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Market Potential for Solar Water Pumping System and

Cost Benefit Analysis of Diesel vs. Solar Pump

Submitted By- Kevin Kovadia (AM0712)


Internal Guide- Dr. Mercy Samuel
External Guide- Mr. Nilesh Arora

MBA in Technology Management,


Faculty of Management, CEPT University, Ahmedabad - 380009
www.cept.ac.in
June 2014

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the thesis titled Market Potential for Solar Water Pumping
System and Cost Benefit Analysis of Diesel vs. Solar Pump has been
submitted by Kevin Kovadia towards partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
award of MBA in Technology Management with specialization in Operations and
Project Management. This is a bonafide work of the student and has not been
submitted to any other university for award of any Degree/Diploma.

Dr. /Prof. ____________


Chairman/Chairperson,
Dissertation Committee 2012-14

Sign._______________
Internal Guide
Dr. Mercy Samuel,
Associate Professor,
Faculty of Management,
CEPT University

Sign._______________
External Guide
Mr. Nilesh Arora,
Partner,
ADDVALUE Consulting Inc.
www.avci-lean.com
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UNDERTAKING

I, Kevin Kovadia, the author of the thesis titled Market Potential for Solar Water
Pumping System and Cost Benefit Analysis of Diesel vs. Solar Pump,
hereby declare that this is an independent work of mine, carried out towards partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the award of MBA Degree in Technology
Management with specialization in Operations and Project Management at Faculty
of Management, CEPT University, Ahmedabad. This work has not been submitted
to any other institution for the award of any Degree/Diploma.

June 2014

Name: Kevin Kovadia

Place: Ahmedabad

Roll No: AM0712


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Many people have contributed to this research work. First and foremost, I express
my sincerest gratitude to my internal guide, Dr. Mercy Samuel, Associate
Professor,

Faculty

of

Management,

CEPT University. She has provided

continuous support to my research work.

sincerely

thank

her

for

her

patience, motivation, enthusiasm and immense knowledge.


I convey my sincerest gratitude to Professor Mr. Nilesh Arora, Partner - Director,
ADDVALUE Consulting Inc. His guidance has helped me in all the time of
research and writing of the research report. I could not imagine anyone else as
a

better

advisor

and mentor for my research thesis other than him.

Furthermore my earnest thanks to Dr. Gayatri Doctor and Prof. Shreekant Iyenger,
who shared their knowledge during the entire course.
I convey my special thanks to all the interviewees without whom this research
work could not be termed as a research thesis. I also thank the solar water pump
manufacturers from whom I got details about farmers using solar water pump.
Their patience and valuable time devoted to my research work are highly
respected.
I also acknowledge the support & encouragement of my friends and colleagues
throughout the course of my work. Last but not the least; I convey my heartfelt
thanks to my family for their unwavering support and patience during the course of
my thesis work. Lastly, I offer my regards to all of those who supported me in all
respect during the completion of my thesis.

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

ABBREVIATION

SWP

Solar Water Pump

MNRE

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

PVP

Photo Voltaic Pump

PV

Photovoltaic

AC

Alternate Current

DC

Direct Current

JNNSM

Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission

RKVY

Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana

GDP

Gross domestic product

GHG

Greenhouse gas

JGS

Jyotirgram Scheme

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction.............................................................................................. 10
1.1

Indian Pump Industry Overview ........................................................... 11

1.2

Pump Market in India .......................................................................... 12

1.3

Agriculture in India .............................................................................. 12

1.4

Solar Water Pump .............................................................................. 14

1.5

Why Solar .......................................................................................... 16

1.6

Why SWP? ........................................................................................ 17

1.7

Market Potential ................................................................................. 19

1.8

Costbenefit analysis (CBA) ................................................................ 19

1.9

Research Objective ............................................................................ 20

Literature review ...................................................................................... 21


2.1

Electricity Consumption in Agriculture sector ........................................ 22

2.2

Water Resources in Gujarat ................................................................ 23

2.3

Solar Power as substitute of Diesel ...................................................... 23

2.4

The off-grid system ............................................................................. 26

2.5

Solar Water Pump .............................................................................. 26

2.6

Government Subsidy for Solar Water Pump ......................................... 28

2.7

Market Potential of SWP ..................................................................... 31

Research Methodology ............................................................................. 33


3.1

Need of the Study ............................................................................... 34

3.2

Primary Survey................................................................................... 34
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3.3
4

Limitation of study............................................................................... 34

Cost Benefit Analysis of Diesel vs. Solar Water Pump ................................ 35


4.1

Costing Assumptions: ......................................................................... 36

4.2

Scenario 0 ......................................................................................... 37

4.3

Scenario 1 ......................................................................................... 38

4.4

Scenario 2 ......................................................................................... 39

4.5

Scenario 3 ......................................................................................... 40

Conclusion............................................................................................... 42

Bibliography ............................................................................................. 43

Appendix ................................................................................................. 46
7.1

List of Solar PV Water Pumping Systems Tested and Qualified at Solar

Energy Center during the year 2012-13 ......................................................... 47


7.2

List of Questions and Responses during SWP User Interview................ 51

7.3

List of Images of Site location where Interview conducted of SWP Users

during Thesis Research ............................................................................... 56


