

Sqm

1.32
Mandays/10Sqm
(Including Both
Sides)

1.76
Mandays/10Sqm
(Including Both
Sides)

Material (M)

Material
(M)

MS Wall Form
Panel - 1250 x
500 - 32
Nos/10Sqm
(Including
Both Sides)

Props - 2m
to 3m
Long :
4Nos/Rm
(Including
Both Sides)

Material (M)

Shuttering
Oil :
5Ltr/10Sqm
(On One
Side)

Making Good Concrete


Rates including blowing out, preparations, clean and shutter joints and making a fair faced
finish.
By
Hand

With
Mechanical
Sander

Walls

5.56
m2/hr

8.62 m2/hr

Columns

2.80
m2/hr

6.99 m2/hr

Sides and
Soffits of
Beams

2.80
m2/hr

6.99 m2/hr

Soffits of
Slabs

4.21
m2/hr

7.58 m2/hr

Vertical Bolt
Holes

16.67
no/hr

Horizontal
Bolt Holes

14.49
no/hr

Vertical
28.57
Shutter Joints m/hr
Horizontal
25.00
Shutter Joints m/hr
Rub Down
Precast
Concrete

16.95
m2/hr

Scabble
Single
head
brush
hammer

0 - 4 mm 30.74
hrs/m2

Three
head
brush
hammer

0 - 4 mm 37.14
hrs/m2

0 - 8 mm 59.14
hrs/m2

0 - 8 mm

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71.12
hrs/m2

Mixing Concrete
Mixing By Hand
A typical rate of 0.32 m3/hr of concrete. Compulsory Paddle Mixer Generally with one or two 3.5m3 drums, giving a cycle
time of 60 to 80 seconds (m3/Hr).
Mix Time -->

60 secs

80 secs

Single drum
plant

210

158

Double drum 420


plant

315

Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete Weight, 1m3

2.4

Tonnes

Readymix Lorry, Length

8.3

Readymix Lorry, Width

2.5

Readymix Lorry, Height

3.7

Readymix Lorry, Length

24.4

Tonnes

Readymix Lorry, Turning Circle

16.4

Readymix Lorry, Allowable Access Ramp Gradient

17.0

20.0

Mixing Concrete, By Hand

0.3

m3/hr

Mixing Concrete, Single Drum Paddle Mixer

158.0

180.0

210.0

m3/hr

Mixing Concrete, Double Drum Paddle Mixer

315.0

370.0

420.0

m3/hr

Mixing Concrete, Single Drum Plant Pan Mixer

120.0

m3/hr

Mixing Concrete, Dry Mix Plant

90.0

m3/hr

degrees

CONCRETING
Properties
1 m3 of concrete weights 2.4 tonnes Skip Capacities Dual Flow Skips
Skip
Size

Qty Per
Lift

Laiden
Weight

0.50 m3

0.44 m3

1,261 kg

0.75 m3

0.68 m3

1,850 kg

2,585 kg

1.00 m

0.94 m

Rollover Skips, Front discharge


Skip
Size

Qty Per
Lift

Laiden
Weight

0.50 m3

0.44 m3

1,361 kg

0.75 m3

0.68 m3

2,057 kg

Readymix
Lorries
- Length

8.23 m

- Width

2.43 m

- Height

3.66 m

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- Weight

24.38
tonnes

- Turning
Circle

16.36 m

Dry Lean Concrete


From readymix truck and spade finish (m3/hr).
Roads and
Runway
Areas

1.39

Paths

0.57

Drains,
tipped
direct

0.85

Drains,
thrown in

0.68

Placement & Finishing


Concrete Cycle Times
Blinding Concrete
Placing blinding direct from ready mix truck, rate of 4-5 m2/hr or 0.2-0.3 m3/hr.
Base / Floor Slabs
Concourse slab concrete pour, 36 m x 18 m, concrete volume of 1,500 m3 and 290 tonnes of reinforcement. Blind 1 day,
formwork 2 days, reinforcement 5 days and concrete on day 8. Adit base slabs, concrete volume of 140 m3. Steelfixing
for 4 days and concrete on the 5th day.
Tunnel Sections
Simple cooling watermain tunnels, a typical cycle time of 5 days per 8 m sections, or a rate of 0.16 m/hr.
Track Slab
Track slab concrete pour, 36 m x 28 m, concrete volume of 1,050 m3 and 360 tonnes of reinforcement. Excavate 6 m
from one edge 7 days, strut 9 days, final excavation 3 days, pile chipping 5 days, blind 4 days, reinforcement 5 days and
concrete on day 32. On simple pours, with little formwork, 24 m x 28 m, concrete volume of 1,200 m3 and 220 tonnes of
reinforcement. Blind 3 days, reinforcement 3 days and concrete on day 8.
Wall Slabs
Adit wall construction, concrete volume of 80 m3. Steelfixing for 3 days and concrete on 4th day.
Roof Slabs
Adit roof slab construction, concrete volume of 80 m3. Steelfixing for 4 - 5 days and concrete on the 6th day.
Staircases
Standard staircase, concrete volume of 60 - 80 m3. Steelfixing for 4 days, formwork for 3 days and concrete on the 7 th
day. Simple staircase from track slab up to platform edge, a rise of 1.2 m, a typical cycle time of 3 days per flight.

Slip Forming
Concrete - Slip Forming
A typical period of 10 - 14 days is required to setup the shutter on the ground and cast the platform.
Rate of climb of formwork = 200 - 300 mm/hr.

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Table Forms
Concrete - Table Forms
Fast method of forming walls/slabs with movable shutter. This rate is inclusive of walls and columns etc.
Rate of 100 - 150 m2/day

Concrete Finishing
Concrete Finishing
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Surface Finishing, Steel Float By Hand

9.2

13.9

25.0

m2/hr

Surface Finishing, Wood Float By Hand

11.7

17.2

29.4

m2/hr

Surface Finishing, Power Float

13.9

20.8

37.0

m2/hr

Surface Finishing, Light Brush on Trowel

55.8

90.1

170.0

m2/hr

Surface Finishing, Brush on Trowel Margin

28.8

48.5

85.0

m2/hr

Surface Finishing, Sprayed By Pump, expose aggregate

65.0

95.0

145.0

m2/hr

Surface Finishing, Wire Brush, expose aggregate

15.0

25.0

30.0

m2/hr

Making Good Walls, prepare, shutter, pour

5.5

8.6

m2/hr

Making Good Columns, prepare, shutter, pour

2.8

6.9

m2/hr

Making Good Sides of Beams, prepare, shutter, pour

2.8

7.0

m2/hr

Making Good Slab Soffits, prepare, shutter, pour

4.2

5.5

m2/hr

14.8

16.8

25.8

no/hr

18.0

m2/hr

30.7

59.5

73.8

Making Good Bolt Holes, prepare, shutter, pour


Making Good Rubdown Precast Concrete, prepare, shutter, pour
Making Good Scabble 3 head brush hammer, prepare, shutter, pour

hrs/m2

Concrete Finishes (m2/hr).


Area
Finished
-->

0-40 m2

40-200 m2

exc 200 m2

Steel Float
by Hand

9.26

13.89

25.00

Wood Float 11.76


by Hand

17.24

29.41

Power
Float

13.89

20.83

37.04

Light Brush 55.56


on Trowel

90.91

166.67

Brush on
Trowel
Margin

27.78

45.45

83.33

Sprayed
55.56
using hand
pump

90.91

142.86

Wire
6.99
Brush,
expose agg

11.76

20.83

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Concrete Pumping
Large Concrete Pours, lorry pump.
Simple Rule Of Thumb, concretors 0.5 - 1.0 hrs/m3 of concrete, depending on access, pour size and concrete
availability.
Base Slabs etc, 1,200m3 equalling 25 - 35m3/hr per pump, with 3 No pumps and 12 men for 2 shifts of 12 hrs.

OFC Laying
OFC Laying
By Using Concrete/Road Cutter Equipment
Resources

Survey Team of 4 (1 Suveyor , 3 Assistants)


Equipment with Operator and Helper
Cutting Line Marking team ( 2-3 Persons)
OFC cable laying team ( 4 Persons)
Splicing team (2 technicians )

Productivity
if everything is planned properly with adequate overlap of 3-4 days. 400-500m/day can be achieved.
By using trenching machine

Equipment with Operator and helper


Mini Dozer with operator
OFC Laying laying team (6-8 persons)
Rest resources as per above

Productivity
If everything has planned properly with adequate overlap of 2-3 days. 250-300m/day can be achieved.

Place Concrete
Barrowing Concrete (m3/hr).
Receive concrete from mixer/lorry direct to barrow, wheel to placing position, tip and return.
Distance

0 - 10 m

2.32

10 - 20 m

1.81

20 - 50 m

1.08

As above but including load concrete from deck/tray.


Distance

0 - 10 m

0.99

10 - 20 m

0.87

20 - 50 m

0.66

Extra over to place direct, for dump and shovel in from side, a typical rate of 0.26 hrs/m3.Direct From Ready Mix Lorry
(m3/hr).
Type

Ready
Mix

Via
Dumper

Via
Dumper

Tip
Direct

Tip Direct

Thrown
In

Mass Fill

3.12

2.56

1.49

50mm
Blinding

1.27

1.06

0.82

Ground
Beams ne
0.1 m2 SA

1.52

1.30

1.00

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Ground
Beams ex
0.1 m2 SA

1.69

1.49

1.16

Pile Caps
ne 0.1 m2
SA

1.16

1.06

0.79

Pile Caps
ex 0.1 m2
SA

2.56

2.13

7.69

Duct Walls

0.78

0.71

0.52

Stub
Columns

0.43

0.39

0.29

Ground
Slab ne
155 mm

2.13

1.82

1.22

Ground
Slab 150300 mm

2.33

1.96

1.27

Ground
Slab 300500 mm

2.56

2.13

1.35

Drains, Bed 0.91


& Cover

0.85

0.73

By Lorry Mounted Concrete Pump (m3/hr).


Thickness 13.5 m3/hr
-->

18
m3/hr

ne 100
mm

2.17

2.63

100 - 150 2.44


mm

2.94

150 - 200 2.63


mm

3.23

200 - 300 2.86


mm

3.45

300 - 500 3.23


mm

3.85

1.64

1.82

0.5 - 0.10 1.59


m2

1.59

exc 0.10
m2

1.82

1.82

ne 150
mm

1.61

1.89

150 - 225 1.89


mm

2.33

exc 225
mm

2.56

3.23

Independent
Beams

1.54

1.54

Stairs and
Landings

1.27

1.89

Solid Slabs

Coffered Slabs
Columns

Wall

By Dumper, From Ready Mix Lorry To Position (m3/hr).


Dumper 0.6 m3
Capacity
-->

0.8 m3

1.2 m3

1.5 m3

2.3 m3

0 - 20 m

14.08

18.82

25.00

33.33

10.41

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20 - 50
m

9.09

12.36

16.39

22.22

29.41

50 - 100
m

7.29

10.41

13.88

18.86

25.00

100 250 m

5.78

7.87

10.00

13.51

18.18

250 500 m

3.65

4.95

8.33

8.95

12.35

500 750 m

2.16

2.92

4.27

5.43

7.87

750 1,000 m

3.97

5.78

By Tower/Mobile Crane (m3/hr).


0.4 m 0.6
Skip m
Skip

0.8 m
Skip

Pile Caps

SA ne 2 1.19
m2

1.39

1.61

Mass Fill
Pours

SA 2-5
m3

1.75

2.04

2.33

ne 10
m3

3.70

4.17

4.76

10-25
m3

4.00

4.55

0.84

exc 25
m3

4.35

5.00

5.86

ne 100
mm

0.90

1.09

1.21

100-150 1.09
mm

1.31

1.47

150-200 1.26
mm

1.53

1.69

200-300 1.26
mm

1.53

1.69

Exc 300 1.38


mm

1.66

1.85

Trough &
Coffered
Slabs

0.95

1.09

1.21

Structural
Topping
ne 100
mm

0.90

1.09

1.25

Stairs &
Landings

0.64

0.64

0.64

Slabs

Blinding

ne 150
mm

0.88

1.00

1.10

Beams

SA
0-0.05
m

0.52

0.58

0.69

SA
0.58
0.05-0.1
m

0.65

0.78

SA ex
0.1 m

0.76

0.85

1.02

ne 100
mm

0.64

0.76

0.88

Walls

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Columns

100-150 0.76
mm

0.92

1.05

150-300 0.95
mm

1.11

1.28

exc 300
mm

1.10

1.28

1.47

SA ne
0.05 m2

0.43

0.45

0.48

0.48
SA
0.05-0.1
m2

0.50

0.54

SA ex
0.1 m2

0.53

0.57

0.51

Concrete Placement
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Placing concrete, lorry based pump

30.0

40.0

50.0

m3/hr

Hollorib Decking, concrete topping

85.0

100.0

120.0

m2/hr

Hollorib Decking, concrete topping, incl PowerFloat

40.0

50.0

70.0

m2/hr

Placing Concrete, By Wheelbarrow over 1-10m

2.1

2.3

2.5

m3/hr

Placing Concrete, By Wheelbarrow over 10-20m

1.5

1.8

2.1

m3/hr

Placing Concrete, By Wheelbarrow over 20-50m

0.8

1.1

1.5

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Mass Fill

2.8

3.1

3.3

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, 50mm Blinding

1.3

1.6

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Ground Beams

1.5

1.7

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Pile Caps

1.0

1.5

2.3

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Duct Walls

0.8

1.1

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Stub Columns

0.4

0.6

m3/hr

2.1

2.3

2.6

m3/hr

0.9

1.0

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Pile Caps

1.2

1.4

1.6

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Mass Fill

4.0

4.5

5.5

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Slabs under 150mm thick

0.9

1.3

1.7

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Slabs over 150mm thick

1.2

1.5

1.8

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Trough/Coffered Slabs

0.9

1.1

1.2

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Stairs and Landings

0.6

0.7

0.9

m3/hr

Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry, Ground Slab


Placing Direct From Readymix Lorry,Drains Bed and Cover

Placing From Tower Crane, Blinding

0.8

1.0

1.1

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Beams under 150mm thick

0.5

0.6

0.8

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Beams over 150mm thick

0.6

0.8

1.0

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Walls

0.6

1.1

1.5

m3/hr

Placing From Tower Crane, Columns

0.4

0.5

0.6

m3/hr

Post Tensioning Works


Post Tensioning
Concrete - Post Tensioning Sequence:
Concrete poured 1st Bay.
After 48 hrs concrete is stressed to initial strength (15 kN takes 1 day).
5 days after initial stressing, concrete is stressed to final strength (30 kN takes 1 day).

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Formwork may now be struck and adjacent bay poured.


Post Tensioning
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Lag for Initial Stress Tensioning after 1st bay cast

48.0

hrs

Lag for Final Stress Tensioning after Initial Stress

120.0

hrs

Pre-Cast Works
PRECAST CONCRETE FLOOR SYSTEMS
Plank Elements (crane handled)
Rates given in hours/plank.

Plank
ne 3m
Lengths

3-6m

ex 6m

Unload/stack at
ground level

0.016

0.019

0.022

Unload/stack
upper levels

0.021

0.024

0.028

Sling from
ground to levels

0.019

0.021

0.025

Place in position
from stack

0.120

0.150

0.180

Activity

Block Elements Rates given in hours/thousand blocks.

Block
75125ex
Thickness 125mm 200mm 200mm
Activity
Unload
By
pallets/stack forklift
on ground
By
Crane

0.90

1.02

1.20

1.20

1.26

1.38

Unload
By
pallets/stack forklift
at upper
By
levels
Crane

1.50

1.62

1.80

2.34

2.40

2.70

Sling from
ground to
levels

By
forklift

1.44

1.56

1.74

By
Crane

1.56

1.62

1.80

12.00

13.80

15.00

Place in
position from
stacks

Reinforcement
Footing Reinforcement

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Activity

Task L Barbender/Fitter
UOM (Mandays)

TASKS

Foot Rein - Placing


in Position &
Footing
Binding - Using
Mt
Reinforcement
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel

L - Helper
(Mandays)

0.28
Mandays/0.1Mt

Bars 0.38
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Bars 0.28
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Bars 0.32
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Foot Rein Straightening,


Cutting (With
Machine Cutting),
bending - Using
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel

Mt

0.2
Mandays/0.1Mt

Foot Rein Straightening,


Cutting (With
Manual Cutting),
bending - Using
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel

Mt

0.29
Mandays/0.1Mt

Binding
Wire :
5 kg/0.1Mt

Cover
Blocks 10No/0.1Mt

Reinforcement
Mesh reinforcement - to slabs = 10.5 m2/hr
Mesh reinformcement - to beams/columns = 2.5 m2/hr
Reinforcement
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 6mm

40.3

38.4

36.5

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 8mm

28.2

26.9

25.8

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 10mm

22.5

20.6

20.1

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 12mm

16.9

16.3

15.4

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 16mm

12.0

11.5

10.9

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 20mm

9.2

8.6

8.2

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 25mm

6.9

6.7

6.5

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 32mm

5.7

5.5

5.2

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 40mm

5.3

5.1

4.9

hrs/tonne

Slabs/Foundations, steelfixing, 50mm

5.2

4.9

4.6

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 6mm

55.4

52.8

50.6

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 8mm

38.8

37.0

35.1

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 10mm

29.5

28.4

26.9

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 12mm

23.4

22.4

21.9

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 16mm

16.6

15.8

15.1

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 20mm

12.4

11.9

11.3

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 25mm

9.9

9.2

8.7

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 32mm

6.8

6.6

6.2

hrs/tonne

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Page 25 of 100

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 40mm

6.1

5.9

5.6

hrs/tonne

Beams/Columns, steelfixing, 50mm

6.1

5.9

5.6

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 6mm

41.2

40.8

39.1

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 8mm

29.2

28.6

27.4

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 10mm

22.7

22.0

21.2

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 12mm

17.6

17.3

16.9

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 16mm

12.4

12.2

11.8

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 20mm

9.4

9.2

8.7

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 25mm

7.4

7.2

7.0

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 32mm

7.0

6.8

6.4

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 40mm

6.4

6.1

5.9

hrs/tonne

Walls, steelfixing, 50mm

5.3

5.1

4.8

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 6mm

48.9

48.0

45.5

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 8mm

34.4

33.6

31.9

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 10mm

26.6

25.8

24.3

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 12mm

20.9

20.4

19.5

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 16mm

14.6

14.4

13.8

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 20mm

11.3

10.8

10.5

hrs/tonne

Staircases, steelfixing, 25mm

8.6

8.4

8.2

hrs/tonne

Reinforcement Ratios
Reinforcement Ratios
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Pile Cap, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes

14.8

%
ratio

Base Slab, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes

13.2

14.1

%
ratio

Suspended Slab, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes

20.6

25.6

%
ratio

Platform Slab, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes

15.6

%
ratio

Columns, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes

15.8

18.7

28.7

%
ratio

Walls, Concrete m3 x Ratio = Rebar Tonnes

14.7

15.0

%
ratio

Binding
Wire :
5 kg/0.1Mt

Cover
Blocks 10No/0.1Mt

Staircase Reinforcement

Activity

TASKS

Staircase Rein Placing in Position


Staircase
& Binding - Using
Reinforcement
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel

Task L Barbender/Fitter
UOM (Mandays)

Mt

0.32
Mandays/0.1Mt

L - Helper
(Mandays)

Bars 0.34
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

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Page 26 of 100

Staircase Rein Straightening,


Cutting (With
Machine Cutting),
bending - Using
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel.

Staircase ReinStraightening,
Cutting (With
Manual Cutting),
bending - Using
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel.

Mt

Mt

0.2
Mandays/0.1Mt

0.29
Mandays/0.1Mt

0.28
Bars Mandays/0.1Mt Include
5%
Wastage

Bars 0.32
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Walls Reinforcement

Activity

TASKS

Walls Rein Placing in Position


Walls
& Binding - Using
Reinforcement
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel

Task L Barbender/Fitter
UOM (Mandays)

L - Helper
(Mandays)

Mt

0.41
Mandays/0.1Mt

Bars 0.45
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Walls Rein Straightening,


Cutting (With
Machine Cutting),
bending - Using
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel.

Mt

0.2
Mandays/0.1Mt

Bars 0.28
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Walls Rein Straightening,


Cutting (With
Manual Cutting),
bending - Using
TMT Bars, Mild
Steel, Tor Steel.