7.3.1

1st Interview site location ............................................................... 56

7.3.2

2nd Interview site location .............................................................. 57

7.3.3

3rd Interview site location............................................................... 58

7.3.4

4th Interview site location ............................................................... 59

7.3.5

5th Interview site location ............................................................... 60

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Solar, Diesel & Conventional Power Comparison ................................. 17


Figure 2 Conventional vs. Solar Power generation process ............................... 24
Figure 3 Technical Specifications of Solar Submersible DC Pump ..................... 28
Figure 4 Impacts of the Jyotigram scheme on different stakeholder groups ...... 29
Figure 5 Breakeven Point in Scenario 0............................................................ 37
Figure 6 Breakeven Point in Scenario 1............................................................ 38
Figure 7 Breakeven Point in Scenario 2............................................................ 39
Figure 8 Breakeven Point in Scenario 3............................................................ 40
Figure 10 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (1) near Hirapur Chokdi ......... 56
Figure 11 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (2) near Hirapur Chokdi ......... 57
Figure 12 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (3) near Hirapur Chokdi ......... 58
Figure 13 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (4) near Palanpur .................. 59
Figure 14 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (5) near Ghamij Village .......... 60

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Pump Market in India Highlights........................................................... 11


Table 2 Challenges and Potential Solutions of Solar water pump ....................... 32
Table 3 5hp Diesel Pump Costing Assumptions ................................................ 36
Table 4 5hp SWP Costing With and Without 30% Subsidy................................. 36
Table 5 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 0) ................................................. 37
Table 6 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 1) ................................................. 38
Table 7 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 2) ................................................. 39
Table 8 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 3) ................................................. 40
Table 9 Comparison of break-even point in each scenario of SWP Usage .......... 41

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Introduction

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1.1 Indian Pump Industry Overview


A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by
mechanical action. Pump is not a new concept in the Indian industry. In fact, the
Pichkari which Lord Krishna and his playmates used for splashing coloured water
on Gopies, can be termed as the oldest reference to a pump concept, especially of
the reciprocating plunger type. Thus, pumps must be an Indian invention, but
commercial production of pumps in India, as contemporarily understood, is quoted
to be way back in the first decade of twentieth century (Amin).

The Indian Pump industry has more than 800 manufacturers with worker strength
of over 40,000 producing about 5 million pumps annually. Indian market for pump
is estimated to be Rs.5000 Crores growing at an annual rate of 8% significantly
higher than the global rate of 4% in FY 12. The Pumps industry in India is more
than seven decades old. Though it has a turnover of Rs 5000 crore the size is not
even 10 per cent of the size of USA market. The industry meets 95 per cent of the
domestic demand.

Year

FY 2012

FY 2013

Estimated Market (in Rs)

5000 Cr

8375 Cr

Annual Growth rate

8%

12%

No. of Pump Manufacturers

800+

800+

% of Demand meet by Domestic


Manufacturers

95%

95%

Table 1 Pump Market in India Highlights


Source: (Singhi_Advisors, 2011), (TATA , 2013)

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1.2 Pump Market in India


Exports have been a regular feature of Indian pump industry for years. Indian
pumps have reached more than sixty countries around the world including
developed countries. India exported Pump sets worth 400 Crs in FY 11. Indian
pump industry is characterized by the coexistence of large number of Small &
Medium units, some large manufacturers and plenty of foreign manufacturers.

Coimbatore is the leading hub for pump manufacturing followed by Ahmedabad


and Rajkot. India is the outsourcing hub of the manufacturers abroad who have
found India to be not only a cheap source of skilled labor but also the market to be
an expansive one. Contribution of Agricultural and domestic industry to total pump
sales is higher in India compared to global standards. (Singhi_Advisors, 2011)

The following are major player in Indian pump Industry like,


KSB, Kirloskar, Texmo, Crompton, CRI, Jyoti, Lubi, Duke Etc.

1.3 Agriculture in India


Agriculture is a key sector in India that employs two-thirds of the countrys work
force and continues to be a significant contributor to the GDP, 20% in 2005
(MOSPI, 2007b).

Water is becoming increasingly scarce in many parts of the world and thereby
limiting agricultural development. The capacity of large countries like India to
efficiently develop and manage water resources is likely to be a key determinant
for global food security in the 21st century. (K Palanisami, 2011)
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Figure 1 Solar Water Pump (SWP) Block Diagram


Source: Self Compiled
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Since agriculture is the major water-consuming sector in India, demand
management in agriculture in water-scarce and water-stressed regions would be
central to reduce the aggregate demand for water to match the available future
supplies. (K Palanisami, 2011)

It is estimated that 80 per cent of the freshwater in India is used for agriculture and
a major portion (70%) of this is based on groundwater irrigation. Nearly 88 per
cent of the total minor irrigation schemes in India are pump-based (MoWR, 2013).
Though pump sets are important for livelihoods, they also contribute to the GHG
emissions since a significant percentage of them rely on diesel.