Mt

0.39
Mandays/0.1Mt

Bars 0.43
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Mt

0.47
Mandays/0.1Mt

Bars 0.5
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Mt

0.55
Mandays/0.1Mt

Bars 0.57
Include
Mandays/0.1Mt 5%
Wastage

Walls Rein Stirrups Cutting


and Bending

Walls Rein Stirrups Teing

Binding
Wire :
5 kg/0.1Mt

Cover
Blocks 10No/0.1Mt

Decking

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Decking
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

7.1

Simple Universal Beam Steel Bridge, concrete bridge deck, grano


cover

Units

m/day

Demolition & Break Out


Breaking Out & Openings
Breaking Out
Concrete And Remove (hrs/m3)

Slabs - unreinforced

Slabs - reinforced

Walls - unreinforced

Depth

Hand Machine

Ne 50 mm

2.35

1.96

50 - 100 mm

3.15

2.46

100 - 200 mm 3.75

3.94

200 - 300 mm 4.12

5.55

Ne 50 mm

4.71

3.92

50 - 100 mm

5.52

4.32

100 - 200 mm 5.88

4.71

200 - 300 mm 6.12

9.09

all walls

3.04

4.71

Walls - reinforced

all walls

5.52

3.92

Beams - reinforced

all sizes

7.50

5.89

Columns - reinforced

all sizes

9.20

7.30

Foundations - unreinforced all sizes

3.60

3.00

Foundations - reinforced

5.40

4.80

all sizes

Breaking Out Tarmac


Rates include for breaking out and removal of rubble (hrs/m3).

Pavings

Depth

Hand Machine

Ne 50 mm

1.96

1.56

50-100 mm

2.08

1.64

100-150 mm 2.17

1.75

Roadways upto 150 mm

3.57

Breaking Out Brickwork


Rates include for breaking out and removal of rubble (hrs/m3).
Depth

Hand Machine

Walls/columns Ne 100 mm 2.40

1.38

exc 100 mm 2.75

1.57

all sizes

1.57

Foundation

2.75

Breaking Diaphragm Wall

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Page 28 of 100

Breaking Openings using coring machine 0.2m3/hour


Breaking out to expose couplers using hand held braker 1.75m2/day ot 2.5m run/day (0.7m slab)

Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete Slabs, unreinforced 50-150mm

3.2

1.9

hrs/m3

Concrete Slabs, unreinforced 150-300mm

5.5

4.1

3.7

hrs/m3

Concrete Slabs, reinforced 50-150mm

5.2

3.9

hrs/m3

Concrete Slabs, reinforced 150-300mm

9.1

6.2

4.7

hrs/m3

Concrete Walls, unreinforced

4.7

3.9

3.1

hrs/m3

Concrete Walls, reinforced

5.6

4.7

3.9

hrs/m3

Concrete Foundations, unreinforced

3.6

3.3

3.0

hrs/m3

Concrete Foundations, reinforced

5.4

5.1

4.8

hrs/m3

Concrete Beams

7.5

6.5

5.6

hrs/m3

Concrete Columns

9.2

8.2

7.3

hrs/m3

Tarmac paving 20-50mm thick

1.9

1.7

1.5

hrs/m3

Tarmac paving 50-100mm thick

2.1

1.6

hrs/m3

Tarmac paving 100-150mm thick

2.1

1.7

hrs/m3

Tarmac roadway 150mm thick

3.6

hrs/m3

Brickwork, walls and columns

2.4

1.8

1.3

hrs/m3

Brickwork, foundations

2.7

2.1

1.5

hrs/m3

Cutting Holes
Cutting Holes in concrete by Hand (no/hr

Hole depth (mm) --> 0-75 75-125 125-250 250-375 375-500

Ne 50 cm2

2.94 1.85

1.75

50-100 cm2

2.22 1.39

1.32

100-150 cm2

1.67 1.11

1.05

250-500 cm2

1.28 0.88

0.83

Cutting Holes in concrete by Machine (no/hr)

Hole depth (mm) --> 0-75 75-125 125-250 250-375 375-500

Ne 50 cm2

5.88

5.00

4.55

50-100 cm2

4.00

3.45

3.03

100-150 cm2

2.50

2.17

1.92

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Page 29 of 100

150-250 cm2

1.67

1.45

1.28

250-500 cm2

Common Brickwork
Common Brickwork, by Machine (no/hr)
Hole depth (mm) --> 0-75 75-125 125-250 250-375 375-500
Ne 100 cm2

16.6

7.69

5.26

4.00

100-250 cm2

12.5

5.88

4.00

2.94

250-500 cm2

10.0

5.00

3.33

2.50

500-100 cm2

8.33

4.17

2.78

2.08

Common Brickwork, by Hand (no/hr)


Hole depth (mm) --> 0-75 75-125 125-250 250-375 375-500
Ne 100 cm2

11.1 8.33

5.56

3.85

100-250 cm2

9.09 7.14

4.55

3.23

250-500 cm2

7.69 5.88

3.85

2.70

500-100 cm2

6.67 4.76

3.23

2.27

Cutting Back
Cutting Back Concrete
Cutting Piles For Pile Caps, Using Breaker & Air Tools
Providing A Rough Finish (hrs/pile)

Pile Diameter-->

0.35m 0.5m 0.6m 0.79m 0.94m 1.1m 2.2m

0 - 100mm high

0.32

0.44 0.63 0.93

1.38

1.74

8.10

100-200mm high

0.39

0.56 0.81 1.22

1.83

2.16

8.58

200-300mm high

0.44

0.64 0.94 1.45

1.92

2.34

9.00

300-500mm high

0.49

0.72 1.07 1.65

2.10

2.50

9.50

500-750mm high

0.68

1.02 1.54 2.16

2.55

2.55 10.01

750-1000mm high 0.83

1.32 1.78 2.36

3.37

4.20 10.52

Providing A Neat Finish (hrs/pile)

Pile Diameter-->

0.35m 0.5m 0.6m 0.79m 0.94m 1.1m 2.2m

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0 - 100 mm high

0.63 0.90 1.32

1.93

2.25

9.72

100-200 mm high

0.76 1.11 1.65

2.39

2.81 10.29

200-300 mm high

0.85 1.25 1.93

2.49

3.04 10.85

300-500 mm high

1.05 1.59 2.38

2.73

3.25 11.40

500-750 mm high

1.41 2.13 2.97

3.45

4.30 12.01

750-1000mm high -

2.07 2.79 3.72

4.38

5.43 12.62

Cut Concrete Slabs


Using Trolley Type Clipper Saw (m/hr)

Ne 25 mm deep 15.2

25-50 mm deep 11.5

50-75 mm deep 6.67

Cutting Back
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete Pile Caps, 50-300mm deep and 0.6m dia

0.6

0.3

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, 300-750mm deep and 0.6m dia

1.5

0.4

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, > 750mm deep and 0.6m dia

1.8

0.8

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, 50-300mm deep and 1.1m dia

1.9

0.8

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, 300-750mm deep and 1.1m dia

2.5

1.1

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, > 750mm deep and 1.1m dia

4.2

2.3

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, 50-300mm deep and 2.5m dia

9.2

8.2

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, 300-750mm deep and 2.5m dia

10.1

9.5

hrs/no

Concrete Pile Caps, > 750mm deep and 2.5m dia

11.5

10.2

hrs/no

Concrete, Cutting Slabs, 5-25m deep

15.2

m/hr

Concrete, Cutting Slabs, 25-50m deep

11.5

m/hr

Concrete, Cutting Slabs, 50-75m deep

6.7

m/hr

Concrete, Cutting Holes, coring machine

0.2

m3/hr

Concrete, Cutting Back to expose couplers 0.7m slab

2.5

m/day

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete, cutting by hand, < 25mm wide

1.5

2.1

3.1

m/hr

Concrete, cutting by hand, 25-50mm wide

1.2

1.6

2.5

m/hr

Cutting Chases
Cutting Chases
Task / Description

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Page 31 of 100

Concrete, cutting by hand, 50-75mm wide

1.0

1.4

2.1

m/hr

Concrete, cutting by hand, 75-100mm wide

0.9

1.2

1.8

m/hr

Concrete, cutting by machine, < 25mm wide

3.1

4.0

5.8

m/hr

Concrete, cutting by machine, 25-50mm wide

2.5

3.3

5.0

m/hr

Concrete, cutting by machine, 50-75mm wide

2.1

2.9

4.2

m/hr

Concrete, cutting by machine, 75-100mm wide

1.8

2.4

3.7

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by hand, < 25mm wide

2.1

2.7

4.1

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by hand, 25-50mm wide

1.6

2.3

3.5

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by hand, 50-75mm wide

1.4

1.9

2.8

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by hand, 75-100mm wide

1.2

1.6

2.5

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by machine, < 25mm wide

4.2

5.5

11.1

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by machine, 25-50mm wide

3.3

4.5

6.7

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by machine, 50-75mm wide

3.3

4.5

6.7

m/hr

Brickwork, cutting by machine, 75-100mm wide

2.5

3.3

5.0

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by hand, < 25mm wide

3.8

5.0

7.7

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by hand, 25-50mm wide

3.2

4.2

6.3

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by hand, 50-75mm wide

2.6

3.4

5.3

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by hand, 75-100mm wide

2.3

3.1

4.5

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by machine, < 25mm wide

7.7

10.0

14.2

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by machine, 25-50mm wide

5.9

7.7

11.1

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by machine, 50-75mm wide

5.2

7.2

10.0

m/hr

Light Blockwork, cutting by machine, 75-100mm wide

4.7

6.3

9.1

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by hand, < 25mm wide

1.9

2.6

3.8

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by hand, 25-50mm wide

1.6

2.1

3.2

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by hand, 50-75mm wide

1.3

1.8

2.7

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by hand, 75-100mm wide

1.2

1.5

2.3

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by machine, < 25mm wide

3.8

5.0

7.7

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by machine, 25-50mm wide

3.2

4.2

6.2

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by machine, 50-75mm wide

2.7

3.6

5.2

m/hr

Heavy Blockwork, cutting by machine, 75-100mm wide

2.3

3.1

4.5

m/hr

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Cutting in Concrete, small box

7.1

9.5

12.5

no/hr

Cutting in Concrete, large box

3.6

4.5

5.6

no/hr

Cutting in Brickwork, small box

6.6

9.5

12.5

no/hr

Cutting in Brickwork, large box

4.2

5.3

6.3

no/hr

Cutting in Lightweight Blockwork, small box

20.0

23.0

25.0

no/hr

Cutting in Lightweight Blockwork, large box

10.0

12.5

14.3

no/hr

Cutting in Heavyweight Blockwork, small box

7.7

10.0

12.5

no/hr

Cutting in Heavyweight Blockwork, large box

3.8

4.8

5.9

no/hr

Cutting Switchboxes
Cutting Switchboxes
Task / Description

Housing Demolitions
Demolition

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Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

2.5

Remove & Cart away, Ceramic Wall Tiles

2.0

2.5

3.4

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Wallpaper, 1 layer

8.7

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Wallpaper, 2 layers

7.1

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Wallpaper, 3 layers

5.7

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Lathe and Plaster Ceilings

3.2

4.6

5.0

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Plaster to Walls

2.1

3.1

5.9

m2/hr

Weight, Structural Steel

Units
Tonnes/m3

Remove & Cart away, External Render

3.9

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Floor Screed

3.2

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Concrete Paving

4.0

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Brickwork Walls, 1.0 brick thick

1.3

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Brickwork Walls, 0.5 brick thick

2.6

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Brickwork Walls, Sand/Lime Mortar

1.8

hrs/100

Remove & Cart away, Fireplace and Hearth

1.9

hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Floor Boards

6.2

m2/hr

Remove & Cart away, Skirting, Architrave, Dado rail etc

16.5

m/hr

Remove & Cart away, Staircase

7.3

hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Windows, 0-1m2

0.6

hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Windows 1-2m2

0.8

hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Windows 2-3m2

0.9

hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Doors

0.3

hrs/on

Remove & Cart away, Door Frame

0.1

hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Floor and Ceiling Joists

1.1

hrs/m

Remove & Cart away, Wall Plates

3.9

hrs/m

Remove & Cart away, Iron Bath

1.4

/hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Wash Basin/Sink

0.8

/hrs/no

Remove & Cart away, Pipework including brackets etc

6.1

m/hr

Removal of Housing Finishes


HACKING OFF/ REMOVE MATERIALS
Removal of Housing Finishes

Ceramic wall
tiles
Wallpaper

All rates in m2/hr, unless otherwise indicated. Remove and cart away.

2.50
-1 layer

8.70

-2 layers

7.05

-3 layers

5.75

Lathe &
Plaster
ceilings

4.55

Plaster to
walls

3.05

External
render

3.90

Floor screed

3.05

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Concrete
paving
Brickwalls London
Stocks

4.00
x 1 brick

1.35

- Londond
Stocks x
0.5 bricks

2.65

Sand/Lime
mortar

1.80 hrs/100

Fireplace and
metal hearth

1.90 hrs/no

Floor Boards

6.20

Architrave,
dado, skirting
etc

16.50 m/hr

Staircase
Windows

7.35 hrs/no
2

0.65 hrs/no

1 - 2 m2

0.80 hrs/no

2 - 3 m2

0.91 hrs/no

0-1m

Doors

0.25 hrs/no

Door frame

0.10 hrs/no

Floor &
Ceiling Joists

1.09 hrs/m

Wall plate

3.90 hrs/m

Bath

1.45 hrs/no

Basin

0.85 hrs/no

Pipework, incl
brackets etc

6.15 m/hr

Drainage, Manholes and Gulleys


Manholes and Gulleys
Slow

Ave

Fast

Concrete Pre-Cast Manhole Units, 610 x 455 x 51 mm

Task / Description

1.2

hrs/no

Concrete Pre-Cast Manhole Units, 990 x 610 x 64 mm

1.6

hrs/no

Brickwork Manhole, 1.0 brick engineering

0.3

m2/hr

Brickwork Manhole, 1.5 brick engineering

0.2

m2/hr

Brickwork Manhole, 2.0 brick engineering

0.2

m2/hr

Benching to Manhole, under 0.5m2

0.9

hrs/no

Benching to Manhole, 0.5-0.75m2

1.2

hrs/no

Benching to Manhole, 0.75-1.0m2

1.8

hrs/no

Brickwork Manhole, build in pipes, under 150mm dia

0.1

hrs/no

Brickwork Manhole, build in pipes, 150-225mm dia

0.2

hrs/no

Brickwork Manhole, build in pipes, over 225mm dia

0.3

hrs/no

0.3

0.6

1.2

hrs/no

Yard Gulleys, 75-150mm dia pipes, bed and level

2.2

no/hr

Yard Gulleys, 150-225mm dia pipes, bed and level

1.8

no/hr

Yard Gulleys, 225-300mm dia pipes, bed and level

1.5

no/hr

Brickwork Manhole, build in cast iron covers

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Units

11/3/2014

Page 34 of 100

Road Gulleys, 600mm deep, bed and level

1.2

no/hr

Road Gulleys, 750mm deep, bed and level

0.8

no/hr

Road Gulleys, 900mm deep, bed and level

0.4

no/hr

Road Gulleys, 1,200mm deep, bed and level

0.3

no/hr

Road Gulleys, install gratings

5.0

no/hr

PVC Manhole

15.0

mins/no

Land Drains
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, under 150mm dia, 0-5m run

11.6

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, under 150mm dia, 5-30m run

14.1

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, under 150mm dia, over 30m run

18.8

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 150-225mm dia, 0-5m run

8.4

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 150-225mm dia, 5-30m run

10.2

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 150-225mm dia, over 30m run

11.9

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 225-300mm dia, 0-5m run

5.4

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 225-300mm dia, 5-30m run

6.5

m/hr

Land Drains, Concrete, butt jointed, 225-300mm dia, over 30m run

7.9

m/hr

Drainage
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

PVC Drainage, 1m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 0-5m run

5.7

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 1m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 5-30m run

8.1

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 1m pipes, 100-150mm dia, over 30m run

9.5

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 0-5m run

12.2

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 5-30m run

15.2

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 100-150mm dia, over 30m run

18.2

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 0-5m run

22.2

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 100-150mm dia, 5-30m run

27.7

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 100-150mm dia, over 30m run

33.3

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 150-200mm dia, 5-30m run

10.6

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 3m pipes, 150-200mm dia, over 30m run

12.8

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 150-200mm dia, 5-30m run

21.2

m/hr

PVC Drainage, 6m pipes, 150-200mm dia, over 30m run

25.6

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 75mm dia, 0-5m run

4.7

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 75mm dia, 5-30m run

5.5

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 75mm dia, over 30m run

6.6

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 100mm dia, 0-5m run

4.4

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 100mm dia, 5-30m run

5.0

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 100mm dia, over 30m


run

6.2

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 150mm dia, 0-5m run

3.2

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 150mm dia, 5-30m run

3.8

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 150mm dia, over 30m


run

4.5

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 225mm dia, 0-5m run

2.1

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 225mm dia, 5-30m run

2.6

m/hr

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11/3/2014

Page 35 of 100

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 225mm dia, over 30m


run

3.1

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 300mm dia, 0-5m run

1.4

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 300mm dia, 5-30m run

1.7

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, 300mm dia, over 30m


run

2.4

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, over 375mm dia, 0-5m


run

1.1

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, over 375mm dia, 5-30m


run

1.3

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Cement/Sand Joints, over 375mm dia, over


30m run

1.6

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 75mm dia, 0-5m run

8.3

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 75mm dia, 5-30m run

10.0

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 75mm dia, over 30m run

12.5

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 100mm dia, 0-5m run

7.7

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 100mm dia, 5-30m run

9.1

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 100mm dia, over 30m run

10.0

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 150mm dia, 0-5m run

5.2

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 150mm dia, 5-30m run

6.2

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 150mm dia, over 30m run

7.7

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 225mm dia, 0-5m run

2.7

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 225mm dia, 5-30m run

3.3

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 225mm dia, over 30m run

4.0

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 300mm dia, 0-5m run

1.7

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 300mm dia, 5-30m run

2.1

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, 300mm dia, over 30m run

2.5

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, over 375mm dia, 0-5m run

1.4

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, over 375mm dia, 5-30m run

1.6

m/hr

Stoneware Drainage, Flexible Joints, over 375mm dia, over 30m


run

2.1

m/hr

PVC, Stoneware, Pitch Fibre & Concrete Joints

2.4

mins/no

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 75mm dia, 0-5m run

9.1

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 75mm dia, 5-30m run

16.6

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 75mm dia, over 30m run

20.0

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 100mm dia, 0-5m run

9.1

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 100mm dia, 5-30m run

16.6

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 100mm dia, over 30m run

20.0

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 150mm dia, 0-5m run

6.6

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 150mm dia, 5-30m run

12.5

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 150mm dia, over 30m run

14.3

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 200mm dia, 0-5m run

6.2

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 200mm dia, 5-30m run

11.1

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 200mm dia, over 30m run

12.5

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 225mm dia, 0-5m run

5.8

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 225mm dia, 5-30m run

10.0

m/hr

Pitch Fibre Pipes, 225mm dia, over 30m run

12.1

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 75mm dia, 0-5m run

12.5

m/hr

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11/3/2014

Page 36 of 100

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 75mm dia, 5-30m run

14.3

m/hr

11.2

16.6

30.1

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 100mm dia, 0-5m run

10.0

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 100mm dia, 5-30m run

12.5

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 100mm dia, over 30m run

14.3

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 150mm dia, 0-5m run

7.1

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 150mm dia, 5-30m run

9.1

m/hr

8.3

10.0

13.8

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 225mm dia, 0-5m run

6.8

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 225mm dia, 5-30m run

4.5

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 225mm dia, over 30m run

5.5

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 300mm dia, 0-5m run

2.5

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 300mm dia, 5-30m run

2.9

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 300mm dia, over 30m run

3.7

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, over 375mm dia, 0-5m run

1.9

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, over 375mm dia, 5-30m run

2.3

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, over 375mm dia, over 30m run

2.7

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 0-5m run

2.8

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 5-30m run

3.4

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 375mm dia, over 30m run

3.8

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 0-5m run

2.7

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 5-30m run

3.2

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 450mm dia, over 30m run

3.6

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 0-5m run

2.5

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 5-30m run

2.9

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 525mm dia, over 30m run

3.4

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 0-5m run

2.4

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 5-30m run

2.7

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 600mm dia, over 30m run

3.3

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 0-5m run

2.2

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 5-30m run

2.6

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 675mm dia, over 30m run

2.9

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 0-5m run

1.1

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 5-30m run

2.4

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 750mm dia, over 30m run

2.5

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 1,050mm dia

2.9

4.2

m/day

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 1,500mm dia

2.5

3.8

m/day

Concrete Pipes, 1.5m pipes, 1,800mm dia

2.1

2.6

m/day

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 0-5m run

3.6

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 375mm dia, 5-30m run

4.3

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 375mm dia, over 30m run

5.0

8.0

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 0-5m run

3.4

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 450mm dia, 5-30m run

4.1

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 450mm dia, over 30m run

4.5

9.0

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 0-5m run

3.3

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 525mm dia, 5-30m run

3.8

m/hr

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 75mm dia, over 30m run

Hepsleve Rubber Joint System, 150mm dia, over 30m run

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11/3/2014

Page 37 of 100

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 525mm dia, over 30m run

4.1

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 0-5m run

3.0

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 600mm dia, 5-30m run

3.5

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 600mm dia, over 30m run

4.0

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 0-5m run

2.8

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 675mm dia, 5-30m run

3.3

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 675mm dia, over 30m run

3.7

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 0-5m run

2.6

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 750mm dia, 5-30m run

3.1

m/hr

Concrete Pipes, 2.5m pipes, 750mm dia, over 30m run

3.6

m/hr

Lay Shingle Around Pipework, under 150mm dia

7.0

m/hr

Lay Shingle Around Pipework, over 150mm dia

4.0

5.5

9.0

m/hr

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil - Basement Works

6.4

8.0

9.4

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds - Basement Works

5.5

6.9

8.1

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk - Basement Works

5.2

6.5

7.9

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground - Basement Works

4.7

5.9

8.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil - Basement Works

12.6

15.4

18.9

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds - Basement Works

11.7

14.3

16.7

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk - Basement Works

10.9

13.3

15.6

m3/hr

9.7

11.8

14.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil - Basement Works

18.2

20.0

23.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds - Basement Works

16.5

18.1

20.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk - Basement Works

15.4

16.7

19.3

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground - Basement Works

13.3

15.4

17.7

m3/hr

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

14.5

20.0

25.6

m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

15.2

20.4

25.6

m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

12.3

18.5

23.2

m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 0.6m3 bucket, Boulder Clay

11.2

16.9

21.3

m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

25.4

30.3

35.7

m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

25.6

31.3

37.0

m3/hr

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

22.5

27.8

33.3

m3/hr

Earthworks & Excavation


Basement Excavations
Basement Excavation
Basement Excavation
Task / Description

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground - Basement Works

Excavate and Remove


Excavate and Remove
Task / Description

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Page 38 of 100

Excavate Spoil Heaps to Transport, 1.1m3 bucket, Boulder Clay

18.9

24.4

30.3

m3/hr

Load Spoil to Barge, capacity 2,000m3

8.0

hrs

Load Spoil to Barge, capacity 1,500m3

6.5

hrs

Load Spoil to Barge, capacity 1,000m3

5.5

hrs

Spoil conveyor, 600mm belt, 150m/min

260.0

m3/hr

Bell Ground Anchors


Bell Ground Anchors
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Uncased Anchors, 10m long

2.0

no/day

Top Cased Anchors, 15m long

1.0

no/day

Anchors stressing

2.2

no/day

Bored Piling
Bored Piling
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Cycle Time, 5-20m deep

8.0

4.0

4.0

days/no

Cycle Time, 20-40m deep

10.0

8.0

days/no

Cycle Time, 40-70m deep

25.0

10.0

days/no

Cycle Time, 70-90m deep

45.0

25.0

days/no

Cycle Time, 90-135m deep

60.0

45.0

days/no

Move piling setup to next location

2.0

hrs

Excave shaft by grab, general fill/uppr levels

3.5

m/hr

Excave shaft by grab, sand/minor rubble

2.1

m/hr

Excave shaft by grab, marinve/aluvium

2.5

m/hr

Excave shaft by grab/RCD, CDT

0.5

m/hr

Excave shaft by grab/RCD, CDG <150

1.5

m/hr

Excave shaft by RCD, CDG 150-200

1.0

m/hr

Excave shaft by RCD, CDG >200/gravel

0.5

m/hr

Excave shaft by RCD/Chisel, corestones

0.5

m/hr

Excave Rock Socket by RCD, grade IV/V rock

0.2

0.3

m/hr

Excave Rock Socket by RCD, grade II/III rock

0.1

0.2

m/hr

Excave Rock Socket by RCD, tendering rate

0.1

m/hr

Add/remove RCD plant

2.0

hrs

Add/remove RCD drill string/drill bit

5.0

hrs

Remove Obstruction, above water hand hammers

0.8

m/hr

Remove Obstruction, below water heavy chisel

0.5

m/hr

60.0

53.0

50.0

hrs

Install air lift tremmie tube

5.0

hrs

Fabricate reinforcement cages

2.5

hs/cage

Install reinforcement cages

2.0

hrs/no

Shaft cleaning, air lifting after excavation

8.0

hrs

Shaft cleaning, air lifting after cage installed

2.0

hrs

Concrete Plug, RCD off/tremmie/concrete/cure/RCD on

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Units

11/3/2014

Page 39 of 100

Shaft concreting/extract casing 5-70m deep

12.0

hrs

Shaft concreting/extract casing 70-95m deep

14.0

hrs

Shaft concreting/extract casing 95-135m deep

48.0

hrs

Concrete curing prior to remove telescopic casing

72.0

hrs

Concrete Testing, Coring Test

3.2

2.2

Concrete Testing, Sonic Logging Test

2.5

hrs/no

Concrete Testing, Vibration Test

6.5

hrs/no

m/hr

Bulk Excavation
Bulk Excavation
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Excavation Bulking Factor, Sand/Soil

15.0

20.0

Excavation Bulking Factor, Gravel

33.0

Excavation Bulking Factor, Clay/Chalk

40.0

Excavation Bulking Factor, Boulder Clay

45.0

Excavation Bulking Factor, Rock

60.0

Spoil Weight, Rock

2.5

Tonnes/m3

Spoil Weight, Concrete

2.4

Tonnes/m3

Spoil Weight, Landfill/CDG

1.9

Tonnes/m3

Spoil Weight, Sand

1.8

Tonnes/m3

Rail Mounted Grab, 2.0m3 bucket 2.4min lift cycle

30.0

48.0

59.0

m3/hr

Crane Mounted Clamshell Grab, 2.0m3 bucket 2.9min lift cycle

25.0

33.0

41.0

m3/hr

Crane Mounted Clamshell Grab, 2.5m3 bucket 2.9min lift cycle

34.0

42.0

52.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

6.9

8.7

10.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

23.4

28.6

33.4

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

45.5

50.0

58.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

5.6

7.1

8.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

20.5

25.0

29.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

36.8

40.0

46.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

5.6

7.1

8.3

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

20.5

25.0

28.7

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

37.0

40.0

46.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground

4.5

6.1

7.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground

17.9

22.2

25.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground

25.7

28.6

32.9

m3/hr

Dewatering
Cofferdam Works
Soil Mix Wall Three auger machine drilling and mixing cement into three cores. H-piles dropped into two, then machine
moves along by two holes.
An average output was 4 - 5 m/day.

Dewatering

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Page 40 of 100

To setup a cofferdam dewatering system, including boring, pump installation and outflow pipework and drainage tanks
etc, typical rates are...
Small 2 hole system, for an overrun tunnel, with a single drilling rig takes about 7 - 10 days to get up and running.
A larger system, with 10 - 15 holes, for a station type cofferdam will take in the region of 3 weeks with 2 rigs. This
can be speeded up with the use of more rigs to reduce the well boring times.
A typical rate of 2.5 days per pump installation can be used to calculate detailed pumping arrangements. The water level
can be dropped in a "closed cofferdam" within a 6 to 8 hour period for a 25,000 m2 cofferdam with a 2 m water level
reduction. For smaller closed areas it will take only a few hours at most to reduce the water level by 2.5 - 3 metres.
Recharge System - Average well depth of say 55 m deep, not into rock, 9 wells in 10 days or 1.11 days/no with an
additional 4 - 5 days to connect pipework and recharge backup tanks etc.
Dewatering
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

10.0

8.0

6.0

days

Setup large 15 hole system

21.0

days

Calculate system times per pump

2.5

days/pump

Setup Recharge System

3.5

days/pump

Setup small 2 hole system

Excavate & Reduce Levels


Excavate By Hand
Trenches (m3/hr)

Depth in
Metres->

Ne 1.5

1.5-3.0

3.0-4.5

Sand/Soil
lose

0.66

0.45

0.33

Sand/Soil firm 0.57

0.38

0.28

Gravel

0.45

0.31

0.23

Clay/Heavy
Soil

0.46

0.31

0.24

Boulder Clay

0.38

0.26

0.19

Pits or Bases Ne 2 m (m /hr)


Depth in
Metres->

Ne 1.5

1.5-3.0

3.0-4.5

Sand/Soil
lose

0.5

0.33

Sand/Soil firm 0.43

0.29

Gravel

0.34

0.23

Clay/Heavy
Soil

0.35

0.24

Boulder Clay

0.28

0.19

Hand Transportation of Spoil (m3/hr)


Wheel
0 - 10 m

6.25

10 - 20 m

3.23

20 - 50 m

2.13

Trim Excavation (m3/hr)


Ave Thickness

Sand

Gravel

Clay

Boulders

0 - 25 mm

20.00

16.67

20.00

14.29

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25 - 50 mm

11.11

8.33

9.09

7.69

50 - 75 mm

7.69

5.88

6.25

5.00

75 - 125 mm

5.56

4.35

4.55

3.70

Excavate & Spread and Level


Small Scale Spread and Level By Hand
Including load and wheel an average of 20 m from tipped heap (m3/hr)
Layers ->

n.e.25mm 2575mm

75.200mm Exc.200mm

n.e. 200 m2

1.03

1.03

1.12

1.23

exc. 200 m2

1.37

1.37

1.49

1.64

n.e. 200 m2

0.86

0.93

1.03

exc. 200 m2

1.14

1.23

1.37

n.e. 200 m2

0.85

1.02

1.27

exc. 200 m2

1.02

1.27

1.69

Sand/Soil

Gravel/Shingle

Hardcore

Spread and Level By Crawler Shovel Rates in (m3/hr)


0.6m3

0.8m3

1.0m3

1.2m3

n.e. 200 m2

18.67

38.46

43.48

52.63

exc. 200 m2

24.39

50.00

55.56

66.67

n.e. 200 m2

18.87

38.46

43.48

52.63

exc. 200 m2

24.39

50.00

55.56

66.67

n.e. 200 m2

15.87

31.25

37.04

43.48

19.23

40.00

47.62

55.56

n.e. 200 m2

17.24

35.71

43.48

47.62

exc. 200 m2

22.22

45.45

55.56

62.50

Machine Bucket->
Sand/Soil

Gravel/Shingle

Hardcore

exc. 200 m
Clay

Note:
n.e means "not exceeding"

Excavation Works
Excavate & Load
Excavate Spoil Heaps and Load to Transport (m3/hr):

Material

0.6 m3

0.8 m3

1.0 m3

1.2 m3

Sand/Soil

20.0

25.6

30.3

35.7

Gravel

20.4

25.6

31.3

37.0

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Clay/Chalk

18.5

23.2

27.8

33.3

Boulder Clay 16.9

21.3

24.4

30.3

Note:
0.6m3, 0.8m3, 1.0m3 and 1.2m3 are excavator bucket capacity.
20.0, 25.6, 30.3 and 35.7 etc are excavation rates in m3 / hr

Excavate By Crawler Shovel.


Including excavate and bank/stock pile (m3/hr)
Sand/Soil

Machine
Bucket ->
0.6m3

0.8m3

1.0m3

1.2m3

Pushed
n.e.20 m

20.00

25.00

30.30

35.71

Pushed 20 50 m

13.89

20.41

23.81

27.78

Pushed 50 125 m

7.63

12.66

16.67

20.41

20.40

25.64

31.25

37.04

Pushed 20 - 14.29
50 m

20.83

25.00

28.57

Pushed 50 100 m

12.82

17.24

21.28

18.52

23.26

27.78

33.33

Pushed 20 - 12.66
50 m

18.52

21.74

25.64

Pushed 50 100 m

11.63

15.15

18.87

16.95

21.28

24.39

30.30

Pushed 20 - 11.63
50 m

16.95

19.61

23.26

Pushed 50 100 m

10.42

13.70

17.54

Gravel

Pushed n.e.
20 m

7.69

Clay/Chalk/Heavy Soil
Pushed n.e.
20 m

6.99

Boulder Clay
Pushed n.e.
20 m

6.33

Including excavate and load to transport (m3/hr)


Machine
Bucket ->

0.6m3

0.8m3

1.0m3

1.2m3

Sand/Soil

17.86

23.26

27.03

30.30

Gravel

16.67

23.26

27.78

31.25

Chalk/Heavy
Soil

14.71

21.74

25.00

29.41

Boulder Clay

13.70

19.61

22.22

27.03

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Ground Excavation
Ground Excavation Rates (m3/hr):
Ground Type

Bucket

Bulk Works

Basements

Trenches

Small & Deep

Sand/Soil

0.3m3

8.7

8.0

7.1

8.4>

0.4m3

28.5

15.4

25.0

10.0

0.5m3

50.0

20.0

28.6

13.3

0.3m3

7.1

6.9

6.1

4.5

0.4m3

25.9

14.3

22.2

8.7

0.5m3

40.0

18.1

28.6

11.1

0.3m3

7.1

6.5

6.1

4.1

Gravel

Clay/Chalk

V.Difficult

0.4m3

25.0

13.3

22.2

8.3

0.5m3

40.0

16.7

28.6

10.5

0.3m3

6.1

5.9

5.4

4.1

0.4m3

22.2

11.8

20.0

7.7

0.5m3

28.6

11.8

20.0

6.7

Small or Deep Excavations


Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

6.7

8.4

9.9

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

3.2

4.5

5.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

3.3

4.1

5.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground

3.3

4.1

5.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

8.2

10.0

11.7

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

7.1

8.7

10.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

6.5

8.3

9.4

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground

6.3

7.7

9.1

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

12.2

13.3

15.4

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

10.2

11.1

12.9

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

9.7

10.5

12.1

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground

6.1

6.7

7.7

m3/hr

Material Weights
Wagon sizes and tonnage capacities vary and should be taken into consideration.

Rock = 2.5 T/m3


Concrete = 2.4 T/m3
Landfill / CDG = 1.9 T/m3
Sand = 1.8 T/m3

Spoil By Barge
Removal / Transportation Of Spoil By Barge:
The size, getting material to the facility, location and movement restrictions of the barge loading facilities are critical to
production. A 2,000 m3 flat bottom barge, could easily be loaded 1.5 times per day, with a planned allowance of 2 no
movements per day for example...
1,000 m3 barge, filled in 9.5 hrs = 2 movements/day
1,500 m3 barge, filled in 6.5 hrs = 3.5 movements/day

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Spoil By Conveyor
Removal / Transportation Of Spoil By Conveyor: The size and location of the conveyor are critical to production and
should be sized according to the most critical peaks in excavation.
There are the following parameters to select...
Max excavation per hour

185 m3/hr

Assume belt size

600 mm

Assume conveyor trough angle 20 degrees


From the above you read off specific parameters from the suppliers table...
Recommended belt speed

150 m/min

Angle of repose for dry sand 35 degrees


Angle of surcharge

20 degrees

You must then read off, from the manufacturers tables the conveyor capacity...
Cross-sectional area of load

0.02979 m2

At a speed of 150 m/min gives 268 m3/hr


Assume a bulking factor for excavated sane = 15%, and assume 50 minutes work per hour to allow for blockages
and maintenance etc...
268 x 85% x 50/60 = 190 so therefore capacity of conveyor = 190 m3 per hour = OK.
Hong Kong Airport Express Station conveyor was capable of 11,500 m3/week.

Ground Compaction
Compact & Consolidate
Compact & Consolidate using Vibratory Roller or compactor.

Sand 31.25 m2/hr


Soil 58.82 m2/hr
Clay 55.56 m2/hr
Hardcore 38.46 m2/hr
Ash 57.85 m2/hr

Deep Compaction
Essentially required in order to reduce expected ground settlement and to protect underground utilities / structures etc.
Deep compaction by 350 mm dia Vibroflot, 3 m centres in sand.
Working on 12 hour basis, a vibroflot will achieve an output of 3-4,000 m3/shift (5,000 m3/day has been achieved in
an extended shift).
Ground Compaction
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

330.0

380.0

465.0

m3/hr

28.5

31.2

45.2

m2/hr

Vibro-Roller, Soil

58.8

m2/hr

Vibro-Roller, Clay

55.6

m2/hr

Vibro-Roller, Hardcore

38.4

m2/hr

Vibro-Roller, Ash

57.8

m2/hr

Deep Vibroflot, 3m centres


Vibro-Roller, Sand

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Hand Fill & Compact


Loose from side of excavation, including compaction (m3/hr)...
Material

Ne 100m

100-200mm

200-300mm

exc 300m

Loose Sand/Soil

0.85

1.02

1.28

1.69

Clay/Heavy Chalk 0.77

0.92

1.16

1.56

Hoging

0.81

0.97

1.20

1.61

Hardcode

0.71

0.84

1.06

1.41

Ground Monitoring
Reclamation & Filling
Spread & Leveling
Spread and Level
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

13.9

20.4

25.0

m3/hr

7.6

9.5

12.6

m3/hr

14.2

20.4

25.6

m3/hr

7.6

10.2

12.8

m3/hr

12.7

18.4

23.2

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 50-120m to


stockpile

6.9

8.9

11.6

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 5-50m to


stockpile

11.6

16.9

21.3

m3/hr

6.3

8.2

10.4

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 5-50m to stockpile

23.8

28.5

35.7

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 50-120m to


stockpile

16.7

18.5

20.4

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 5-50m to stockpile

25.0

32.0

37.0

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 50-120m to stockpile

17.2

19.3

21.2

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 5-50m to


stockpile

21.7

27.5

33.3

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 50-120m to


stockpile

15.1

16.9

18.8

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 5-50m to


stockpile

19.6

24.5

30.3

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 50-120m to


stockpile

13.7

15.9

17.5

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Sand/Soil

18.6

28.5

38.5

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Sand/Soil

24.4

37.2

50.0

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Gravel

18.9

28.6

38.4

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Gravel

24.2

37.2

50.0

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Hardcore

15.8

23.5

31.2

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Hardcore

19.2

29.6

40.0

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 5-50m to stockpile


Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Sand/Soil, pushed 50-120m to
stockpile
Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 5-50m to stockpile
Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Gravel, pushed 50-120m to stockpile
Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk, pushed 5-50m to
stockpile

Crawler Shovel, 0.8m3 bucket, Boulder Clay, pushed 50-120m to


stockpile

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Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Boulder Clay

17.2

26.4

35.7

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 0.6m3 bucket, over 200m2, Boulder Clay

22.2

33.8

45.4

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Sand/Soil

43.5

48.0

52.6

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Sand/Soil

55.5

61.1

66.7

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Gravel

43.8

48.3

52.9

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Gravel

55.5

61.1

66.7

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Hardcore

37.1

40.3

43.5

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Hardcore

47.6

51.6

55.6

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, 50-200m2, Boulder Clay

43.8

45.7

47.6

m3/hr

Crawler Shovel, 1.2m3 bucket, over 200m2, Boulder Clay

55.6

59.1

62.5

m3/hr

Steel Strutting
Steel Strutting...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Horizontal heavy duty strutting

2.0

days/no

Diagonal heavy duty strutting

6.0

days/no

Trench Excavations
Trench Excavation...
Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

Task / Description

5.6

7.1

8.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

4.8

6.1

7.3

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

4.8

6.1

7.1

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.3m3 bucket, Hard Ground

9.7

5.4

6.4

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

20.5

25.0

29.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

18.2

22.2

26.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

18.2

22.2

26.0

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.4m3 bucket, Hard Ground

17.0

20.0

23.4

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Sand/Soil

26.0

28.6

33.1

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Gravel Beds

26.3

28.6

33.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Clay/Chalk

26.3

28.6

33.2

m3/hr

Hydraulic Excavator, 0.5m3 bucket, Hard Ground

22.7

25.0

28.8

m3/hr

Excavate and Board Trench, 0.5-1.5m deep, < 2.0m wide

3.3

4.5

6.8

m2/hr

Excavate and Board Trench, 1.5-3.0m deep, < 2.0m wide

3.0

4.2

6.5

m2/hr

Excavate and Board Trench, 3.0-4.5m deep, < 2.0m wide

2.7

4.0

6.0

m2/hr

Excavate and Board Trench, 0.5-1.5m deep, > 2.0m wide

6.6

7.1

8.8

m2/hr

Excavate and Board Trench, 1.5-3.0m deep, > 2.0m wide

6.2

6.7

9.2

m2/hr

Excavate and Board Trench, 3.0-4.5m deep, > 2.0m wide

5.8

6.2

10.5

m2/hr

Ground Trench Excavation Strut Rates


Ground Trench Excavation / Strut Rates (m2/hr)
Trench width not exceeding 2.0 m wide

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Trench Depth
-->

Ne1.5m

1.5-3m

3-4.5m

Single horiz
boards

Fix Strike

16.7 33.3

--

--

Double horiz
boards

Fix Strike

7.7 16.7

7.7 14.3

--

Single strut
vert boards

Fix Strike

14.3 33.3

--

--

Close
Boards,with
whaling

Fix Strike

4.5 9.1

4.2 8.3

4.0 8.0

Trench width exceeding 2.0m wide

Trench
Depth

Ne1.5m

1.5-3m

3-4.5m

Single
horiz
boards

Fix Strike

5.6 11.1

5.3 10.0

--

Double
horiz
boards

Fix Strike

7.1 14.3

7.1 14.3

--

Single strut Fix Strike


vert boards

5.9 112.5

5.6 11.1

5.3 10.0

Close
Boards,
with
whaling

7.1 14.3

6.7 1.3

6.7 12.5

Fix Strike

Traditional mass fill foundations


Includes excavation and concrete pour.
Assumes 450mm wide, average of 1.5m deep, No earthwork support, reinforcement or claymaster.
35 linear metres per day per gang.