1.4 Solar Water Pump


Solar power operated water pumping system is used pump the water in remote
place where the electric power is not available, it is a renewable energy technic
where no cost for the electricity, A solar cell, a form of photovoltaic cell, is a device
that uses the photoelectric effect to generate electricity from light, thus generating
solar power (energy). Most often, many cells are linked together to form a solar
panel with increased voltage and/or current. Solar cells produce direct current
(DC), which can be used directly, converted in Alternate Current (AC), or stored in
a battery.

The first phase of market development for solar PV water pumping in India goes
back to 1993-94.The programme of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
(MNRE), then known as Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources, aimed for
deployment of 50,000 solar PV water pumping systems for irrigation and drinking
water across the country. MNRE provided the financial assistance required for
subsidizing the capital and interest cost of the solar pumps. (GIZ, 2013)
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Figure 2 Solar Submersible Pump Diagram


Source: (taiyosolar.in)

Some years ago there were PVP models on the market that operated with
batteries and a conventional inverter. However it was soon realised that the cost
savings on the pump did not make up for the overall substandard efficiency and
the higher maintenance cost due to battery replacements. Instead it became clear
that it is more economical to rather store water in a reservoir than electricity in a
battery bank. (EmCON, 2006)
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In several villages, the bore wells are now utilized as a dual source and the
operational hours have been reduced. Based on a random survey, it has been
observed that a significant saving has been achieved in electricity consumption
that is now available for alternative uses, proving to be an eco-friendly
achievement. Solar pumps have also been commissioned in 260 villages in the
State and about 200 more solar pumping systems will be installed in the near
future. In various parts of the State, including coastal and tribal areas, roof top
rainwater harvesting structures have also been taken up in public buildings,
schools and individual household level, which is also resulting in substantial
electricity savings. Comprehensive energy audits for various group water supply
schemes have also resulted in energy savings. (Gupta, 2011)

1.5 Why Solar


In India 80% of the electricity is produced by coal which is a nonrenewable source. Electricity whatever produced is very less than the need for
electricity.

By this many of the companies, industries, organizations, common

people are facing severe power cuts. Because of this insufficient power supply for
the agriculture sector, output of the crop is reducing every year. This scarcity of
the power is creating major problems in small scale industries which logistics are
totally depended on power.

Solar power is one of the best nonpolluting energy sources. India being at best
geographical location receives nearly 300 to 320 days good sunny days. Among
the solar power sources, solar Photovoltaic (PV) is one the matured power
systems. If the industry develops and spread the Solar PV power packs to be
installed at different places especially on buildings (commercial, public and
institutional), industries, and also on various barren lands like hilly slopes, and
desert areas. (Somasekhar. G, 2014)
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16

Cost (Rs) (Per KWh)

14
12
10

8
6
4
2

0
2011

Solar PV

2013

2015

2017

Conventional Power

2019

2021

Diesel Gen. Set

Figure 1 Solar, Diesel & Conventional Power Comparison


Source: Headway Solar (P) Ltd.

1.6 Why SWP?


To grow the product where the grid energy doesn't reach in the hands the PV
system plays important role in developing country like India. Another important
reason

of using PV based pumping systems is: conventional electricity not

supplied in sufficient time (6-8 hour supplied to farmers in Rajasthan India), the
cost of conventional energy, government subsidy in solar pumping systems and
it is difficult to extend the electric grid to every location where it is needed for
every farmer. (Shiv Lal, 2013)

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Erratic power supply and frequent grid failures are typical in most part of rural
India. Farmers have a diesel pump or diesel run generator as an alternative
to minimize the risk of crop failure due to discontinued water supply. As an
alternative to expensive rural electricity grids and inefficient conversion of fossil
fuels, renewable energies can contribute to solving this problem. (Shamaila Zia,
2012)

According to TATAs Strategic Report on Indian Pumps and Industrial Valves


Market, Likely scenario of Pumps market over next five years:
1. Minimal technological advancements; low R&D investment
2. Reduction in profit margins due to increasing raw material prices and
operation in a price- sensitive market
3. Competition from low-cost Chinese Imports
4. Manufacturers will be expected to provide integrated solution (motors,
seals, valves, drivers, after-sales service and technical support)
5. Some degree of consolidation of the market
Source: (TATA , 2013)

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1.7 Market Potential


Market Potential is the estimated maximum total Sales/Revenue of all suppliers of
product in market during a certain period.

Estimating Market Potential (MP) = N P Q

Estimating Market Potential (MP) of firm A = N P Q MS 2


Where,
MP
N
P
Q
MS

= market potential
= total number of potential consumers
= average selling price
= average annual consumption
= market share (%) of consumers buying from firm A

1.8 Costbenefit analysis (CBA)


CBA is a systematic process for calculating and comparing benefits and costs of a
project, decision or government policy. It involves comparing the total expected
cost of each option against the total expected benefits, to see whether the benefits
compensate the costs, and by how much.
CBA has two purposes:
1) To determine if it is a sound investment/decision
2) To provide a basis for comparing projects

Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) estimates and totals up the equivalent money value
of the benefits and costs to the community of projects to establish whether they
are worthwhile. 3

1 . http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/market-potential.html
2 . http://plantsforhumanhealth.ncsu.edu/extension/marketready/pdfs-ppt/business_development_files/PDF/estimating_market_potential.pdf

3 http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/cba.htm

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1.9 Research Objective


1

The objective of this study is to analyze market potential of solar water pumps.

To analyze what is the need of Solar Water Pump.

To conduct a comparative cost benefit analysis among Diesel vs. Solar Water
Pump.

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Literature review

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2.1 Electricity Consumption in Agriculture sector


Gujarat energy minister Saurabh Patel says the government has promised 10
hours of electricity to farmers for agricultural purposes and is delivering on it.
However, Praful Senjaliya, a farmer leader in Saurashtra associated with the
Bharatiya Kisan Sangh, disagrees. "Farmers have never got 10 hours electricity.
As it is, we don't need much power because of drought-like situation. But the main
problem is that electricity that is supplied for around five to eight hours is only at
night and odd times. We have requested the government often to provide
electricity in the day," he says (The Times of India, 2013).

Despite massive public investments in canal irrigation, Gujarat agriculture has


come to depend heavily on irrigation with wells and tube wells. During the 1950s
and 1960s, farmers used mostly diesel engines to pump groundwater. However,
as rural electrification progressed, they began switching to submersible electric
pumps, especially as diesel pumps are unable to chase declining water levels.
Major expansion in the use of electric pumps occurred during the late 1980s as the
Gujarat Electricity Board (GEB) changed to flat tariffs linked to the horse power of
pumps. Until 1988, farmers were charged based on the metered use of electricity.
However, as electric tube wells increased to hundreds of thousands, rampant
corruption began to plague meter reading and billing. Farmers also complained
about the tyranny and arbitrariness of the GEBs meter readers. (Tushaar Shah,
pp. 1-18)

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2.2 Water Resources in Gujarat


Gujarat has just 2.28% of Indias water resources and 6.39% of countrys
geographical area. This is again constrained by imbalances in intra-state
distribution. The State has an average annual rainfall of 80 cm with a high
coefficient of variance over time and space and as a result droughts have been
frequent. Out of 185 rivers, the State has only eight perennial rivers and all of them
are located in southern part. Around 80% of the States surface water resources
are concentrated in central and southern Gujarat, whereas the remaining threequarters of the State have only 20%. (Gupta, 2011)

Since 2000, however, all available evidence suggests that the regions ground
water economy has begun shrinking in response to a growing energy squeeze.
This energy squeeze is a combined outcome of three factors:
a) Progressive reduction in the quantity and quality of power supplied by
power utilities to agriculture as a desperate means to contain farm
power subsidies;
b) Growing difficulty and rising capital cost of acquiring new electricity
connections for tube wells; and
c) An eight-fold increase in the nominal price of diesel during 1990-2007
(a period during which the nominal rice price rose by less than 50 %).
(Shah T. , 2008)

2.3 Solar Power as substitute of Diesel


A complex set of factors such as global warming, increasing competitive land use,
and the growing mismatch between energy demand and supply is creating new
challenges for the vast agrarian population in India. Diesel for running irrigation
pumps is often beyond the means of economically marginalized farmers.
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Insufficient Irrigation can lead to crop damage, reducing yields and diminishing
income. Environment-friendly, low-maintenance photovoltaic pumping systems
offer new possibilities for pumping irrigation water. (GIZ, 2013)

Figure 2 Conventional vs. Solar Power generation process


(Image Credit: Sunible.com)
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Solar energy technologies have long been used in the areas of solar heating, solar
photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and solar architecture. Energy shortages
and increasing energy prices are two of the most urgent problems we face today.
One desirable solution to the energy shortage problem is renewable energy, and
solar energy is one of the cleanest and most efficient energy sources. Solar panels
are among the most common methods of harvesting solar energy from solar
radiation, which accounts for a large portion of available renewable energy. (Hu,
2012)

According to Mr. Santosh Kamath, Executive Director of KPMG, Decentralized


systems benefit from lower network losses as power does not have to be
transported over long distances. These include applications such as solar rooftop
systems, solar-powered agriculture pump sets, solar lighting systems and solarpowered telecom towers (KPMG, 2011).

Several studies have indicated that the capital cost of solar is significantly
more expensive than a diesel powered system but this is not the case. Solar
pumps tended to replace larger capacity submersible pump and generator of
comparable or greater cost. This is a result of a common tendency to oversize
generators and pumps, a bigger is better mentality which persists not just
within communities but also within District Water Offices and agencies who
supply the equipment.

There are also other capital investment and running

costs for generators that are not required for solar. (Brian McSorley, 2011)

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2.4 The off-grid system


An off-grid solar PV power system is the standalone system provides
uninterrupted power to the customer when sun is available. Off-grid system
requires the battery storage and Inverter to get the AC power. The solar PV power
inverter and batteries shall have limited life and supposed to be replaced at fixed
intervals say after 10 years.
Advantages:
1. One time truthful Investment
2. Solar power Grid system comes without noise and pollution
3. After payback period owner can enjoy absolutely free of cost
4. For this grid system diesel is not required
(Somasekhar. G, 2014)

2.5 Solar Water Pump


Irrigation
advantage

water

pumping

Solar

Photovoltaic

(SPV)

theoretically

has an

in meeting the needs of remote communities because of the high

distribution costs of grid-power to this market and the competitive position with
respect to diesel has improved with the recent rising oil prices. A surface
pump powered with a 1.8 kWp PV array can deliver about 140,000 liters of water
on a clear sunny day from a total head of 10 meters. This quantity of water drawn
has been found to meet the irrigation requirement of 5-8 acres of land by
using improved techniques for water distribution. (Amit Jain, 2012)