Fencing Works
Fencing Works
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Site Hoarding, timber posts, plywood nailed to horizontal rails

1.0

1.2

m/hr

Post Erection, Timber / Metal, dig, erect, fix

3.3

4.5

no/hr

Post Erection, Concrete, dig, erect, fix

3.2

4.0

no/hr

Fence Erection, Chainlink, posts at 1.5m

4.2

m/hr

Fence Erection, Chainlink, posts at 2.0m

4.4

m/hr

Fence Erection, Chainlink, posts at 3.0m

5.5

m/hr

Fence Erection, Chestnut Pailings, posts at 1.5m

23.8

m/hr

Fence Erection, Chestnut Pailings, posts at 2.0m

33.3

m/hr

Fence Erection, Chestnut Pailings, posts at 3.0m

41.6

m/hr

Fence Erection, Barbed Wire, posts at 1.5m

71.4

m/hr

Fence Erection, Barbed Wire, posts at 2.0m

100.0

m/hr

Fence Erection, Barbed Wire, posts at 3.0m

125.0

m/hr

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Gate Erection, Chainlink on frame

4.1

no/hr

Foundation Works
Elements relating to substructures / foundations...

Barrette Piles
Barrette Piles
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

0.5

1.1

1.2

4.0

40.0

50.0

55.0

Trimming top of barrette panels

2.4

days/no

Concrete Testing, Coring Test

4.0

3.5

2.0

days/no

0.7

days/no

Rule of Thumb, overall rate by Mill


Fabricate reinforcement cages
Concreting barrette panels

Concrete Testing, Sonic Logging Test

Units
hrs/no
hrs/cage
m3/hr

Bored Piling
Pre-Drilling - Site Investigation
Pre-boring will be carried out at each location to ascertain the target founding level.
Rotary rig drilling operations incorporate the use of a steel core that is used when a core sample is required.
Another type of boreing is called Wash Bore or Percussive Bore which simply means that a bore is flushed out
and is used when no soil sample is required. Typical rates are...
Type of Strata

Plant Used

Rate (m/hr)

Top soft deposits of site fill Percussive / Rotary

10.00

Grade V/IV rock deposits

3.15

Wash Boring

Triple Tube Sampling 0.75


Grade III/II rock deposits

Rotary

0.50

Triple Tube Sampling 0.50

With a standard rig, working a 12 hour shift, a typical output rate of 66 hrs/hole/rig is possible.
As-Built Information. On Central Reclamation, Contract UA11/91, borehole drilling completed with the following
results...
1.
2.
3.
4.

Average depth of 61.15 m, total depth of 428 m


Average rock socket depth of 4.65 m
The durations ranged from 4 to 8 days
Average of 5.85 days, total duration of 41 days.

The Target Founding level


This is defined as the required socket into the bedrock, which is defined as moderately decomposed rock grade III
or better with a core recovery greater than 85% (allowable bearing capacity of 5 mPa). The continuity of the
founding rock is demonstrated by continuing the pre-bored hole a maximum of 5 metres or 3 times the pile
diameter, whichever is the greater.
The cores are logged, stored and photographed and submitted together with proposed founding levels for approval.
Setting Out

Before starting excavation at the pile position the following steps are taken:

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Survey and record the existing ground level at the pile position
Setout the pile location from the reference points and in order to monitor the position of the steel casing, control
pins are usually established at two orthogonal positions, offset from the centre of the pile.
Pile Tolerances
In the case of out of position casings, adjustment can be made to keep the vertical alignment and plan position
within the limits of no more than 75 mm off-centre on plan position and not deviating by more than 1:75 from the
vertical axis.
Pile Excavation / Casings
The shaft of the pile is excavated within a temporary steel casing with an outside diameter of say approximately
200 - 300 mm greater than the pile diameter. The casing is used mainly in areas of unstable ground and are driven
using hydraulic casing oscillator attached to a crawler crane or a casing vibrator.
Shaft excavation is carried out using a single or double hammer grab supported by crawler crane. The steel casing
toe is kept in front of the excavation level until it is 0.5 metres above the pile cut-of level. The pile shaft is often
flooded with bentonite or water and excavation proceeds to the top of the CDG.
Excavation then proceeds by reverse circulation drilling (RCD) using large diameter drilling heads with special rock
cutters and flushing by air lift. Bentonite or water levels are always maintained above the ground water level to
ensure stability of the shaft.
Calculation Of Bored Pile Construction / Excavation Time
Piling times can be reduced by the use of service cranes for reinforcement and concreting activities.
An additional extended shift would often be required for certain piles, as would RCD down-time.
Forecast construction times can be derived by using output rates (hours per item)...

Operation

Element

Details

Hours

Add or Remove

Reverse Circluation Drill Plant (RCD)

incl drill bit

2 hrs

Add or Remove

RCD drill bit

(incl assembly of drill string) 5 hrs

RCD bell-out bit

(incl drill string & stabilisers) 5 hrs

Installation

Cleaning Time

Concreting

Airlift tremmie tube

5 hrs

Reinforcement cages

(time for joining each cage) 2 hrs

Initial airlift cleaning

(after finishing excavation)

8 hrs

Final airlift cleaning

(after fixing steel cage)

2 hrs

Incl extract casing

( < 70 m deep)

12 hrs

( > 70 and < 95 m deep)

14 hrs

( > 95 and < 135 m deep)

48 hrs

Curing Time

Only required prior to removal of telescopic casings

72 hrs

Cycle Time

Move piling setup to next location

2 hrs

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Shaft Excavation Strata

Plant Used

Rate (m/hr)

General Fill (upper ground levels)

Grab

3.50 m/hr

Sand, Minor Rubble

Grab

2.10 m/hr

Marine / Alluvium Deposits

Grab

2.50 m/hr

CDG < 150

RCD/Grab

1.50 m/hr

CDG > 150 < 200

RCD

1.00 m/hr

CDG > 200, Compacted Gravel

RCD

0.50 m/hr

CDT

RCD / Grab

0.50 m/hr

Corestones

RCD / Chisel

0.50 m/hr

Rock Socket - Grade IV/V

RCD

0.25 m/hr

Rock Socket - Grade II/III

RCD

0.125 m/hr

Rock Socket - (Tendering Rate)

RCD

0.10 m/hr

Forecast excavation or cycle times can then be derived by analysing ground conditions. Site investigation will
provide the depths / types of strata which can then be matched to production output rates (see above).
Note - A piles diameter has negligible effect on production time and as such is ignored.
Example - For a pile founding on rock at 60 m deep...
(a) Calculate Allowance For Plant Time / Other Elements (hrs)....

Element

Hours

Set up RCD

5.0

Excavate Time

See Below

Remove RCD (including drill bit, string and stabilisers) 5.0

Setup / Remove Airlift Tremmie Tube

5.0

Initial Post-Excavation Airlifting

5.0

Place reinforcement (5 No cages @ 12m = 5 x 2 hrs)

10.0

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Setup / Remove Airlift Tremmie Tube

5.0

Final Post-Reinforcement Airlifting

2.0

Concrete and remove casing

12.0

Move to next location

2.0

Calculate Total Construction / Plant Time

52.0 hrs

(b) Calculate Allowance For Excavation Time (hrs)...

Depth of Strata (m) Type of Rock

Production Rate (m/hr) Plant Used Time (Hrs)

0 - 20

Sand/minor rubble

2.00

Grab

10.0

20 - 35

CDG less than 150

1.50

RCD/Grab

10.0

35 - 47

CDG more than 150

1.00

RCD

12.0

47 - 57

CDG > 200/corestones

0.50

RCD

20.0

57 - 60

Rock socket

0.20

RCD

15.0

(c) Calculate Total Pile Excavation Time = 67.0 hrs


(d) Overall Pile Time

Construction / Plant Time (b above) 52.0 hrs

Excavation Time

(d above) 67.0 hrs

OVERALL CYCLE TIME (b + d) 119 hrs

(With 12 hr shifts)

(b + d)

9.9 days

Bored Pile Construction As-Builts


General Rule of Thumb Pile Times (days)...

Depth (m) => <20 <40 <70 <90 <135

Days Per Pile 4.0* 8.0 10.0 25.0 45.0

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Note - due to the required plant assembly and operation times, 4 days is the minimum possible pile construction time for
any situation.
Methods For Overcoming Obstructions
If the obstruction is shallow (ie 0 to 2.5 m below ground level) a backhoe-breaker will be used to form a suitable
hole.
Where the obstructions are located at greater depths an oversized temporary casing is driven by the oscillator to
the top of the obstruction.
If the obstruction is above water level a hand operated air hammer is used, a typical rate of = 0.8 m/hr
If below water level a down the hole hammer or heavy chisel supported by crawler crane will be used, a typical rate
of = 0.5 m/hr
If a concrete plug is required to provide a well formed shaft wall when an obstruction or excessive overbreak or
fault is encountered...
Element

Hours

Remove RCD

5 hrs

Install Tremie Concrete Tube 5 hrs


Place Concrete Plug

2 hrs

Cure Concrete

36 hrs

Replace RCD and drill string 5 hrs


TOTAL TIME LOSS

53 hrs (2.2 days or 4.4 shifts)

Cleaning of Pile Base


The hole of the pile shaft is cleaned using an airlift until the water becomes clean or negligible particles in
suspension is discharged.
Reinforcement Cages
Cages are constructed in suitable sections, usually in the order of 12 m long, complete with sonic tubes and coring
tubes.
Fabrication, 12 m long cage with 6 no fixers...
Fabricate 1 cage

2.5 hrs

Total cages required

5 no

Overall Fabrication Time 12.5 hours


Steel Stanchion Fabrication and Installation
Stanchions are usually fabricated off-site and delivered in sections. Prior to installation the sections are welded
together to form the complete stanchion. Stanchion sizes are usually in the region of 525 mm x 525 mm.
With an average length of say 28 m, the welding time would be around 5 days and are tested by an ultrasonic weld
test and an MPI test.
After the installation of the reinforcing cage in to the shaft the stanchion will be lifted until it hangs vertical. It is then
lowered into the excavation and clamped into position.
Concreting
Pile concreting is carried out under water by "tremie" techniques maintaining the water or bentonite head inside the
casing at or above existing ground water level. The tremie tube (250mm) is withdrawn as concreting proceeds
ensuring a minimum concrete head of 2 metres above the top of the tremie tube.
Sequence Of Piling
The sequence of construction of piles is chosen in such a manner that no damage can be caused to nearby piles
still under construction or recently concreted (i.e. less than 3 days).
On a 12 metre grid, a normal layout would mean say having two non-worked on piles between each open
excavation in the longitudinal direction (ie a 36 metre spacing) thus allowing room for the crane etc and a lesser
spacing of every other pile being worked on (ie a 24 metre spacing).
Pile Testing
The workability of concrete is tested on site by measuring the slump and temperature of concreting at the time of
discharge into the pile shaft. Laboratory tests are carried out in order to check the strength of the placed concrete.
A number of test cubes are made and tested at 7 and 28 days.

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Coring Test - Certain piles selected by the Engineer will be cored their full depth. The depth of cores into the base
material (rock) will usually be at least 600 mm. Cores are placed in correct order and relative position in core boxes
which clearly mark the depths of cores. The cores are usually photographed and submitted to the Engineer. The
testing of the coring will provide additional information about the quality of the concrete as well as the condition of
the interface between concrete and rock.
Sonic Logging Test - In order to test the quality of the concrete as well as the integrity of the pile in its overall
length and pile toe condition sonic core testing is used. Sonic tubes are installed with the reinforcement cage in
order to allow the lowering of the signal transmitter and signal receiver probe down the bottom of the pile. These
tubes are sealed at the bottom.
Vibration Tests - This test determines the pile length and shape and the overall pile concrete quality. This is a
specialist test.

Contigous Piling
Principles of Construction Often known as "Colcrete" piling, which is a type of trade name. Usually replaced by
diaphragm walling methods.
Essentially typical bored piles, or down-the-hold bored piles, are constructed with a spacing such that each pile is
virtually touching the next. These are constructed on a hit-and-miss basis.
After a suitable length of these piles are in place (often 9 piles or so) a smaller drilling rig follows on behind placing the
"colcrete" piles. A small diameter shaft, often 100 mm or so, is drilled on the external face of the pile wall close to the
interection between the two main piles. This excavated pile is fitted with a grout tube and backfilled with gravel. The pile
is then grouted and forms a seal between the adjacent piles. This type of pile wall can be constructed with either a
standard reinforcement cage or a "H" pile.
Info below achieved on project in Bermonsey, London - Sept 2010
1 rig, 600dia contig piles, 12-15m deep, 12No per day (average), 15No per day (max)
Rule of thumb based on Hit 1, Miss 3 = 8.5l/m day per rig.
Labour: 1 Rig driver, 1 banksman, 1 conc pump operative, 3 x steel fixers, 1 x 360 driver
Plant: 1x rig, 1x mini 360 exc, 1x 6m3 mixer, 1x pump, Deliveries: 4 - 5No 6m3 wagons per rig per day (av 2m3 per pile)
Mobilisation: 1 day (Allow for 2 days)
Next trade - Excavate and blind around piles (for ring beam) - start 7 elasped days after last piles in the run are complete
(4 working and 7 elasped days after piling start based on Hit 1 miss 3 method and 12No/d). 34 linear metres released for
Groundworker to start.
All piles 600mm in dia. No smaller piles or grout tubes used as described in the post by technical development. The face
of the basement wall will be faced with a single skin of blockwork at a later date (non critical).
Method: Hit 1, Miss 3

Diaphragm Walling
Driven Piles
West Piling (P.C. Shells), Rate of 100 m/day
Balken Piling (Solid P.C. Pile), Rate of 120 - 135 m/day
H-Piling, Rate of 200 - 500 m/day

Ground Anchors
Multiple Bell Ground Anchors
Multiple Bell Ground Anchors Often used in London Clay.
Uncased, 10 m long 2.0 no/day
Top Cased type, 15 m long 1.0 no/day
Anchor Stressing 2.0 no/day

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Removable Ground Anchors


Removable Ground Anchors Recent innovation of "removable" ground anchor system. Steel cables are doubles up and
threaded over a roller at the anchor end. Once de-stressed, they can be pulled out. 1 rig can achieve...

Drill 30 m shaft 7.0 hrs


Install strands/setup anchor 6.0 hrs
Grout in strands 2.0 hrs
Stressing can be done 4 - 7 days after grouting.

Usually at 3 m horizontal centres and can only be worked on with 5 - 6 m spacings. So a hit and miss method must be
adopted, giving a significant programme constraint.

Grouting Operations
Grouting
Vertical Grout Curtain
Application of grout curtain. A typical rate of 6.20 hrs/m run.

Hand Dug Caissons


Principles Of Construction
This type of "pile wall" is typical employed in areas where headroom or proximity to buildings restricts the use of large
diameter bored pile drilling rigs, or where the wall is to be located very close to an existing structure.
These are very time consuming and in allot of areas no-longer allowed as an acceptable safe construction method.
Stringent air monitoring and safety isses are adhered to during the construction of the caisson. An electric chain block
and hoist structure is maintained at the pile head for access and egress of both materials and operatives.
Site Investigation / Advanced works
Advanced grouting is often carried out around the group of caissons in order to reduce water inflow into the caisson area
and provide adequate safety factor against base heave failer. Grouting of the area will also restrict ground settlement
due to changes in the water table during caisson construction.
A 75 mm diameter grout hole is drilled to 2 m belowthe specified toe of the caisson. On completion of drilling, a 40 mm
inside diameter PVC, Tube-a-Manchette (T-A-M) grout tube will be installed to the bottom of the grout hole.
The tube is usually perforated at 300 mm intervals with each perforation being covered by a tightly fitting rubber sleeve to
act as one way valves. The grout hole is often backfilled with gravel and then pumped with grout to the specified
pressures etc.. After each stage of grouting the T-A-M will be flushed with water to allow future grouting as necessary.
The slightly conical excavation core is carried out by hand and a formwork erected and concrete placed in the void
between the excavation and the internal formwork. Excavation down to the next level then begins.
Excavation Of Caissons
All excavation is carried out with air tools and shovels etc. Material is loaded into a 0.2 m3 drum skip. Hand excavation
to a depth not exceeding 1 metre.
Fix a suitably braced 3 segmented tapered shutter, fix reinformcement and pour concrete to fill all voids between the
external face of the lining and the earth face. This operation is undertaken continously until the founding level is
reached.
Steel Reinforcement
Reinformcement is placed either in prefabricated cages or directly erected in side the bores, depending on headroom
and caisson access conditions.
In some instances a steel "H" beam is installed in place of a reinforcement cage.
Concreting
Concrete is cast in place in one continuous operation using the tremmie pipe method, up to cutt-off level. The concrete
is generally not vibrated.

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As-Built Examples

Perimeter wall caissons, 800 mm diameter, excavated to a depth of 26 metres (HK Central Subway).
Excavation Time 18 - 24 days
Excavation to Concreteing Time 26 - 35 days
Difficult ground of sea wall or ground obstructions can easily increase theoverall construction time to 50 or 150
days.

Mini Piling
Mini Pile Construction
Small diameter piles quickly driven into position, with suitable concrete pile cap.
Diameter Depth Hrs per pile m/hr depth
235 mm

35 m

40 hrs/no

0.87 m/hr

Secant Piling
Principles Of Construction
Often known as "Benoto" piling, which is a type of trade name. Usually replaced by diaphragm walling methods.
Essentially typical bored piles, or down-the hold type bored piles, are constructed with a spacing slightly smaller
than the chosen diameter of the piles. Once a suitable length of piling has been completed, the "holes" are filled
with a similar bored pile which intersects and "bites" into the two previously constructed piles.
Usuall these piles are strengthened with a steel "H" pile, rather than the typical reinforcement cages used in
standard bored piling.
As-Built Examples
Large diameter circular secant pile cofferdam.
Structure consisting of 1,200 mm diameter secant piles to a depth of 20 which then stepped into 900 mm
contiguous piles for a further 20 m depth. Each pile was probed to 10 m depth in advance. A total of 255 number
piles were constructed.
The "cofferdam" had a 1.4 m deep concrete base slab with a concrete lining to the walls.
An intermediate concrete roof slab was placed to form an underground box structure.
Overall construction time 12 weeks (Heathrow Express).

Sheet Piling & Strutting


Secant Piling
Secant Piling...

Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

12.0

Construct 30m dia cofferdam, 255 piles/concrete base

Units

wks

Sheet Piling
Sheet Piling On reclamation, sand fill, sheet piling by crane and drop hammer, vibro hammer or diesel hammer.
A rate of 20 - 25 No/day to 20 to 35 m deep.
1 no = 0.4 m wide on plan and 6 m long.
Therefore 8 - 10 m/day per rig is achievable.
On more difficult areas, such as through existing ground or a sea wall for example.
A rate of 10 - 12 No/day to 20 m deep.
Therefore 4 - 6 m/day per rig is achievable.
For more shallow sheet pile walls

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Driven by - Pilemaster 60.0 m/day


Driven by - Automatic Drop Hammer 32.0 m/day
Steel for piles is usually readily available and a two week lead in is often all that is required.
Sheet Piling
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Vibro/Drop Hammer, 10m deep Sand

55.0

60.0

m/day

Vibro/Drop Hammer, 35m deep Sand

3.5

32.0

10.5

m/day

Strutting
Strutting
To install simple horizontal heavy duty strutting, a typical rate of 2 days per strut/gang is reasonable.
To install diagonal slab/roof cross-brace strutting, a typical rate of 6 days per strut/gang is reasonable.
To remove these struts, allow a rate of 3.5 days per strut.