In rural and/or undeveloped areas where there is no power grid and more water is
needed than what hand or foot pumps can deliver, the choices for powering
pumps are usually solar or a fuel driven engine, usually diesel. There are very
distinct differences between the two power sources in terms of cost and reliability.
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Diesel pumps are typically characterized by a lower first cost but a very high
operation and maintenance cost. Solar is the opposite, with a higher first cost but
very low ongoing operation and maintenance costs. In terms of reliability, it is
much easier (and cheaper) to keep a solar-powered system going than it is a
diesel engine. This is evident in field where diesel engines lie rusting and unused
by the thousands and solar pumps sometimes run for years without anyone
touching them. (SELF, 2008)

The solar pump has a unique cost structure with very high capital investment and
near-zero marginal cost of pumping. This makes it very similar to electric pump
owners who face high flat tariff but unlimited use of power (when available) at zero
marginal cost. This cost structure will drive away small farmers who want to
irrigate only their own little field; but it is ideal for potential ISPs. A solar -pump
driven groundwater economy will also promote competitive groundwater markets
with highly beneficial outcomes for water buyers who will gain even more with
buried pipeline distribution networks such as those obtaining in central Gujarat
(Shah, 1993).

Solar pumps offer a clean and simple alternative to fuel-burning engines and
generators for domestic water, livestock and irrigation. They are most effective
during dry and sunny seasons. They require no fuel deliveries, and very little
maintenance. Solar pumps are powered by photovoltaic (solar electric) panels and
the flow rate is determined by the intensity of the sunlight. Solar panels have no
moving parts, and most have a warranty of at least 20 years. Most solar pumps
operate without the use of storage batteries. Solar pumps must be optimally
selected for the task at hand, in order to minimize the power required, and thus the
cost of the system. (lorentz, 2008)

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The following figure indicates, Indicative Technical Specifications of Solar Deep
well (submersible) Pumping Systems:
(With D.C. Motor Pump Set with Brushes or Brush less D.C. (B.L.D.C.))

Figure 3 Technical Specifications of Solar Submersible DC Pump

Source: (MNRE, 2013, p. 10)

2.6 Government Subsidy for Solar Water Pump


With the launch of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (JNNSM) in 2010,
the solar water pumping programme of the MNRE was integrated with the off-grid
and decentralized component of the JNNSM. There under, solar PV water
Pumping Systems are currently eligible for a financial support of 30% subsidy,
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subject to a benchmark price of Rs. 190 per peak watt (Wp) from MNRE. Several
states such as Rajasthan, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra,
Tamil Nadu and Bihar have taken up initiatives to implement solar PV water
pumping programs using the financial assistance of JNNSM and funds available
from the respective state governments (GIZ, 2013).
A SPV Pumping System installation program has been taken up by the
Horticulture Department of the Government of Rajasthan (GOR). Applicants may
avail of an 86% subsidy from the Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission
(JNNSM) and the Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojana (RKVY). MNRE is providing
30% subsidy under the JNNSM, while the Government of Rajasthan through
the RKVY makes the remaining 56% available. This is a special scheme by GOR.
For other states only MNRE is providing 30% subsidy under the JNNSM. Only
7334 solar PV water pumps having been installed across the country, as of March
2010 (Amit Jain, 2012).

The following figure is based on assessment of the impacts of JGS on different


stakeholder groups in Gujarat.

Figure 4 Impacts of the Jyotigram scheme on different stakeholder groups


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Source: (Tushaar Shah, pp. 327-344)
Solar-powered agriculture pump sets:

Currently, the agriculture category which uses power for irrigation pumps
contributes around 20 percent of the total power demand of India. The grid
power tariff to agriculture segment is heavily subsidized. The power supply
is staggered and the network performance inefficient in most cases.

Moreover, the subsidy burden is increasing due to the increase in


conventional power costs thus negatively impacting the financial health of
the State and power utilities.

Furthermore, there are a large number of agriculture pump sets that


currently use diesel power where there is no grid connection available.

As cost curves come down, solar power is well suited as an alternative


solution to meet the power requirements of the agriculture segment.
Besides being a clean and convenient source of power, solar power can
reduce the subsidy burden on the Government.

To start with diesel, pump sets could be replaced by solar-powered pump


sets due to favorable cost economics.
Source: (KPMG, 2011)

30

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

2.7 Market Potential of SWP


According to Bloomberg reports, The Indian government is aiming to swap out 26
million fossil-fuel-powered groundwater pumps for solar-powered ones. The
pumps are used by farmers throughout the country to pull in water for irrigation,
and currently rely on diesel generators or Indias fossil-fuel-reliant electrical grid for
power. Pashupathy Gopalan, the regional head of SunEdison, Said that 8 million
diesel pumps already in use could be replaced right now. And Indias Ministry of
New and Renewable Energy estimates another 700,000 diesel pumps that could
be replaced are bought in India every year. Tarun Kapoor, the joint secretary,
MNRE said that Irrigation pumps may be the single largest application for solar in
the country (SPROSS, 2014).

In India nearly 81 million (32.8 per cent) households do not have access to
electricity (Census of India, 2011). Around 74 million rural households lack access
to modern lighting services (TERI, 2013, p. 380) and a larger proportion of the
population (around 840 million) continue to be dependent on traditional biomass
energy sources (IEA, Octomber, 2011).

There are about 21 million irrigation pump sets in India, of which about 9 million
are run on diesel and the rest are grid based (Amit Jain, 2012).

31

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Barriers

Market
Related
Barriers

Regularity
Issues

Potential Solutions

High Upfront Cost

Smart Subsidies/ Innovative


Finance

Lack of Finance Mechanisms

Innovative Customer Behaviour/


Business Finance Mechanisms

Low awareness among


Consumers & other relative
shareholders

Awareness Campaigns

Lack of Maintenance and


Support

Localized Service Infrastructure

Danger of Theft

Portable/ Community Owned


Systems, Insurance

Restricted Financial
Engineering

Innovative Policies and Finance


Engineering

Maze of Political Department

Single-Window Approach

Lack of Market Oriented


Policies

Policies Providing a level Playing


Field with diesel pumps

Concealed Tendency and


Small Landholdings

Tendency Reform, Leasing


Mechanisms & Group
Investments

Lack of Standardization and

Standardize product that cater


local needs

Technology
Quality Assurance
Related
Lack of Local Manufactures
Barriers

Promotion of Local
Manufacturing

Table 2 Challenges and Potential Solutions of Solar water pump


Source: (GIZ, 2013)

32

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Research Methodology

33

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

3.1 Need of the Study


The water pump industry in India has become too much competitive to sustain and
in this scenario one needs to be innovative. And other side there is demand for
solar water pump because there are many farmers who do not have access to
electricity for farming in India. The point is Will this new innovation called solar
water pump able to fulfill the demand? During my secondary research I found
many reports which show comparison of Diesel VS Solar water pump. When we
talk of viability of solar water pump for farmers in Indian context, it makes
difference because of Indian geographical conditions, farmers mindset, Indian
governments approach towards solar water pump etc. So this issue needs to be
discussed with solar water pump users in India and perform cost benefit analysis
of diesel vs. solar water pump during my research thesis.

3.2 Primary Survey


To identify what is market potential of solar water pump, a structured interview of
farmer was taken. The interview includes questions like - what is capacity of solar
water pump, what is process of installing SWP, effectiveness of Government
subsidy etc.
This interview details are shown in Appendix 7.2 and 7.3 .

3.3 Limitation of study


Due to time constraint, five structured interviews able to taken of solar water pump
users. And this all SWP user belong to north central Gujarat.

Kheda District - 3 Interviews

Gandhinagar District - 1 Interview

Banaskantha District - 1 Interview


34

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Cost Benefit Analysis of

Diesel vs. Solar Water Pump

35

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

4.1 Costing Assumptions:


5hp Diesel Pump Costing Assumptions
Particular

Scenario 0 Scenario 1 Scenario 2 Scenario 3

No. of Hour Pump Usage /day

No. of Sunny Days/ Year

250

250

250

250

No. of Hour Pump Usage/ Year

250

500

1000

2000

63

63

63

63

1.7

1.7

1.7

1.7

Hike in Diesel Price (%)

10

10

10

10

Total Running Cost (Rs)

26775

53550

107100

214200

Price of Diesel/ litre (Rs) 4


Diesel Usage/ Hour (5HP)

Table 3 5hp Diesel Pump Costing Assumptions

Maintena
nce Cost
(C)

SWP
Cumulative
Cost W/O
Subsidy
(A+B+C)

SWP
Cumulative
Cost With
30% Subsidy
(D+B+C)

2500

491900

345080

2500

494400

347580

2500

496900

350080

2500

499400

352580

2500

501900

355080

2500

504400

357580

2500

506900

360080

2500

509400

362580

2500

511900

365080

10

2500

514400

367580

Year

Capital
Cost
Without
Subsidy (A)

Capital
Cost
With 30%
Subsidy (D)

Operating
Cost (B)

489400

342580

Table 4 5hp SWP Costing With and Without 30% Subsidy

http://www.mypetrolprice.com/10/Diesel-price-in-Ahmedabad

(Seleshi Bekele Awulachew (IWMI), 2009)

36

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

4.2 Scenario 0
5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 0)
Diesel
Pump
Cumulative
Cost

Capital
Cost
(A)

Operating
Cost (B)

Maintenance
Cost (C)

30000

26775

5000

61775

61775

491900

345080

29453

5000

34453

96228

494400

347580

32398

5000

37398

133625

496900

350080

35638

5000

40638

174263

499400

352580

39201

5000

44201

218464

501900

355080

43121

5000

48121

266585

504400

357580

47434

5000

52434

319019

506900

360080

52177

5000

57177

376196

509400

362580

57395

5000

62395

511900

365080

10

63134

5000

68134
506725

438590
506725

514400

367580

Year

Total
Cost
(A+B+C)

Total

SWP Cost
Without
Subsidy

SWP Cost
With 30%
Subsidy

Table 5 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 0)

Cumulative Cost (Rs)