Slabs - Plain Slab Soffits


Slabs - Plain Slab Soffits

Hight of
Slab Soffit
-->

0 - 3.5 m

3.5 - 5.0 m

Plan Area

Fix

Strike

Fix

Strike

ne 5.0 m2

1.92

3.03

1.61

2.13

5.0 - 7.5 m2 2.22

3.13

1.85

2.56

7.5 - 10.0
m2

2.44

3.57

2.04

3.03

10.0 - 15.0
m2

2.63

4.00

2.17

3.45

15.0 - 20.0
m2

2.78

4.35

2.33

3.57

20.0 - 30.0
m2

2.94

4.76

2.50

4.00

30.0 - 40.0
m2

3.13

5.00

2.63

4.17

exc 40.0 m2 3.23

5.26

2.70

4.55

Slurry & Soil Mix Walls


Slurry Mix Wall
Slurry mix wall (for noise restrictions/obstructions) grab excavation to full depth, fill with cement or bentonite mix, drop
and hold sheet piles in place.
Excavation 1 panel (4.5 m long on plan) with grab and crane.

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Excavate 1 panel in 2 days + 1 day bentonite and sheet pile, giving a rate of 1 - 1.5 m/day.
Therefore, once started 2 - 2.25 m/day is expected.
Slurry Mix Walls

Task / Description

Crane grab, cement/bentonite and sheet piles

Slow

Ave

Fast

1.8

2.5

3.4

Slow

Ave

Fast

3.8

4.5

6.4

Units

m/day

Soil Mix Walls


Soil Mix Walls...

Task / Description

Three Auger Drill, cement and cure

Units

m/day

Underpinning
Concrete Pinning - During underpinning operations a cycle of every 4th or 5th pin being constructed concurrently is
adopted.
Rate of 1.2 m/day, i.e. 1 number support pin per day
Underpinning...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete Pinning, 4th or 5th pin cycles

1.2

2.2

m/day

Brickwork Pinning, 1.0 brick thick

0.4

0.7

m2/hr

Brickwork Pinning, 1.5 brick thick

0.1

0.3

m2/hr

Brickwork Pinning, 2.0 brick thick

0.2

m2/hr

Wedge and Pin Method, 102mm wall

0.8

m/hr

Wedge and Pin Method, 215mm wall

0.7

m/hr

Wedge and Pin Method, 317mm wall

0.5

m/hr

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

5.9

6.2

6.8

m/hr

Granolithic Flooring
Typically carried out with a gang of 2 layers and a single labourer.
Typical rate of 3.15 m2/hr

Mosaic Tiles
Standard tiles of 0.045 x 0.045 m.

A typical rate of 1.55 m2/hr

Partitioning
Partitioning
Task / Description
Timber Studding

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Metalwork System (MF) Studding

1.6

2.0

2.5

m2/hr

Tape, Joint Sand and Top Coat Plasterboard

1.1

1.5

2.1

m2/hr

Skimming to Plasterboards

5.5

6.1

6.7

m2/hr

3.2

3.6

m2/hr

100mm Pine Paneling, excluding studding time

0.8

1.1

1.4

m2/hr

Quality Hardwood Paneling, excluding studding time

0.3

0.5

0.6

m2/hr

17.8

20.2

m2/hr

Fix Timber Studding and Paramount Partitions

2.6

3.0

3.4

m2/hr

Fix Timber Studding and Demountable Partitions

0.8

1.1

1.6

m2/hr

Fix Timber Studding and Hills Duraboard Partitions

3.0

3.5

3.9

m2/hr

Fix Timber Studding and Gyproc Laminated Partitions

2.2

2.6

2.9

m2/hr

Stud Partitions, Butt Jointed, nailed

5.9

7.3

9.1

m/hr

Stud Partitions, Butt Jointed, screwed

3.5

4.6

5.8

m/hr

Stud Partitions, T&G Jointed, nailed

2.9

3.6

4.8

m/hr

Stud Partitions, T&G Jointed, screwed

2.1

2.8

3.7

m/hr

Stud Partitions, Fix Sole Plates

11.1

m/hr

Stud Partitions, Fix Noggins

16.6

m/hr

Stud Partitions, Drill 25-40mm Holes

28.5

no/hr

Fix Toilet Partition System, Separation panels

0.8

hrs/no

Fix Toilet Partition System, Wall Front Panels

0.7

hrs/no

Fix Toilet Partition System, Separation Front Panels

0.6

hrs/no

Fix Toilet Partition System, End Front Panels

0.6

hrs/no

Fix Toilet Partition System, Hang Door to Panel

0.4

hrs/no

Fix Toilet Partition System, Hand Door plugged to wall

0.6

hrs/no

Fix Toilet Partition System, Fix Head Rails

0.1

hrs/no

5mm Hardboard Paneling, excluding studding time

Fix 50mm Rocksil Insulation to cavities

Preparation Works
Construction Design
Site Clearance
Site Clearance
Initial Works
Clearing Site of Bushes, shrubs, roots 25.00 m2/hr
Lifting turf to be sorted and stacked

2.95 m2/hr

Cutting Down Trees & Roots


Small Trees / Shrubs

14 hrs/each

600 mm - 900 mm Girth

18 hrs/each

900 mm - 1,200 mm Girth 22 hrs/each


1,200 - 1,500 mm Girth

26 hrs/each

Cutting Down Hedges & Roots


Hawthorn - 1.0 m high 0.9 m/hr
- 1.5 m high 0.8 m/hr

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- 2.0 m high 0.6 m/hr


Site Clearance
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Shrubs and Bushes, dig up and removal

25.0

38.0

m2/hr

Turf, lifting and removal

2.9

m2/hr

Trees, small sizes and shrubs

14.0

m2/hr

Trees and Shrubs, 500mm - 900mm girth

18.0

hrs/no

Trees and Shrubs, 900mm - 1200mm girth

22.0

hrs/no

Trees and Shrubs, 1200mm - 1500mm girth

26.0

hrs/no

Hedges and Roots, 0.5-1.0m high

0.9

m/hr

Hedges and Roots, 1.0-1.5m high

0.8

m/hr

Hedges and Roots, 1.5-2.0m high

0.6

m/hr

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Pre Drilling, Rercussive or Rotary, soft deposits

8.0

10.0

14.0

m/hr

Pre Drilling, Wash Boring, grade V/IV rock

2.5

3.2

3.9

m/hr

Pre Drilling, Triple Tube Sampling, grade V/IV rock

0.4

0.8

0.9

m/hr

Pre Drilling, Rotary, grade III/II rock

0.2

0.5

0.7

m/hr

Pre Drilling, Triple Tube Sampling, grade III/II rock

0.1

0.4

0.7

m/hr

Site Investigation
Site Investigation...
Task / Description

Instrumentation
A typical rate of 3 days per instrument can be used to calculate detailed ground monitoring scenarios.

Roofs & Waterproofing


Flat & Layered Roofs
Asphalt Roofs
Asphalt Roofs
Usually carried out with a 2 man gang with an additional 1 or 2 labourers. A typical composite rate of 45 m2/day

Felt Roofs
Built-Up Felt Roofs
Usually carried out with a minimum of a 1 man gang with a labourer.
Large Roof Areas = 52 m2/day
Smaller or Complicated Areas = 35 m2/day

Flat and Layered Roofs


Flat and Layered Roofs roofing kensington [1]

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Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Asphalt Roof in layers

45.0

m2/day

Asbestos Sheets in layers

39.0

m2/day

Felt Roofs, large areas

52.0

m2/day

Felt Roofs, small or complicated

35.0

m2/day

Felt Roofs, Gravel roof chippings

1.4

Tons/day

Metal Roof Decking


Aluminium Roofing
Aluminium Roofing Metal roof works are usually carried out with 2 men gangs of skilled labour. The rates do not include
for the timber backing structures etc.
Flat Roof Aluminium Work = 2.8 m2/day
Sloping Roof Aluminium Work = 1.9 m2/day

Copper Roofing
Metal roof works are usually carried out with 2 men gangs of skilled labour. The rates do not include for the timber
backing structures etc.
Copper Roofing
Flat Roof Copper Work = 3.0 m2/day
Sloping Roof Copper Work = 2.7 m2/day

Lead Roofing
Metal roof works are usually carried out with 2 men gangs of skilled labour.
The rates do not include for the timber backing structures etc.
Lead Roofing Flat Roof Lead Work = 2.5 m2/day
Sloping Roof Lead Work = 2.1 m2/day

Metal Decking
Metal Decking Systems
Usually carried out with a minimum of a 3 man gang with a labourer.
Large Roof Areas = 70 m2/day
Smaller or Complicated Areas = 28 m2/day
Metal Decking
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Metal Decking, large areas

70.0

m2/day

Metal Decking, small or complicated

28.0

m2/day

Titanium Sheeted Roofs

9.5

m2/day

Copper Roofs, flat work

3.0

m2/day

Copper Roofs, sloping work

2.7

m2/day

Zinc Roofs, flat work

2.4

m2/day

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Zinc Roofs, sloping work

2.1

m2/day

Aluminium Roofs, flat work

2.8

m2/day

Aluminium Roofs, sloping work

1.9

m2/day

Lead Roofs, flat work

2.5

m2/day

Lead Roofs, sloping work

2.1

m2/day

Lead Roofs, dormer cheeks

1.3

m2/day

Lead Roofs, flat gutters

88.0

m/day

Lead Roofs, flat copings

76.0

m/day

Lead Roofs, stepped gutters

3.5

m/day

Lead Roofs, shaped copings

3.3

m/day

Lead Roofs, cover step flashings

3.2

m/day

Lead Roofs, rooflight flashings

0.8

no/day

Lead Roofs, domed roof coverings

0.7

m2/day

Metal Features
Metal Roof Features
Composite rates have been calculated to provide an approximation of the time elements for these ancillary parts to metal
roofs.

Dormer Cheeks

1.36 m2/day

Flat Gutter & Coping Flashings negligible time

Step Gutter & Shaped Copings 3.50 m/day

Cover Step Flashings

3.20 m/day

Roof Light Flashing

0.80 no/day

Dome Structures

0.75 m2/day

Titanium Roofing
Titanium Roofing System
Metal roof works are usually carried out with 2 men gangs of skilled labour. The rates do not include for the timber
backing structures etc.
Titanium roof on multiple sub-layers.
Typical composite rate of 9.5 m2/day.
Installation
Typical timing and sequence of works. This is for an order of 5,000 m2 (HK Station Upper & Lower Roofs)...

Element

Week Manpower

Temporary Works

0-2

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Metal Decking

2- 3

12

Gutter Subframe

3- 6

Vapour Barrier

4 - 13 4

Rockwool

4 13 44

Cement Board

4 13 6

Ice / Water Shield

4 13 4

Gutter Lining

6- 9

Aluminium Cladding / Subframe 6 11 6

Titanium Cladding

8 17 17

Aluminium Pannelling

9 - 14 6

Zinc Roofing
Zinc Roofing
Metal roof works are usually carried out with 2 men gangs of skilled labour. The rates do not include for the timber
backing structures etc.
Flat Roof Zinc Work = 2.3 m2/day
Sloping Roof Zinc Work = 1.9 m2/day

Rainwater Works
Rainwater Works
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

UPVC Downpipes, 75mm

3.3

m/hr

UPVC Guttering, 75mm

3.1

m/hr

UPVC RWP Fittings, 75mm

3.1

no/hr

Cast Iron Downpipes, 75mm

2.1

m/hr

Cast Iron Guttering, 75mm

2.5

m/hr

Cast Iron RWP Fittings, 75mm

2.2

no/hr

Aluminium Downpipes, 72mm

2.5

m/hr

Aluminium Guttering, 72mm

2.9

m/hr

Aluminium RWP Fittings, 72mm

1.9

no/hr

Guttering & Pipes

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DownPipes

75 mm UPVC Pipes

3.3 m/hr

75 mm Cast Iron Pipes

2.1 m/hr

72 mm Aluminium Pipe System 2.5 m/hr

Guttering

75 mm UPVC Gutter

3.1 m/hr

75 mm Cast Iron Gutter

2.5 m/hr

72 mm Aluminium Gutter System 2.9 m/hr

Fittings
A composite rate has been calculated to be used as an extra-over basis for all pipe fittings etc.

75 mm UPVC Fittings

3.1 no/hr

75 mm Cast Iron Fittings

2.2 no/hr

72 mm Aluminium Fittings 1.9 no/hr

Roof Insulation
Polystyrene Boarding
Expanded Polystyrene Boards

8.55 m2/hr

Glass Fibre Wool


Fix 50 mm Rocksil between joists
Low Pitch Roof

12.00 m2/hr

Normal Pitch Roof

19.00 m2/hr

Roof Lights
Sheeted Roofs
Asbestos Roofs
Asbestos Type Roofs
A typical rate of 39 m2/day

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Profiled Sheeting
Profiled Sheeting Systems
Usually carried out with a minimum of a 2 man gang. Large Roof Areas = 54 m2/day

Sheeted Roofs
Sheeted Roofs
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

PVC Sheeted Roofs, large areas

50.0

m2/day

PVC Sheeted Roofs, small areas

40.0

m2/day

Plastic Profiled Sheet Systems

54.0

m2/day

Thermal & Moisture Protection


Gravel Chippings
Roof Protections
Gravel & Chippings - Allow a rate of 1.4 tonnes/day for transporting and laying out solar reflective chippings.

P.V.C. Sheeting
P.V.C. Sheeting
Usually carried out with a minimum of a 3 man gang with a labourer.
Large Roof Areas = 50 m2/day
Smaller Areas = 40 m2/day

Polythene Waterproofing
Polythene Sheeting Sheet materials (DPC/DPM's etc) fixed to prepared concrete surfaces.
Horizontal Surfaces = 20.0 m2/hr

Tiled Roofs
Slates and Tiling
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Slate Roofs, Welsh Slate 3-5mm

18.0

m2/day

Slate Roofs, Cumbrian Slate 8-11mm

8.5

m2/day

Slate Roofs, Asbestos Slates

36.0

m2/day

Tiled Roofs, Concrete Tiles

52.0

m2/day

Tiled Roofs, Clay Pan Tiles

26.0

m2/day

Slate Roofs
Slate Roofs
Usually carried out with a 2 man gang, sometimes with an additional labourer.

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Natural Welsh Slate 3.5-5 mm thick 18.0 m2/day

Natural Cumbrian

8-11 mm thick 8.5 m2/day

Asbestos Slates

36.0 m2/day

Tiled Roofs
Usually carried out with a 2 man gang with 1 labourer. The rates include for felting, battening and fixing of tiles etc.

Concrete Interlocking Tiles 52 m2/day

Clay Pan Tiles

26 m2/day

Waterproofing
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Asphalt coatings, horizontal surfaces

3.5

4.2

5.8

m2/hr

Asphalt coatings, vertical surfaces

1.2

1.7

2.2

m2/hr

Bituminous Brushed application, 2 coats

4.8

5.0

6.3

m2/hr

Bituminous Brushed application, 3 coats

3.3

3.5

4.4

m2/hr

Bituminous Sheets, horizontal surfaces

3.8

4.0

4.8

m2/hr

Bituminous Sheets, vertical surfaces

3.3

3.5

4.2

m2/hr

Polythene Sheets, horizontal surfaces

20.0

m2/hr

Bentonite Sheets, horizontal surfaces

18.7

25.0

31.3

m2/hr

Bentonite Sheets, vertical surfaces

11.2

15.0

17.3

m2/hr

Epoxy Based application, 1 coat

75.0

m2/hr

Epoxy Based application, 2 coat

38.0

m2/hr

Sand / Cement Floor Screeding

Lay sand and cement floor screeds to accurate levels and finish with steel/wood
float. Rate apply to a gang or 2 labourers and 1 screeder with materials being delivered
by hoist and barrow.

Screeding Rates (m2/hr)

Thickness ->

15 to 20mm 4.85
20 to 30mm 4.63
30 to 40mm 4.17
40 to 50mm 3.79

(Ave4.50,BestRate 5.26)

50 to 65mm 3.29

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65 to 100mm 3.00

Underground rooms with poor lighting and ventilation, a typical rate of 1.63 m2/hr.
This rate achieved by labour only subcontractors and hence is very slow.

Typical rates for fixing of the floor screed battens, for tamping of screeds etc.
Fix

10.0 m/hr

Strike

20.0 m/hr

Sand / cement 75mm thick


3 man gang - with pump - 120m2 day - when undertaken indoors - not neccessarily watertight though - say to a
traditional masonry build with PCC floor planks above.
3 man gang - with pump - 60m2 day - when undertaken outdoors - to a slab prior to Timber frame or to a roof slab
3 man gang - with pump - 30m2 day - when undertaken outdoors - as above but between October and March allowing
float for non productive days (low temps or rainfall).
All of the above do not include time for DPM, insulation or underfloor heating. This needs to be calculated seperately.

Steel Related Works


Steel Related Works

Fixing Steel Above Ground Level - Hoisted By Hand


Rate includes for sorting, transporting, markup, assemble, tie in and block out. Rates in hrs/Tonne (1,000 kg).

Dia Of Slabs/Fnds Walls


Steel

Stairs

Beams/Cols

6 mm

40.2

42.5

49.7

54.5

8 mm

28.7

30.5

35.3

38.6

10
mm

22.4

23.9

27.5

30.0

12
mm

18.1

19.1

22.1

24.1

16
mm

13.3

14.0

16.1

17.5

20
mm

10.4

11.0

12.5

13.5

25
mm

8.5

8.9

10.1

10.9

32
mm

6.6

6.8

7.7

8.2

40
mm

50
mm

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Fixing Steel Above Ground Level - Hoisted By Hand


Rate includes for sorting, transporting, markup, assemble, tie in and block out. Rates in hrs/Tonne (1,000 kg).

Dia Of Slabs/Fnds Walls


Steel

Stairs

Beams/Cols

6 mm

40.2

42.5

49.7

54.5

8 mm

28.7

30.5

35.3

38.6

10
mm

22.4

23.9

27.5

30.0

12
mm

18.1

19.1

22.1

24.1

16
mm

13.3

14.0

16.1

17.5

20
mm

10.4

11.0

12.5

13.5

25
mm

8.5

8.9

10.1

10.9

32
mm

6.6

6.8

7.7

8.2

40
mm

50
mm

Fixing Steel Above Ground Level - Hoisted By


Mechanical Means
Rate includes for sorting, transporting, markup, assemble, tie in and block out. Rates in hrs/Tonne (1,000
kg).

Dia Of Slabs/Fnds Walls


Steel

Stairs

Beams/Cols

6 mm

38.4

40.8

48.0

52.8

8 mm

26.9

28.6

33.6

37.0

10
mm

20.6

22.0

25.8

28.4

12
mm

16.3

17.3

20.4

22.4

16
mm

11.5

12.2

14.4

15.8

20
mm

8.6

9.2

10.8

11.9

25
mm

6.7

7.2

8.4

9.2

32
mm

5.5

6.8

7.9

6.6

40
mm

5.1

5.9

5.9

50
mm

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Fixing Steel At Ground Level


Rate includes for sorting, transporting, markup, assemble, tie in and block out. Rates in hrs/Tonne (1,000 kg).
Dia Of Slabs/Fnds Walls
Steel

Stairs

Beams/Cols

6 mm

37.9

40.2

47.4

52.2

8 mm

26.4

28.2

33.0

36.3

10
mm

20.2

21.6

25.2

27.7

12
mm

15.8

16.8

19.8

21.8

16
mm

11.0

11.7

13.8

15.2

20
mm

8.2

8.7

10.2

11.2

25
mm

6.2

6.7

7.8

8.6

32
mm

5.3

5.6

6.9

7.2

40
mm

4.4

5.6

4.2

4.6

50
mm

4.1

4.5

Fixing Steel Below Ground Level


Fixing Steel Below Ground Level

Dia
Of
Steel

Slabs/Fnds Walls

Stairs

Beams/Cols

6 mm 38.4

40.8

48.0

52.8

8 mm 26.9

28.6

33.6

37.0

10
mm

20.6

22.0

25.8

28.4

12
mm

16.3

17.3

20.4

22.4

16
mm

11.5

12.2

14.4

15.8

20
mm

8.6

9.2

10.8

11.9

25
mm

6.7

7.2

8.4

9.2

32
mm

5.5

6.8

6.6

40
mm

5.1

6.1

5.9

50
mm

4.9

5.1

5.9

Fixing Steel To Trough Waffle Floor


Rate includes for sorting, transporting, markup, assemble, tie in and block out. Rates in hrs/Tonne (1,000 kg).