600000
500000
400000
300000

Diesel Pump
SWP without Subsidy

200000

SWP With 30% Subsidy

100000
0
1

10

Break Even Duration (Year)

Figure 5 Breakeven Point in Scenario 0


37

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

4.3 Scenario 1
5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 1)
Diesel
SWP Cost SWP Cost
Pump
Without
With 30%
Cumulative
Subsidy
Subsidy
Cost
88550
491900
345080

Capital
Cost
(A)

Operating
Cost (B)

Maintenance
Cost (C)

30000

53550

5000

88550

58905

5000

63905

152455

494400

347580

64795.5

5000

69796

222251

496900

350080

71275.05

5000

76275

298526

499400

352580

78402.56

5000

83403

381928

501900

355080

86242.81

5000

91243

473171

504400

357580

94867.09

5000

99867

573038

506900

360080

104353.8

5000

109354

682392

509400

362580

114789.2

5000

119789

802181

511900

365080

10

126268.1

5000

131268

933449

514400

367580

Year

Total
Cost
(A+B+C)

Total

933449

Table 6 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 1)

1000000

Cumulative Cost (Rs)

900000
800000
700000
600000
500000

Diesel Pump

400000

SWP without Subsidy

300000

SWP With 30% Subsidy

200000
100000
0
1

10

Break Even Duration (Year)

Figure 6 Breakeven Point in Scenario 1


38

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

4.4

Scenario 2
5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 2)
Diesel
Pump
Cumulative
Cost

Capital
Cost
(A)

Operating
Cost (B)

Maintenance
Cost (C)

30000

107100

5000

142100

142100

491900

345080

117810

5000

122810

264910

494400

347580

129591

5000

134591

399501

496900

350080

142550.1

5000

147550

547051

499400

352580

156805.1

5000

161805

708856

501900

355080

172485.6

5000

177486

886342

504400

357580

189734.2

5000

194734

1081076

506900

360080

208707.6

5000

213708

1294784

509400

362580

229578.4

5000

234578

1529362

511900

365080

10

252536.2

5000

257536

1786898

514400

367580

Year

Total
Cost
(A+B+C)

Total

SWP Cost
Without
Subsidy

SWP Cost
With 30%
Subsidy

1786898

Table 7 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 2)

2000000
1800000
1600000

Axis Title

1400000
1200000

1000000

Diesel Pump

800000

SWP without Subsidy

600000

SWP With 30% Subsidy

400000

200000
0
1

10

Break Even Duration (Year)

Figure 7 Breakeven Point in Scenario 2


39

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

4.5 Scenario 3
5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 3)
Operating
Cost (B)

Maintenance
Cost (C)

30000

214200

5000

249200

249200

491900

345080

235620

5000

240620

489820

494400

347580

259182

5000

264182

754002

496900

350080

285100.2

5000

290100

1044102

499400

352580

313610.2

5000

318610

1362712

501900

355080

344971.2

5000

349971

1712684

504400

357580

379468.4

5000

384468

2097152

506900

360080

417415.2

5000

422415

2519567

509400

362580

459156.7

5000

464157

2983724

511900

365080

10

505072.4

5000

510072

3493796

514400

367580

Year

Total

Total
Cost
(A+B+C)

Diesel
Pump
Cumulative
Cost

Capital
Cost
(A)

SWP Cost
Without
Subsidy

SWP Cost
With 30%
Subsidy

3493796

Table 8 5hp Diesel Pump Costing (Scenario 3)

4000000

Cumulative Cost (Rs)

3500000
3000000
2500000
2000000

Diesel Pump

1500000

SWP without Subsidy


SWP With 30% Subsidy

1000000
500000
0
1

10

Break Even Duration (Year)

Figure 8 Breakeven Point in Scenario 3


40

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Particular

Scenario Scenario Scenario Scenario


0

250

250

250

250

250 Hour

500 Hour

1000 Hour

2000 Hour

10 Year

Year

Year

Year

Year

No. of Hour Pump


Operating/ day
No. of Sunny Days/
Year
No. of Hour Pump
Operating/ Year
Break Even Point
Without Subsidy
Break Even Point

Year

2 Year

Year

With 30% Subsidy

Table 9 Comparison of break-even point in each scenario of SWP Usage

41

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Conclusion

From the cost benefit analysis of diesel vs. solar water pump, Conclusion is that if
your daily water usage is ranging from 1-2-4-8 hours than respective break even
time period is approximately 10-6-4-2 year for Without subsidy and with 30%
Central Government Subsidy it is 7.5 - 4.5 - 2.5 - 1.5 year as shown in Table 9.
So, Daily around 8 hour of 5hp solar water pump usage for 250 days per year led
to recover cost in 2 year with comparison of 5hp diesel pump. Higher usage of
water will reduce break even time period. Now, if your usage is less than 8 hour
per day than you can recover SWP cost by other ways. Like selling water to others
and use solar panel for getting electricity for home lighting and other home
appliances.

During primary research in discussion with solar water pump user, one reason why
farmer buy solar water pump. And this reason will not able to found in any kind of
secondary research. Normally, Farmer buy solar water pump mainly because of
two things.