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Dia Of Slabs/Fnds Walls


Steel

Stairs

6 mm

41.8

44.0

42.2

8 mm

29.0

31.3

29.5

10
mm

22.2

24.5

22.7

12
mm

17.4

19.7

18.0

16
mm

12.1

14.4

12.7

20
mm

9.0

11.3

9.5

25
mm

6.8

9.1

7.4

32
mm

4.7

7.0

5.3

40
mm

3.7

6.0

4.2

Beams/Cols

Steel Related Works


Steel Related Works

Stonework Floors
Sequence of operations...
Expose base slab aggregate, clean, wet slab, apply bonding agent, lay screed
topping (50 mm) compact and cure screed. Once cured, setout lines and levels and
lay and tamp stones onto setting bed. Protect area until cured and maintain
protection to prevent traffic damage etc.
Each area should then be grouted after the installation of the paving. Typical floor
block panel size 0.5 m2/stone.

Stone floors

10.45 m2/day

Stone staircase tread/risers 8.40 m2/day

A paving team consists of 1 fixer and 0.5 mate's (1 mate per 2 fixers).

Terrazzo Flooring

Typically carried out with a gang of 2 layers, 2 labourers and 1 polisher.

In situ flooring

3.60 m2/hr

Precast flooring

4.65 m2/hr

Tower Cranes
Tower Cranes...

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Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Erect and Setup 50m gib

11.0

7.5

days

Dismantle 50m gib

10.0

days

Lifting, Reinforcement Bins and Cages, 1st 15m lift

3.2

mins/lift

Lifting, Reinforcement Bins and Cages, above 1st 15m lift

0.5

mins/15m

Lifting, Crane Tracking Time

3.3

seconds/m

Wall
Walls

Facing Brickwork
Facing Brickwork, by Hand (no/hr)

Hole depth
(mm) -->

75-125

125-250

250-375

375-500

0-75

Ne 100 cm2

5.56

3.70

2.63

100-250 cm2

4.55

3.13

2.22

250-500 cm2

3.85

2.56

1.82

500-1000
cm2

3.23

2.13

1.52

Facing Brickwork, by Machine (no/hr)


75-125

125-250

250-375

375-500

7.69

5.26

3.70

100-250
cm2

5.88

4.35

3.13

250-500
cm2

5.00

3.57

2.56

500-1000
cm2

4.55

3.03

2.13

Hole
depth
(mm) -->

0-75

Ne 100
cm2

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Walls Straight
Rates include for making ,fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr.

Item

Shutter
Size

Fix

Strike

Kickers

ne 150
mm
deep

10.0

25.0

150 7.14
200 mm

20.0

Fully
framed
formwork

1.0-1.5
m2

1.85

4.55

(using
raking
struts)

1.5-2.0
m2

1.92

5.00

2.0-3.0
m2

2.13

5.26

3.0-5.0
m2

2.33

5.88

"StoriForm"
Shutters

1.0 - 1.5 1.47


m2

3.70

(manhandled)

1.5 - 2.0 1.75


m2

4.35

2.0 - 3.0 1.90


m2

4.76

3.0 - 5.0 2.00


m2

5.00

5.0 2.13
10.0 m2

5.26

"StoriForm"
shutters

1.0 - 1.5 1.67


m2

4.55

(craneassisted)

1.5 - 2.0 1.79


m2

5.00

2.0 - 3.0 2.00


m2

5.56

3.0 - 5.0 2.33


m2

5.88

2.86
5.0 10.0 m2

7.14

10.0 15.0 m

12.5

4.55

4.76
exc
15.0 m2

11.11

Wet Trade Finishes


Blockwork

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Plasterboard
Plasterboard
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Boarding to Plaster dabs

3.6

4.0

5.5

m2/hr

Boarding to Stud-work/Metal Lathes

4.0

5.0

6.7

m2/hr

Boarding 12mm nailed to studding

12.5

m2/hr

Boarding 19mm nailed to studding

16.5

m2/hr

Tape, Jointing and Sanding

0.1

hrs/m

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Browning (undercoat), Internal Walls under 2.5m high

2.2

2.8

3.1

m2/hr

Browning (undercoat), Internal Walls over 2.5m high

2.1

2.6

2.8

m2/hr

Browning (undercoat), Reveals and Columns less than 100mm wide

9.9

10.0

10.1

m2/hr

Browning (undercoat), Reveals and Columns 100-200mm wide

5.2

5.4

6.4

m2/hr

Browning (undercoat), Reveals and Columns 200-300mm wide

3.3

3.6

3.9

m2/hr

5.0

m/hr

Skimming (topcoat), Internal Walls under 2.5m high

6.1

6.7

7.3

m2/hr

Skimming (topcoat), Internal Walls over 2.5m high

5.5

6.1

6.7

m2/hr

12.6

13.8

15.4

m2/hr

Skimming (topcoat), Reveals and Columns 100-200mm wide

7.7

8.3

9.8

m2/hr

Skimming (topcoat), Reveals and Columns 200-300mm wide

4.5

5.0

5.5

m2/hr

Plaster Board to Ceilings

3.2

4.5

5.5

m2/hr

Plastering Ceilings, 1 Bonding, 1 Skimming

1.1

1.7

2.4

m2/hr

Plastering Ceilings, Topcoat Skimming

2.7

3.2

5.4

m2/hr

Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 15-20mm thick

4.8

5.7

m2/hr

Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 20-30mm thick

4.6

5.5

m2/hr

Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 30-40mm thick

3.2

4.2

5.3

m2/hr

Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 40-50mm thick

2.0

3.8

5.2

m2/hr

Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 50-65mm thick

3.3

3.9

m2/hr

Sand/Cement Floor Screed, 65-100mm thick

3.0

3.6

m2/hr

Fix/Setout Screed Battens

10.0

m/hr

Plastering
Plastering
Task / Description

Covings

Skimming (topcoat), Reveals and Columns less than 100mm wide

Rendering
Screeding
Screeding...

Wood Block Flooring


Parquet and Wood block floor systems

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Lay Blocks

1.5 m2/hr

Clean, sand, polish

3.1 m2/hr

Working Platforms
Working Platforms
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Metal KwikStage, 5 Boards with 2m lifts

11.1

11.9

12.5

m
run/hr

Metal KwikStage, 5 Boards with 3m lifts

9.1

10.0

10.5

m
run/hr

Metal KwikStage, House Scaffold with 3 lifts

2.8

3.2

3.8

m
run/hr

Metal Tube and Fittings, 5-6 Boards wide

3.2

3.7

4.6

m
run/hr

Tube and Fitting Platforms, 50-250m3

10.6

12.5

18.5

m3/hr

Tube and Fitting Platforms, 250-1000m3

18.5

22.5

24.5

m3/hr

Tube and Fitting Platforms, over 1000m3

24.5

30.0

33.5

m3/hr

200.0

Tube and Fitting Platforms, striking

%x
erect

Building Services / E&M


Building Services / E&M Production Rates & Build Times:

Define First Fix


Definition of Building Services - First Fix
Environmental Control Systems
This shall include the installation of all ECS equipment such as MCC's, fans and AHU's.
In addition the installation of all primary and secondary ductwork and pipework systems (including valves,
dampers, access panels, supports, anchors and guides) shall be completed.
Where necessary, due to concealment or other construction restraints, sectional testing shall be completed.
Electrical Systems
This shall include the installation of all transformers and switchboards.
In addition, the installation of all primary and secondary cable containment and support systems, such as ladder
racks, cable trays, cable trucking and conduits including brackets, anchors and guides shall be completed.
Plumbing, Drainage and Wet Fire Systems
This shall include the installaion of all duty and standby pumps for flushing water system, sump pumps, potable
water system, drencher system, water spray system, sprinkler system, fire services system, trackside fire fighting
system.
In addition, the installation of all primary and secondary pipe runs, whether horizontal or vertical, with associated
valves, supports, anchors and guides.
AFA System
This shall include all primary and secondary cable containment for the AFA system. Where necessary, due to
concealment or other construction restraints, sectional testing shall be completed.

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Define Second Fix


Definition of Building Services - Second Fix
Environmental Control Systems
This shall include the installation of fan coils, EP panels and PLC panels.
In addition, the insulation of all primary and secondary ductwork as well as pipework systems; leakage tests for
ductwork and pipework; power and control cabling & wiring including termination; complete installation of
pneumatic system.
Electrical Systems
This shall include the installation of isolators, sockets, lighting, distribution boards, UPS/CBS/Batteries.
In addition, the installation and testing of all primary, secondary and final circuitry, cabling and wiring including
terminations for isolators, sockets, lighting, transformers, switchboards, distribution boards, UPS/CBS/Batteries and
any other power and control points shall be completed.
All electrical installation and testing work must comply with the HV and LV Power On Dates.
Plumbing and Drainage and Wet Fire Systems
This shall include the installaion of the controls for flushing water system, sump pumps, potable water system,
drencher system, water spray system, sprinkler system, fire services system, trackside fire fighting system.
In addition, the power and control wiring and cabling including termination shall be completed.
The hydraulic testing of all piping systems for pumps and the associated pipe works shall be completed.
AFA Fire Systems
This shall include cabling and wiring for AFA system, termination of cabling and wiring to the AFA panels and the
AFA loops complete.
This shall also include the installation of detector base plates.

Escalator Installation
Modular Design Escalators Packages
The escalator trusses are usually delivered in 1.6 m cubes, which include the internal workings etc. Normally 3 to 4
sections go to make up a standard escalator (an 11 m rise), however sizes and lengths vary greatly.
Delivery Implications
The largest single element is the nose piece which is approximately 1.8 m wide, 3 m long and 2.5 m high. This section
weight 1,500 kg. The other truss sections weight only 1,000 kg at most. The maximum weight of an entire escalator (10
m rise) is estimated at 15,000 kg. It is usual to being the escalators in from the top landing and lower the whole truss
down into its final position. Power supply being 415 volt 3 phase hard wired, T&C may be done with temporary supplies.
Typical Project Strategy
Sequence /timing of works:

16 wks = Develop concept design / submit for approval.


12 wks = Prepare preliminary design / submit for approval.
60 wks = Manufacture, test & site delivery, in conjunction with completion of final design.
4 wks = Initial delivery placing and connection of truss sections.
12-16 wks = Install escalators and commission.
12 wks = Test running of escalators.
12 wks = Trial running of escalators / System Operational.

Typical Escalator Installation Sequence Timing of single escalator:

1 wks = Assemble sections and truss position, align, level.


6 wks = Escalator contractor "stop work" period, to allow ABWF contractor to complete surrounding finishes.
5 wks = Final escalator installation, "Phase B" decking installation and glazing etc.
0 wks = Escalator Power-On required.
2 wks = Test performance "Phase C" prior to escalator Test Running.
2 wks = Full load test "Phase D" of escalator.
1 wks = Final test "Phase E"
1 wks = EMSD Inspection of installation.
1 wks = "Phase F" inspection.

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Total installation time being 12 - 14 weeks, excluding the "Stop Work" period during which the civil finishing works are
completed.
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

14.0

12.0

11.0

wks

Truss type, Manufacture, test and deliver

60.0

48.0

wks

Truss type, Phase A assemble truss , position/level

1.0

wks

8.0

6.0

4.0

wks

Truss type, Phase B decking and glazing etc

5.0

wks

Truss type, Phase C performance testing

2.0

wks

Truss type, Phase D full load testing

2.0

wks

Truss type, Phase E final test and inspection

2.0

wks

Truss type, Overall Installation (excl arch finishes)

Truss type, Stop-Work for surrounding finishes

Fibre Cables
There are 4 phases to laying fibre cables - The laying of the duct, the pulling of the fibre cable, the splicing/terminating of
the cable and the testing of the cable.
The production rate for the laying of the duct will be as any similar small diameter pipe and dependent on the location
and linear distance.
The cable pulling phase has less to do with the length of the pull and much more to do with the number of pulls required ie draw pit to draw pit distance is less important than the number of times the cable pulling operation is started and
stopped. Production is therefore the number of pulls per day. The installers will generally attempt to install the cable from
termination point to termination point in one day. Depending on the environment, an assumption of one pull a day is
conservative and 2 a day being more optimistic. Crew sizes are small, 3/4 operatives.
The termination is obviously a speciallist job and likely to be carried out by different small crew than the pulling of the
cable.
The duration is dependent on the number of fibres in the cable, but an assumption of one day per location and another
day for testing at that location is reasonable.

Fire Services
Fire Services

Fire Protection
Spray Fire Protection, Rate of 45 tonnes/week protected, 200 m2/week for 300 m thickness
Sheet Fire Protection, Rate of 150 m2/week

Lift Installation
Lift Installation
Sequence of Work
A standard installation sequence for a "conventional hydraulic lift with 2 - 3 storeys and doors etc.

Handover of lift shaft structure and associated lift machine room.


Deliver all materials to site, 2 weeks.
Hoisting of machine roof equipment, setting out and plumbing, pit channel, car brackets and guide rails, 10 days.
Hoist in hydraulic arm, piping, lift shaft trunking and conduits etc and wiring of lift shaft, 9 days.
Positioning of motor control room equipment, machine room trunking and conduits and machine room wiring etc, 13
days.
Install sill angles and architraves etc, landing grouting done by others and landing doors, 9 days.
Partially dismantle lift shaft scaffolding and install pit equipment, 5 days.
Install car frame and platform, car wall panels and ceiling, car door operators and wiring of lift car, 14 days.
Architectural finishing stop work period, to install external glazing (if any) complete landing finishes and lift shaft
final BS lighting, detectors etc, 12 days.
Lift machine room Power-On required.

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Initial tuning and adjustments, 7 days.


Final tuning and adjustments, 7 days.
Submission of Form 5 to EMSD.
Interface testing with other contractors, carried out at later state (coordinated with others), duration of 6 days.
Final test and commissioning with client and handover, 2 days.

Procurement
Lifts are long lead items - from 12 weeks for a standard lift and considerably longer (1 to 1.5 years) for specially
designed installations
Installation Periods
Therefore, the overall duration of the installation, including delivery, architectural finishes, by others, and Form 5
submission etc...
Rule Of Thumb
Upto 8 storeys = 12 - 16 weeks
Upto 15 storeys = 16 - 24 weeks
More Accurately
2 to 3 storey installation = 3 wks/level
4 storeys and above = 2 wks/level
Test & Commissioning
Rule of thumb, allow 2 weeks plus 1 day per lift per storey.
Lift Installation
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Hydraulic Lift, Install 2 to 3 storeys

3.0

wks/floor

Hydraulic Lift, Install 4 storeys and above

2.0

wks/floor

Hydraulic Lift, Testing allow 2 wks plus

1.0

day/floor

Standard Lift, Manufacture, test and deliver

12.0

wks

75.0

65.0

52.0

wks

Non-Standard Lift, Manufacture, test and deliver

Units

Lift Erection Schedule


Please find below the sequence or erection of a Lift..:
1. Site Survey of Lift Shaft
2. Installation of Rails
3. Installation of Door Frames
4. Installation of Outside Doors, Indicators and push buttons
5. Assembly of Cabin
6. Installation of Motor
7. Main Cable Installation, Connection to BMS if applicable.
8. Testing
9. Complete Installation of Interior Finishes
10. Balancing and Commissioning
These are the basic steps, other requirements will apply per specifications.

Walls Box Sections (Lift Shafts etc)


Rates include for making ,fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr.
Item

Panel
Size

Fix

Strike

Using Bolts
and Struts

1.0 - 1.5
m2

1.22

3.13

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(man-handled)

1.5 - 2.0
m2

1.28

3.23

2.0 - 3.0
m2

1.39

3.45

3.0 - 5.0
m2

1.54

3.85

"StoriForm"
shutters

1.5 - 2.0
m2

1.47

3.85

(man-handled)

2.0 - 3.0
m2

1.49

4.00

3.0 - 5.0
m2

1.69

4.35

5.0 - 10.0 1.79


m2

4.55

"StoriForm"
shutters

1.5 - 2.0
m2

1.54

4.35

(craneassisted)

2.0 - 3.0
m2

1.56

4.76

3.0 - 5.0
m2

1.72

5.00

5.0 - 10.0 1.85


m2

5.56

10.0 15.0 m2

2.56

7.14

exc
15.0m2

2.70

7.69

Defence Sector
Defence Sector Production Rates & Build Times:

Fitout & Finishes


Fitout & Finishes Rates & Build Times:

Carpentry & Joinery


Carpentry & Joinery
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Formwork to Soffit of Manhole

1.8

m2/hr

Formwork to Walls of Manhole

11.2

14.2

20.2

m2/hr

Formwork to Road Edges, straight

7.7

m/hr

Formwork to Road Edges, curves

6.2

m/hr

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Windows, Timber Frames for Bricklaying

1.1

0.5

0.1

hrs/no

Windows, Drill, Screw & Plug extra over

0.3

0.1

hrs/no

Carpentry Carcassing
Carpentry Carcassing
Task / Description

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Door Frames, Softwood, 1.0-3.0m2

0.2

hrs/no

Door Frames, Softwood, 3.0-7.0m2

0.5

0.4

hrs/no

Door Frames, Softwood, 7.0-10.0m2

1.2

0.8

hrs/no

Door Frames, Hardwood, 1.0-3.0m2

0.3

hrs/no

Door Frames, Hardwood, 3.0-7.0m2

0.6

0.3

hrs/no

Door Frames, Hardwood, 7.0-10.0m2

1.4

1.0

hrs/no

Erect Water Tank Platform

2.3

no/hr

Fix Studding For Bath

0.1

hrs/m

Cut Access Hatch

0.3

no/hr

Floor Joists, under 3m

9.0

9.6

11.6

no/hr

Floor Joists, 3.0-4.5m

6.8

7.2

9.7

no/hr

Floor Joists, 4.5-6.0m

5.5

5.8

7.3

no/hr

Ceiling Joists, under 3m

12.8

14.0

14.7

no/hr

Ceiling Joists, 3.0-4.5m

10.8

12.1

12.6

no/hr

Ceiling Joists, 4.5-6.0m

9.6

10.8

11.1

no/hr

Ceiling Joists, Notch to Beams

20.0

25.0

28.5

no/hr

Ceiling Joists, Pack Joist Ends

20.1

23.8

26.3

no/hr

Ceiling Joists, Nailing Joists together

23.0

m/hr

Ceiling Joists, Bolting Joists Together

12.6

m/hr

Floor Boards, Butt Jointed

1.7

m2/hr

Floor Boards, T&G Boards, under 75mm wide

3.4

m2/hr

Floor Boards, T&G Boards, 75-100mm wide

3.8

m2/hr

Floor Boards, T&G Boards, 100-125mm wide

4.2

m2/hr

Floor Boards, T&G Boards, 125-150mm wide

5.5

m2/hr

Plywood Sheeting, Butt Jointed, nailed

9.1

10.2

m2/hr

Plywood Sheeting, Butt Jointed, screwed

4.1

4.8

m2/hr

Plywood Sheeting, T&G Jointed, nailed

8.3

9.1

m2/hr

Plywood Sheeting, T&G Jointed, screwed

4.0

4.6

m2/hr

Chipboard Sheeting, Butt Jointed, nailed

10.0

11.5

m2/hr

Chipboard Sheeting, Butt Jointed, screwed

5.1

5.8

m2/hr

Chipboard Sheeting, T&G Jointed, nailed

9.3

9.1

m2/hr

Chipboard Sheeting, T&G Jointed, screwed

5.5

5.9

m2/hr

Carpentry Final Fixing


Carpentry Final Fixing
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Windows, Softwood, 3.0-7.0m2

0.6

0.4

0.3

hrs/no

Windows, Softwood, 7.0-10.0m2

1.3

0.9

0.6

hrs/no

Windows, Hardwood, 1.0-3.0m2

0.4

0.3

hrs/no

Windows, Hardwood, 3.0-7.0m2

0.7

0.5

0.4

hrs/no

Windows, Hardwood, 7.0-10.0m2

1.6

1.2

0.7

hrs/no

Windows, Aluminum, 1.0-3.0m2

0.2

0.3

hrs/no

Windows, Aluminum, 3.0-7.0m2

0.5

0.4

0.3

hrs/no

Windows, Aluminum, 7.0-10.0m2

1.2

0.8

0.5

hrs/no

Windows, Steel, 1.0-3.0m2

0.4

0.3

0.2

hrs/no

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Windows, Steel, 3.0-7.0m2

1.2

0.6

0.5

hrs/no

Windows, Steel, 7.0-10.0m2

1.4

1.2

1.0

hrs/no

Window Boards, nailed

0.3

0.2

hrs/m

Window Boards, screwed

0.4

0.3

hrs/m

Mouldings, Softwood, Nailed

6.3

8.5

m/hr

Mouldings, Softwood, Screwed

4.6

5.6

m/hr

Mouldings, Softwood, Gun Nailed

8.2

11.1

m/hr

Mouldings, Hardwood, Nailed

3.3

5.5

m/hr

Mouldings, Hardwood, Screwed

2.4

3.7

m/hr

Mouldings, Hardwood, Gun Nailed

8.5

11.3

m/hr

Skirting, Aluminum, Screwed 150-300mm centres

7.6

m/hr

Skirting, Aluminum, Screwed 300-450mm centres

4.5

m/hr

Skirting, Plastic, Adhesive Fixing

8.6

m/hr

9.5

12.2

18.2

m/hr

1.2

Door Stop Mouldings

10.1

16.9

25.0

m/hr

Glazed Bead Mouldings

15.5

18.6

20.4

m/hr

Hanging Doors, Softwood, Single Pair Butts

1.3

0.9

0.6

hrs/no

Hanging Doors, Hardwood, Single Pair Butts

1.9

1.2

0.9

hrs/no

Cut Mortice to Receive Lock, Softwood

0.2

hrs/no

Cut Mortice to Receive Lock, Hardwood

0.6

hrs/no

Cut & Fix Formica Bath Panel

0.4

hrs/no

Kitchen Cupboards, Floor Units

0.8

0.6

hrs/no

Kitchen Cupboards, Wall Units

0.7

0.5

hrs/no

Kitchen Cupboards, Shelf Units

0.8

0.7

hrs/no

Staircase, pre-made, simple, straight flight

1.9

1.5

1.1

hrs/no

Staircase, pre-made, 2 straight flights, 1 landing

3.7

2.9

2.6

hrs/no

Staircase, pre-made, 2 straight flights, 2 landings

6.3

hrs/no

Staircase, Balustrades/Handrails, fix horizontal

1.2

0.6

0.1

hrs/no

Staircase, Balustrades/Handrails, fix raking

0.9

0.5

0.3

hrs/no

Staircase, Cut and Fix Newel to Walls

0.9

0.2

hrs/no

Windows, Softwood, 1.0-3.0m2

0.3

0.2

hrs/no

Raised Flooring, metal system

0.5

m2/hr

Architrave Mouldings
Architrave, Fix to Doors

hrs/door

Carpentry Miscellaneous
Carpentry Miscellaneous

Sundry Carpentry Items


Drip fillet

25 m/hr

Fixing Blocks

50
no/hr

Dowel bars fix 33


through stop- no/hr
end

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Dowel bars fix 25


through
no/hr
expansion
joint
Waterstophorizontal

10 m/hr

Waterstopvertical

5 m/hr

Flexell
expansion
joint

20 m/hr

Flexell in
large areas

5 m2/hr

Stop Ends - Plain Ends, end of beams etc (m2/hr)


0.00 0.25 m
deep

4.17

10.0

0.25 0.50 m
deep

3.85

10.0

0.50 1.00 m
deep

3.45

10.0

exc 1.00
m deep

3.23

9.1

Stop Ends - Perforated, with minor number of bars (m2/hr)


0.00 0.25 m
deep

1.89

2.56

0.25 0.50 m
deep

1.72

2.44

0.50 1.00 m
deep

1.37

1.92

exc 1.00
m deep

1.23

1.79

Stop Ends - Perforated, with dense penetrations (m2/hr)


0.00 0.25 m
deep

1.37

2.08

0.25 0.50 m
deep

1.14

1.69

0.50 1.00 m
deep

1.05

1.59

exc 1.00
m deep

0.92

1.45

Box Outs (no/hr)


0.00 0.01
m2

9.09

14.29

0.01 0.05
m2

7.69

10.00

0.05 0.10
m2

4.55

6.25

3.03

4.55

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exc
0.10
m2
Dummy Frames (no/hr)
0.0 - 1.5 6.25
m2

12.50

1.5 - 3.0 4.55


m2

9.09

3.70

9.14

exc 3.0
m2

Ceiling Finishes
Ceiling Finishes
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Suspended Ceilings, office situations

2.6

3.5

m2/hr

Suspended Ceilings, First Fix

0.7

m2/hr

Suspended Ceilings, Second Fix

1.2

m2/hr

Facade Waterproofing
Asphalt Waterproofing
Asphalt coatings to prepared concrete surfaces, usually undertaken with a 3 man gang.
Horizontal Surfaces = 210 m2/wk
Vertical Surfaces = 85 m2/wk

Bentonite Waterproofing
Sheeting to be installed and covered over immediately in order to prevent drying out, carried out with a gang of at least 3
people.
Horizontal Surfaces = 25.0 m2/hr
Vertical surfaces = 15.0 m3/hr

Bituminous Waterproofing
Brush applied coatings (tretol etc) to prepared concrete surfaces.
A two coat application = 5.0 m2/hr
A three coat application = 3.5 m2/hr
Sheet materials (bituthene etc) fixed to prepared concrete surfaces.
Horizontal Surfaces = 4.0 m2/hr
Vertical Surfaces = 3.5 m2/hr

Cladding Restoration
Brickwork Restoration = 6.5 m2/day
Stonework Restoration = 20.0 m/day (single course)

Curtain Walling
Typical Curtain Walling = 25.0 m2/day

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Doors & Window Installation


Installation
For windows that are not 'built-in' as work proceeds...
Install & Fix - By Area = 2.0 m2/hr
Install & Fix - By Girth = 4.0 m/hr
Mastic Pointing = 6.0 m/hr
Doors and Windows
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Mastic Pointing to Frames

9.5

m/hr

Fix Metal and Timber Windows After Wall Complete

2.0

m2/hr

Window Glazing

1.3

m2/hr

Window Glazing, Single Glazed Units

2.0

m2/hr

Window Glazing, Double Glazed Units

1.3

m2/hr

Epoxy Waterproofing
Epoxy based material (eliminator etc), a 2 part mix. It is sprayed on and large areas can be completed in a short time.
Usually carried out in two coats, good ventilation is required.
A one coat application = 75 m2/hr
A two coat application = 38 m2/hr

Facade Cleaning
Water Jetting = 25.0 m2/day
Acid Etching = 9.0 m2/day
Grit Blasting = 12.0 m2/day

Glazing
Glazing to windows, a typical rate of 1.23 m2/hr
Sealed Glazing Units
Single glazed units = 80.0 m2/wk
Double glazed units = 45.0 m2/wk

Floor Finishes
Floor Finishes
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Granolithic Flooring

3.1

m2/hr

Terrazzo Flooring, in-situ

3.6

m2/hr

Terrazzo Flooring, pre-cast

4.6

5.1

m2/hr

Mosaic Tiling, 0.045x0.045m

1.5

2.2

m2/hr

Clay, quarry Tiles, small areas, much cutting

0.8

1.1

m2/hr

Clay, quarry Tiles, large areas, little cutting

2.2

2.8

m2/hr

Raised Floor System

2.6

m2/hr

Linolium/Thermo-Plastic Flooring

3.1

5.0

m2/hr

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Thermo-Plastic Floor Tiles

3.3

5.6

m2/hr

Wood Block Flooring, lay blocks

1.5

2.1

m2/hr

Wood Block Flooring, sand and polish

3.1

m2/hr

Carpeting, Underlay & Gripper

5.6

6.1

m2/hr

Carpeting, Adhesive Fixing

3.5

4.2

m2/hr

Carpeting, Fully Fitted

2.0

2.8

m2/hr

Hardboard Sheeting Coverings, small areas

3.7

4.1

m2/hr

Hardboard Sheeting Coverings, large areas

6.6

7.2

m2/hr

Floor Sheeting Coverings, Lay Lino

9.5

10.5

m2/hr

Carpeting
5.58 m2/hr

Underlay & Carpet Gripper


Carpet

adhesive fixing

3.50 m2/hr

Carpet

fully fitted

2.05 m2/hr

Floor Sheeting Coverings


Lay lino (or similar) to rooms and corridor floors including measure, match, cut, fit and lay
etc

Hardboard underlay

small areas

3.7 m2/hr

Hardboard underlay

large areas

6.6 m2/hr
9.5 m2/hr

Lay lino or similar

Linoleum, Thermo-Plastic, Cork & Carpet Tiles


Small

complex areas

3.1 m2/hr

Large

simple areas

5.0 m2/hr

Kitchen Installations
Installation Sequences
Industrial and Commercial installations usually commence when false ceilings, floorings and final decorations are
substantially complete.
Kitchen Hood Installations are done before false ceiling completion and kitchen equipment is done after the civil
wall&floor finishes.
Installation Periods

Size Of Kitchen Are of Kitchen Installation Time

100 people

50 m2

3 weeks

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500 people

150 m2

5 weeks

1,000 people

275 m2

8 weeks

For individual installations...


Ovens, friers and large mixers etc = 1 man day per item
Sinks, bain maries, washers etc = 2 man days per item
Commercial Kitchen
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Overall Installation for 100 persons or 50m2

3.0

wks

Overall Installation for 500 persons or 150m2

5.0

wks

Overall Installation for 1000 persons or 250m2

8.0

wks

Install Ovens, friers and large mixers etc

1.0

mandays

Install Sinks, bain maries and washers etc

2.0

mandays

Outdoor Paving
Outdoor Paving

Clay, Quarry Tiles

Typically carried out with a 3 man gang, bedded in cement and sand base

Floor Areas

Small areas

much cutting

0.8 m2/hr

Large areas

little cutting

2.2 m2/hr

Window Cills etc

Fixing, level line edge batten

55.5 m/hr

Fixing tiles, clean and grout

1.56 m2/hr

Painting & Decorations


Painting
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Prepare Walls

14.2

m2/hr

Prepare Doors

12.5

m2/hr

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Prepare Door Frames

25.0

m/hr

Burn Off / Heat Strip Paintwork

1.1

m2/hr

Internal Timber, 1 coat primer before fixing, generally

6.7

m2/hr

Internal Timber, 1 coat primer before fixing, timber lengths

20.0

m/hr

Internal Timber, knot, 1 primer, stop, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss

1.7

2.1

m2/hr

Internal Timber, touchup primer, 1 undercoat, 1 coat gloss

3.1

3.8

m2/hr

Internal Timber, polyurethane varnish, 2 coats

3.3

m2/hr

Internal Timber, polyurethane varnish, 3 coats

2.2

m2/hr

Internal Timber, linseed oil to hardwood, 2 coats

3.6

m2/hr

External Timber, windows and frames

2.4

m2/hr

External Timber, knot, 1 primer, 2 undercoats, 1 coat gloss,

1.5

m2/hr

External Timber, touchup primer, 2 undercoats, 1 coat gloss,

2.0

m2/hr

External Timber, 2 coats wood preservative

4.0

m2/hr

External Timber, 3 coats polyurethane varnish

2.0

m2/hr

Internal Walls, 2 coats emulsion to plaster

8.0

m2/hr

Internal Walls, 2 coats emulsion to brick/blockwork

6.0

m2/hr

Internal Walls, 1 mist, 2 coats emulsion to plaster

6.0

m2/hr

Internal Walls, 1 mist, 2 coats emulsion to brick/blockwork

4.5

m2/hr

Internal Walls, 1 primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss to plaster

2.3

m2/hr

Internal Walls, undercoat to door frame

20.0

m/hr

Internal Walls, gloss to door frame

16.5

m/hr

Internal Walls, undercoat to door

7.1

m2/hr

Internal Walls, gloss to door

6.2

m2/hr

External Walls, 2 coats sandtex to render/concrete

2.5

m2/hr

External Walls, 2 coats sandtex to brick/blockwork

2.0

m2/hr

External Walls, 1 sealer, 2 emulsion to render/concrete

2.0

m2/hr

External Walls, 1 sealer, 2 emulsion to brick/blockwork

1.7

m2/hr

Floors, epoxy paint

2.9

m2/hr

Ceilings, emulsion paint, 2 coats

6.1

m2/hr

Ceilings, emulsion paint, 3 coats

5.0

m2/hr

Ceilings, textured paint

4.2

m2/hr

Ceilings, artex finish

4.1

m2/hr

Internal Steelwork, 1 primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss

1.3

2.4

m2/hr

External Steelwork, 1 primer, 2 undercoats, 1 gloss

0.9

1.7

m2/hr

2.5

m/hr

Guttering Steelwork, 1 coat primer, 2 undercoats, 1 gloss

Ceilings
Emulsion paint
- 2 coat 6.05 m2/hr
- 3 coats 5.02 m2/hr
Textured paint 4.20 m2/hr
Artex 4.10 m2/hr

Floors

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Epoxy floor paint 2.95 m2/hr

Preparatory Works
Strip Existing Wallpapers (3 layers) 5.00 m2/hr
Burn Off/Heat Strip Paintwork 1.00 m2/hr
Chemically Strip Paintwork 1.30 m2/hr
Prepare walls 14.20 m2/hr
Prepare door frame 25.00 m/hr
Prepare door 12.50 m2/hr

Steel
Externally
One coat primer, 2 undercoats, 1 gloss 1.70 m2/hr
As above to steel stanchions and beams 0.90 m2/hr
As above to balustrades, railings etc 1.00 m2/hr
As above to gutter and downpipes etc 2.50 m/hr

Internally
One coat primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss 2.40 m2/hr
As above to steel stanchions and beams 1.30 m2/hr
As above to balustrades, railings etc 1.40 m2/hr

Timber
Internally
(Rates per coat unless stated otherwise)

One coat primer, before fixing generally 6.70 m2/hr


One coat primer, before fixing lengths 20.0 m/hr
Knot, 1 primer, stop, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss 1.75 m2/hr
Touchup primer, 1 undercoat, 1 coat gloss 3.10 m2/hr
Polyurethane varnish - 2 coats 3.30 m2/hr, - 3 coats 2.20 m2/hr
Linseed Oil to Hardwood, 2 coats 3.30 m2/hr

Walls
Externally
2 coats sandtex etc
- to render/concrete 2.50 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 2.00 m2/hr

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1 sealer, 2 emulsion
- to render/concrete 2.00 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 1.70 m2/hr

Brickwork
Output 25m2 per man week overall facing brickwork

Internally
2 coats emulsion
- to plaster 8.00 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 6.00 m2/hr
1 mist, 2 emulsion
- to plaster 6.00 m2/hr
- to brick/blockwork 4.50 m2/hr
1 primer, 1 undercoat, 1 gloss
- to plaster 2.30 m2/hr
Undercoat
- to door frame 20.00 m/hr
Gloss
- to door frame 16.50 m/hr
Undercoat
- to door 7.14 m2/hr
Gloss
- to door 6.25 m2/hr

Rendering
Rendering
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Large Wall Areas, applied in 2 coats

2.2

2.7

m2/hr

Small Wall Areas, applied in 2 coats

1.5

1.7

m2/hr

Narrow Widths, applied in 2 coats

1.2

1.4

m2/hr

Columns and Beams, applied in 2 coats

1.5

1.7

m2/hr

Staircase and Soffits, applied in 2 coats

1.4

m2/hr

Restoration Works
Restoration Works
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Faade Cleaning, Water Jetting

25.0

m2/day

Faade Cleaning, Acid Etching

9.0

m2/day

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Faade Cleaning, Grit Blasting

12.0

m2/day

Cladding Restoration, Brickwork

6.5

m2/day

Cladding Restoration, Stonework courses

20.0

m/day

Soft Landscaping
Soil
Spread topsoil, prepare for turf/seeding = 2.5 m2/hr Spread fertilizer and rake in = 25.0 m2/hr
Planting
Hedges or Shrubs, ne 750 mm high = 4.0 no/hr Hedges or Shrubs, exc 750 m high = 1.5 no/hr Saplings, ne 3.0 m high =
1.7 hrs/no
Turfing
Typical rate including minor preparations = 135 m2/day
Landscaping
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Top Soil, spread, level and prepare for turf or seeding

2.5

m2/hr

Top Soil, rake in fertilizer for seeding

25.0

m2/hr

Planting, Shrubs and Hedges, under 750mm high

4.0

no/hr

Planting, Shrubs and Hedges, over 750mm high

1.5

no/hr

Planting, Saplings, under 3.0m high

1.7

no/hr

Turfing, including for minor preparations

16.8

m2/hr

Staircases
Rates include for fixing, cleaning and minor repair works etc, rates in m2/hr .

System
Type--->

Part Framed

Fully Framed

Item

Fix

Strike

Fix

Strike

Sloping
soffit to
stairs

0.78

2.33

0.86

2.56

Landing
soffit to
stairs

0.85

2.56

0.94

2.86

Wall
0.47
Strings ne
300mm
deep

1.41

0.47

1.41

Wall
0.53
Strings ex
300mm
deep

1.59

0.53

1.59

Open
0.70
Strings ne
300mm
deep

2.08

0.70

2.08

Open
0.79
Strings ex
300mm
deep

2.38

0.79

2.38

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Riser
boards
fixed to
strings

0.84

2.50

Risers
fixed to
strings
and
braced

0.76

2.27

Stone Cladding
External Stone Walls Various stone finishes are available...
Polished / Tooled = Highly reflective finish. The full colour and grain of the stone becomes visible. A poished fiish seals
the pores and gives a good weather and chemical protection.
Honed = Very smooth finish without reflections to show the full colour of the stone.
Flamed = Produced by applying a high-temperature flame to the surface ofthe stone. This flame fractures the surface
crystals, leaving a rough textured finish.
Sequence of operations...
Each wall stone is individually numberd to correspond to theshop drawings. The setting out line is established and metal
brackets and subframe is installed in accordance with the initial setting out line. Prior to drilling a cover meter is
employed to check the cover on the concrete reinforcement. Each stone is individually supported and restrained.
Typical wall panel size 0.75 m2/stone.

Stones 0.5 m2 and under = 14 no/day


Stones 0.75 m2 and under = 12 no/day
Stones 0.75 - 1.00 m2 = 10 no/day
Flat Stone walls - Simple = 9.0 m2/day
Flat Stone walls - Average = 5.1 m2/day
Flat Stone Walls - V. Complex = 1.8 m2/day
Curved Wall cladding = 8.0 m2/day
Edge Beams/Window edges = 2.3 m2/day
Stone soffits = 4.0 m2/day

A cladding team consists of 1 fixer and 1 mate.

Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Fix 0.5m2 Stones to Metal Support Frame

5.6

7.0

7.8

m2/day

Fix 0.5-0.75m2 Stones to Metal Support Frame

7.2

9.0

10.1

m2/day

Fix 0.75-1.0m2 Stones to Metal Support Frame

6.9

8.7

9.7

m2/day

Fix Complex Stonework to Metal Support Frame

1.8

m2/day

6.9

8.0

9.2

m2/day

Fix Stone Edge Beams/Window Reveals

2.3

3.2

m2/day

Fix Stone Soffits

4.0

m2/day

6.9

10.4

12.2

m2/day

Granite Wall Panels, First Fix

1.3

m2/hr

Granite Wall Panels, Second Fix

1.1

m2/hr

Fix Curved Stone Cladding

Stone Floors

Units

Wall & Ceiling Coverings


Paper Coverings
Wall paper and lining paper = 5.00 m2/hr Vinyl and washable papers = 4.20 m2/hr
Ceiling lining paper = 4.00 m2/hr

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Rates in relation to one skilled craftsman and labourer.


Wallpapering...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Strip Existing Wallpaper (3 layers) & Prepare Walls

5.0

m2/hr

Fix Wallpaper and lining paper

5.0

m2/hr

Fix Vinyl and Washable paper

4.2

m2/hr

Fix Ceiling Lining Paper

4.0

m2/hr

Wall Finishes...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Mosaic Tiling, 0.045x0.045m

1.1

1.5

no/hr

Clay, quarry Tiles, Window Cills, setout and level

55.5

m/hr

Clay, quarry Tiles, Window Cills, fix, grout and clean

1.5

m2/hr

20.4

27.1

32.0

no/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Areas under 1.5m2 per room

0.9

1.0

1.2

m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Areas of 1.5-2.5m2 per room

1.4

1.6

1.9

m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Areas over 2.5m2 per room

1.5

1.7

2.1

m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Extra Over for Cutting

41.6

no/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Ledges/Upstands

62.5

no/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Areas under 1.5m2 per room

1.0

1.3

1.5

m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Areas of 1.5-2.5m2 per room

1.6

1.8

2.1

m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Areas over 2.5m2 per room

1.7

1.9

2.2

m2/hr

125.0

no/hr

2.2

2.5

2.6

m2/hr

Ceramic Tiles 150x150mm, Ledges/Upstands

Ceramic Tiles 108x108mm, Extra Over for Cutting


Ceramic Tiles, Grouting Works

Window Finishes
Window Finishes

Manufacture - Staircase Shutters


Rates in m2/hr for on-site production.
Riser Boards with fixing cleats 150-225 mm wide

Wall
strings

Incl cut to
shape ne
300 mm
wide

0.87

0.35

Incl cut to
0.44
shape 300500 mm
wide
Cut to stair 0.81
outline only
Open
strings

Incl cut to
shape ne
300 mm
wide

0.49

Incl cut to
0.55
shape 300-

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500 mm
wide
Soffits

Studding at 2.08
450 mm
centres
Framing
2.00
-butted and
nailed
Framing
1.37
-jointed and
nailed

Manufacture - Straight Shutters


Rates in m2/hr for on-site production.

Item

00.7 m2

0.7 - 1.5
m2

ex 1.5 m2

Shutters
made with
boards

1.32

1.85

2.50

Shutters
made with
plywood

1.72

2.50

4.55

High quality 0.81


with
plywood

1.14

1.61

Health & Healthcare


Health & Healthcare Production Rates & Build Times:

IT Engineering Projects
IT Projects Production Rates & Build Times:

005 Initiate Phase


010 Analyse Phase
015 Design Phase
020 Develop Phase
025 Test Phase
030 Implement Phase
035 Support Phase
Petrochemical Oil & Gas

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Petrochemical Oil & Gas Rates & Build Times:

Pipeline Construction
Pipe welding is not that straight forward. You have a number of welding passes to take into consideration, then NDT and
finally hydrotesting. I worked on a pipeline construction project in Iraq and used the following formulae to work out
duration for the welding.
The average welder can complete about 140 inches of weld per hour in ordinary 1/4 inch wall line pipe. Therefore, to
find the output duration per day you would need to:
Number of welds per hour is equal to = ((140/((diameter of pipe - in inches)*3.14))).
This gives you an hourly rate of pipeline joints per hour.
Times this by the number of hours in the shift to give the daily rate.
You can work out how many sections in the run by dividing the run by pipeline length (typically 12m).
Then divide this answer by the answer to the welds per hour. This will give you the outline duration for the welding.
The welding runs normally follow each other so add half a day lag for each pass (1 day extra).
Increase the overall duration by the estimated time to string the pipeline.
NDT can happen while the welding is ongoing (obviously on different sections of the pipeline). Add a day overlap from
the welding finish to complete NDT.
Depending upon the length, include a day to fill the pipeline for Hydrostatic Testing, a day to test and a day to drain.
Then you will need to add in a day for hook up.
The welding duration will decrease if you have more than 1 team completing the task.
We included an in country overhead factor which reduced productivity by 40% to allow for the heat (it was anything upto
60 degrees in the desert in summer), they did a lot of work before the sun came up etc.
Overall, this rule of thumb worked very well. Obviously, you will be rounding up rather than rounding down.
Additional...
I am involved in a number of pipelines across India and when they deploy automatic welding they can cover 500m a day
on 30inch pipe.
Its a bit slower when you are going over a mountain range.

Pharmaceutical
Pharmaceutical Production Rates & Build Times:

Power Generation & Nuclear


Power Generation & Nuclear Rates & Build Times:

Roads & Infrastructure


Roads & Infrastructure PRoduction Rates & Build Times:

Kerbs & Paving


Kerbs & Paving
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete Slabs, laid on bedding, to slight falls

2.7

4.2

m2/hr

Concrete Slabs, laid on bedding, to steep falls

2.3

2.7

m2/hr

Concrete Slabs, laid in mortar, to slight falls

1.5

2.3

m2/hr

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Concrete Slabs, laid in mortar, to steep falls

1.1

1.5

m2/hr

Concrete Slabs, laid on sand, to slight falls

1.7

2.8

m2/hr

Concrete Slabs, laid on sand, to steep falls

1.6

1.9

m2/hr

Cobble Stones, laid in mortar, no patterns

0.3

m2/hr

Cobble Stones, laid in mortar, with patterns

0.2

m2/hr

Artificial Stone, laid on sand, with patterns

2.5

m2/hr

0.9

1.3

1.9

m2/hr

Brick Paviors, in mortar, herringbone pattern

1.0

1.2

m2/hr

Gravel Paths, including preparation of sub-base

10.5

m2/hr

Concrete Paths, 100mm thick, including preparation of sub-base

2.5

m2/hr

Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid straight

6.2

m/hr

Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid to 5m radius

4.5

m/hr

Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid to 10m radius

5.0

m/hr

Concrete Kerbs or Channels, laid to 20m radius

5.5

m/hr

Stone/Granite Kerbs or Channels, laid straight

3.5

m/hr

Concrete Edging, laid straight

7.7

m/hr

Concrete Edging, laid to 5m radius

5.8

m/hr

Concrete Edging, laid to 10m radius

6.2

m/hr

Concrete Edging, laid to 20m radius

7.1

m/hr

Cutting and Fitting Ends, Concrete Kerbs

6.6

no/hr

Cutting and Fitting Ends, Channels

5.8

no/hr

Cutting and Fitting Ends, Concrete Edging

8.3

no/hr

Brick Paviors, in mortar, straight joints

Road Basecourse
A good rule of thumb for the construction of road basecourse
Urban environment:
Spread & Compact Production = 30m3/hr
Trimming Production = 250m2/hr
Rural environment:
Spread & Compact Production = 50m3/hr
Trimming Production = 350m2/hr

Road Markings
Road and Car Park Markings
75 mm road lines = 20.5 m/hr
Road writing = 3.5 hrs/word or symbol

Road Surfaces
Barber Greene 8798 machine laying 100 mm in two coats (m2/hr)...
Tarmacadam = 160.0
Asphalt = 145.0
Manual laying 100 mm in two coats (m2/hr)...
Tarmacadam = 7.7
Asphalt = 5.0
Average laying of Asphalt wearing Course=40 Ton/hr so one crew can do 400 ton of asphalt /day

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Concrete Road surfacing


Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Concrete Road surfacing, Kerbs or Side Haunches

0.4

m3/hr

Concrete Road surfacing, 150mm thick

12.5

m2/hr

Concrete Road surfacing, 200mm thick

7.7

m2/hr

Concrete Road surfacing, 300mm thick

6.7

m2/hr

Rule of Thumb
Rule of Thumb
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

5.0

4.0

3.0

days/no

50.0

m3/day

10.0

8.0

6.0

days/no

Formwork Fixing

12.0

m2/day

Reinforcement Fixing

0.7

Tonnes/day

Concrete Placement

16.0

m3/day

Scaffold Erection, Steel Falsework

140.0

m3/day

Blockwork Laying

7.0

m2/day

Plastering and Rendering

12.0

m2/day

7.0

12.0

17.5

m2/day

Site Investigation Pre Drilling


Ground Excavation, Hydraulic Backhoe
Bored Piling, 25-70m deep

Blockwork Laying

Units

Stonework Cladding

5.1

m2/day

Window Glazing

1.5

m2/hr

Granolithic Flooring

4.5

m2/hr

Floor Screeding

4.5

m2/hr

Floor Screeding

60.0

m2/day

Ceramic Wall Tiling

1.5

m2/hr

Shipbuilding
Shipbuilding Rates & Build Times:

Transportation
Transportation Production Rates & Build Times:

Cable Car
The 21 months duration for the 14km cable car project from the land available date is made up of the following activities:
5 months lead time to the mast foundation contract before the cable car contractor can get access to the
foundation for a 10 months installation works.
The cable car contractor's installation is followed by the last 2 months of their overall 6 months testing and
commissioning.
This is then followed by a 4 months of Test & Trial Running.
The 27 months programme of cable car's manufacturing, delivery, installation and test and commissioning is based on
the extract of the supplier's programme.

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Conveying Systems
Equipment Conveying decks
Conveying decks may be used in a variety of industries, for example in airport baggage handling systems or cargo
handling systems.

Hoists & Cranes


Crane Grab
Tender rates are often quoted as between 20 and 25 m3/hr. With adequate supervision and sufficient loose spoil material
supplied to the crane drop area, these rates can easily be increased. Grabs mounted on crawler cranes, rates depend
on...

Depth of the spoil to be removed


Operative supervision - breaks etc
Management and availibility of lorries
Efficiency and utlisation of banksmen
Transport of spoil to crane drop area
Down time of machinery and staff

Clamshell Grab Mounted on a crawler crane... 2.0 m3 bucket (HK Cut & Cover Tunnels)
33 m3/hr
1.5 m3 per lift
2.9 mins per lift
2.5 m3 bucket (HK Station Box)
41 m3/hr
2.0 m3 per lift
3.1 mins per lift

Hydraulic Excavator

Tractor with backactor, Massey Ferguson or JCB.3 has a 0.3 m3 bucket.


Smaller 360 degree excavator has a 0.4 m3 bucket.
JCB.6D, Liebherr 400, Hymak 580 or typical 360 degree machine has a 0.5 m3 bucket.
360 degree excavator machine has a 0.6 m3 bucket.
Large 360 degree crawler backhoes have a 0.75 m3 bucket.

Rail Grab
Machine Rail Mounted Hydraulic Grab
Rate of 30 - 50 m3 of sand per hour (dependant upon depth), with 1.5 m3 made (2.0 m3 bucket) with each machine lift.
Giving a required lift rate of 2.4 mins.
A rate of 37 m3/hr (per rig) was achieved on HK Station box excavation. This was achieved with inadequate supervision
and and long breaks etc. The standard lift time was 3 mins.

Railways
Electrical System
Electrical System
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Railway Station 1st Fix

38.0

wks

Railway Station 2nd Fix

16.0

wks

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Railway Station T&C

8.0

wks

Cable Installation, 1 cable laid in trench and protect

6.2

m/hr

Cable Installation, 2 cable laid in trench and protect

5.6

m/hr

Cable Installation, 5 cable laid in trench and protect

4.3

m/hr

Cable Installation, 7 cable laid in trench and protect

3.7

m/hr

Cable Installation, 8 cable laid in trench and protect

3.5

m/hr

Cable Installation, 2 cable laid in trench and protect, 100mm dia

1.8

m/hr

Cable Installation, 2 cable laid in trench and protect, 135mm dia

1.6

m/hr

Cable Installation, 3 cable laid in trench and protect, 100mm dia

1.0

1.5

m/hr

Cable Installation, 6 cable laid in trench and protect, 100mm dia

0.7

1.2

m/hr

Cable Installation, 4 cable laid in trench and protect, 150mm dia

0.7

1.2

3.1

m/hr

Cable Installation, 36 cable laid in trench and protect, 100mm dia

0.2

m/hr

Cable Installation, 10 cable laid in trench and protect, 100mm dia

0.5

m/hr

Cable Installation, 1 cable laid in trench and protect, 300mm dia

1.3

m/hr

Floating Track Slab


Pre-cast concrete blocks that support standard steel tracks. They are used to reduce noise and vibration as the pre-cast
track slab blocks are placed on resin pads (4 no per unit), held in place by fixed side and end restraint blocks.
Side restraints, 0.8 m long, 12 no/day = 9.6 m/day
Resin pads, 10 no/day = 10.0 m/day
FST Units, 5 no/day = 10.0 m/day
The above rates were achieved with a 6 man team, but could have been be speeded up by 200 300 % if a works train
was available to hoist the units into place. The above was done with a "A" frame and chain hoist.

Trackwork
Trackwork...
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

9.6

m/day

FST Floating Track Slab, resin pads

10.2

m/day

FST Floating Track Slab, slab units

10.6

m/day

PCBT - Pre-cast Concrete Block Track, in Bored Tunnels

17.1

41.0

m/day

PCBT - Pre-cast Concrete Block Track, in Cut and Cover Tunnels

35.0

m/day

PCBT - Pre-cast Concrete Block Track, in Station Tunnels

35.0

m/day

IST - Isolated Slab Track, in Bored Tunnels

20.0

m/day

IST - Isolated Slab Track, in Cut and Cover Tunnels

34.0

m/day

IST - Isolated Slab Track, in Station

29.0

m/day

FST - Floating Slab Track, in Station

3.6

4.6

5.7

m/day

57.0

71.0

115.0

m/day

28.0

m/day

8.5

12.8

17.4

m/day

Embedded / Paved Track, in Depot

71.0

m/day

Heavy Maintenance / Train Wash Track, in Depot

29.0

m/day

Maintenance Pit, in Depot

52.0

m/day

Siding Trackwork, in Depot

38.0

m/day

FST Floating Track Slab, side restraints

Ballasted Track, in Mainline


Ballasted Track, in Depot
Non-Ballasted Track, in Depot

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Transportation Power Supply


Power Supply
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

AC Install 2 no Service transformers, 6 men

12.0

days

AC Install 2 no Switchgear, 7 men

12.0

days

AC Install Associated Trays and ladders, 3 men

11.0

5.0

days

AC Cable Terminations in Tx and SWG Rooms, 3 men

12.0

6.0

days

DC Install Insulated Flooring in DC Room, 1 men

5.0

days

DC Install 1 set Rectifier Transformer and Rectifier, 7 men

1.0

days

DC Install Switchgear, 7 men

10.0

days

DC Primary Cable Terminations and Busduct, 18 men

12.0

9.0

days

DC Secondary Cable Terminations and Connections, 9 men

12.0

6.0

days

2,100.0

m
run/day

1.0

days

Trackside Cabling 33kV/Pilot Cables, 10 men


Trackside Cabling Terminations, 6 men

Tunnelling & Mining


Tunnelling & Mining Production Rates & Build Times:

Chemical Excavation Methods


Rock Tunnels
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Units

Excavation, non explosive chemical method, cycle time

8.0

6.0

5.5

mins

Excavation, non explosive chemical method, Class I Granite

0.3

0.9

1.2

m3/cycle

Excavation, non explosive chemical method, Class II Granite

2.0

2.6

2.9

m3/cycle

Excavation, non explosive chemical method, Class III Granite

1.2

1.4

1.8

m3/cycle

Cone Fracture Rock Breakage


Penetrating Cone Fracture Rock Breakage.
Tradename of "SunBurst" from Australia. State of the art, non-explosive chemical rock breakage technology for close
proximity excavation applications in mining and civil engineering.
Explosive system, cycle time of 6 mins, giving 0.33 m3 each explosion.
A typical rate of 10 No cycles per hour, giving 3.3 m3/hr/rig.
However, tests have shown differing results...
Fresh granite of class 1 strength - One hole in the floor, yielding 0.15 m3 of rock. If more holes had been injected, a
yield of 0.5 - 1.0 m3 would be expected.
Moderately fresh igneous rock of class 2 strength - Three holes in a sloping trench, in adjacent locations, yielding 2.6
m3 of rock for each hole.
Moderately weathered volcanic rock of class 3 strength - Two holes in the floor, in separate locations, yielding 1.2 1.5 m3 of rock for each hole.

Cut and Cover Tunnels

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Design Works
Drill & Blast Method
Headings & Hand Tunneling
Vertical Shafts
Vertical Shafts
Vent shaft 10 m dia, build 1 m/day, excavate at 80 m3/day
Vent shaft connecting tunnels 6m dia, build 0.75 m/day, excavate at 21 m3/day

Immersed & Sunken Tubes


In-Situ Tunnel Linings
Initial Tunnel Supports
Micro-Tunneling
New Austrian Tunneling Method
Permanent Bracings
Pipe & Box Jacking
Shield Tunnelling
TUNNELLING - NATM
Tunnel Advance Rates (m/day)
Tunnel In London Clay
ID < 7.0 m

2.5 - 3.0 m/day

ID 7.0 - 10.0 m

1.5 - 2.5 m/day

ID > 10.0 m

1.0 - 1.5 m/day

Tunnel In Woolwich &


Reading Beds
ID < 7.0 m

1.5 - 2.0 m/day

ID 7.0 - 10.0 m

1.5 m/day

ID > 10.0 m

1.0 m/day

Inclined Tunnels
ID < 7.0 m

2.0 m/day

ID 7.0 - 10.0 m

1.0 m/day

Vertical Shafts
ID < 9.0 m

1.5 m/day

ID 9.0 - 15.0 m

1.0 m/day

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Circulation Halls

1 m of hall
circumference/day.

Excavation Of
Junctions

1 junction in 6 days =
0.17 m/day

Secondary Tunnel Lining Rates


Tunnels
ID < 6.5 m

2.5 m/day

ID > 6.5 m

2.0 m/day

Inclined Tunnels
ID < 6.0 m

2.0 m/day

ID > 6.0 m

1.5 m/day

Vertical Shafts
ID < 9.0 m

2.0 m/day

ID > 9.0 m

2.5 m/day

Circulation Halls
ID 11.0 m

2.0 m/day

Intermediate
Landings
With Columns

2.0 m/day and


individual tunnel

Without Columns 2.0 m/day


Junctions

1 junction in 4
days = 0.25
m/day

NATM Tunnels
Task / Description

Slow

Ave

Fast

Standard Advance Method, used on tunnels with max diameter

7.0

Half Face Advance Method, used on tunnels with max diameter

10.0

Double side Drift Advance Method, used on tunnels with


diameter over

10.0

Double side Drift Advance Method, used on tunnels with


diameter over

10.0

Excavation, London Clay, internal diameter under 7.0m

2.5

2.9

3.2

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, internal diameter 7.0-10.0m

1.5

2.0

2.5

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, internal diameter over 10.0m

1.0

1.3

1.5

m/day

Excavation, Woolwich/Reading Beds, internal diameter 2.0-7.0m

1.5

1.8

2.0

m/day

Excavation, Woolwich/Reading Beds, internal diameter


7.0-10.0m

1.5

m/day

Excavation, Woolwich/Reading Beds, internal diameter over


10.0m

1.0

1.5

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, Inclined Tunnels, diameter 2.0-7.0m

1.5

2.0

3.2

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, Inclined Tunnels, diameter 7.0-10.0m

0.5

1.0

2.2

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, Vertical Shafts, diameter 2.0-9.0m

1.0

1.5

2.2

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, Vertical Shafts, diameter 9.0-15.0m

0.5

1.0

2.6

m/day

Excavation, London Clay, Circulation Halls

0.8

1.0

1.2

m of
circumf/day

0.2

Mucking Capacity, 1 access with 2 crews

190.0

225.0

279.0

m3/day

Mucking Capacity, 1 access with 4 crews

255.0

300.0

366.0

m3/day

Mucking Capacity, 2 access with 4 crews

382.0

450.0

549.0

m3/day

Excavation, London Clay, Junction Excavation

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Units

m/day

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Sprayed Secondary Lining, Tunnels, diameter under 6.5m

2.1

2.5

2.8

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Tunnels, diameter over 6.5m

1.5

2.0

2.4

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Inclined Tunnels, diameter under


6.5m

1.5

2.0

2.3

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Inclined Tunnels, diameter over 6.5m

1.0

1.5

1.9

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Vertical Shafts, diameter under 6.5m

1.8

2.0

2.5

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Vertical Shafts, diameter over 6.5m

2.2

2.5

3.1

m/day

2.0

2.3

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Intermediate Landing Tunnels with


columns

1.7

2.0

2.1

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Intermediate Landing Tunnels


without columns

1.6

2.1

2.3

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Tunnel Junctions

0.2

0.3

m/day

Insitu Permanent Lining, 12m bays, 350-400mm reinforced with


PCV backing

8.4

12.0

m/day

Insitu Permanent Lining, extra over excavate/lining time to allow


for permanent lining

25.0

Excavate and Line Cycle Time , Running Tunnels

3.2

4.0

4.9

m/day

Excavate and Line Cycle Time, Station Access Adits

3.3

3.9

4.2

m/day

Excavate and Line Cycle Time, Concourse Tunnels

2.2

2.5

2.7

m/day

Excavate and Line Cycle Time, Escalator Tunnels

1.2

1.5

1.7

m/day

Sprayed Secondary Lining, Circulation Halls, diameter under


11.0m

Tunnel Boring Machines


Tunnel Grouting
Tunnel Leak Repairs
Water Management
Water Management Production Rates & Build Times:

Elevated Watercourse
Modification of an existing 6 m high elevated canal. Normal canal is 12 m in width, to allow single passing on
bridge/aqueduct structures, a 5.5 m minimum width is required. Normal depth of water is 1.3 m.
Some 4 number "V" shaped piers on 1,200 mm bored piles, each 20m deep, supported a central span of 40 m with 17 m
elevated "run on" section between the piers and ground abutments.
Overall length 75 m and 5.5 m wide water course and 3.5 m footways on each side. Clay dams were installed at each
end, canal was drained (fish removed !) with some 35,000 m3 of excavation removed.
Overall time period = 38 weeks
Construct new lock = 29 weeks
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