One is unavailability of electricity at farm and increasing price of

diesel. The reason is that farmer also buy solar water pump because of land
ownership issue. To get electricity connection, farmer need land ownership
document and signature of related owners. Normally one can become land owner
from his fathers land and fathers land is shared among his children. Now to get
signatures of all related owner is difficult. So, in this situation to get electricity
connection is difficult. So, farmers prefer to buy solar water pump.

42

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Bibliography

Amin, R. (n.d.). An Overview of Indian Pump Industry. pp. 1-2.


Amit Jain, S. J. (2012). Is Solar a solution to Blackouts in India: A case study with
agriculture diesel pumps sets?
Brian McSorley, M. M. (2011). Solar Pumps: A solution to improving water security
in drought prone areas. Oxham.
Census of India. (2011). Source of lighting: 2001-2011, Houselisting and Housing
Census Data Highlights - 2011. Registrar General & Census Commissioner,
India (ORGI), Government of India.
EmCON. (2006). Feasibility Assessment for the Replacement of Diesel Water
Pumps with Solar Water Pumps. NAMIBIAN RENEWABLE ENERGY
PROGRAMME (NAMREP).
GIZ. (2013). Solar Water Pumping for Irrigation: Potential and Barriers in Bihar,
India. Indo-German Energy Programme (IGEN), Deutsche Gesellschaft fr
Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH.
Gupta, R. K. (2011). The role of water technology in development: a case study of
Gujarat State. (pp. 1-14). Zaragoza, Spain: UN Water.
Hu, B. (2012). Solar Panel Anomaly Detection and Classification. Waterloo:
University of Waterloo.
IEA. (Octomber, 2011). energy for all: financing access for the poor. energy for all
conference (pp. 19-22). Oslo, Norway: International Energy Agency.
K Palanisami, K. M. (2011). Spread and Economics of Micro-irrigation in India:
Evidence from Nine States. REVIEW OF AGRICULTURE, 1-6.
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KPMG. (2011). The Rising Sun - A Point of View on the Solar Energy Sector in
India. Mumbai: KPMG.
lorentz. (2008). Solar Water Pumps in Namibia: A Comparison Between Solar And
Diesel.
MNRE. (2013). Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission - SOLAR
PHOTOVOLTAIC WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS.
Seleshi Bekele Awulachew (IWMI), P. L. (2009). Pumps for small-scale irrigation.
IWMI.
SELF. (2008). A COST AND RELIABILITY COMPARISON BETWEEN SOLAR
AND DIESEL POWERED PUMPS. Solar Electric Light Fund (SELF).
Shah. (1993). Groundwater markets and irrigation development: Political economy
and practical policy. Bombay: Oxford University .
Shah, T. (2008). Crop per Drop of Diesel! Energy-Squeeze on Indias Smallholder
Irrigation. Anand, India: International Water Management Institute, .
Shamaila Zia, T. A. (2012). easibility Assessment of photovoltaic pumping for
irrigation in West Bengal, India. 1. Institute of Agricultural Engineering
(440e) Universitt Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany 2. Indian Institute of
Technology, Kharagpur, India.
Shiv Lal, P. K. (2013). Techno-economic analysis of solar photovoltaic based
submersible water pumping system for rural areas of an Indian state
Rajasthan . Science Journal of Energy Engineering, 1-4.
Singhi_Advisors. (2011). Pump & Valve Industry Overview & Opportunities.
Somasekhar. G, B. G. (2014). Marketing Methodology of Solar PV Power Packs.
IOSR Journal of Economics and Finance (IOSR-JEF), 38-43.

44

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SPROSS, J. (2014, February 7). India Wants To Switch 26 Million Water Pumps
To Solar Power Instead Of Diesel. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from
http://thinkprogress.org:
http://thinkprogress.org/climate/2014/02/07/3265631/india-solar-pumpswap/
taiyosolar.in. (n.d.). solarpump. Retrieved may 20, 2014, from taiyosolar:
http://taiyosolar.in/solarpump.html
TATA . (2013). Indian Pumps and Industrial Valves Market. TATA Strategic
management group.
TERI. (2013). TERI Energy Data Directory & Yearbook (TEDDY) 2012/13. TERI
Publication.
The Times of India. (2013, March 4). Power-full Gujarat gives 24-hour electricity.
Retrieved May 10, 2014, from indiatimes.com:
http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Power-full-Gujarat-gives-24-hourelectricity/articleshow/18786012.cms
Tushaar Shah, S. V. (n.d.). Real-time Co-management of Electricity and
Groundwater: An Assessment of Gujarats Pioneering Jyotirgram Scheme.
International Water Management Institute, Anand, India.

45

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

Appendix

46

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.1 List of Solar PV Water Pumping Systems Tested and


Qualified at Solar Energy Center during the year 2012-13
N
o
1

File No.
&
Issue Date
0837/11/CSC/
SEC/Pump
27.12.2011

0861/11/CSC/
SEC/Pump
8.6.2012

43/2012/CSC/
SEC/Pump
8.6.2012

44/2012/CSC/
SEC/Pump
8.6.2012

93/2012/CSC/
SEC/Pump
8.6.2012

95/2012/CSC/
SEC/Pump
15.06.2012

115/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
11.07.2012

Pump submitted by

Pump
system

PV array

Type & Head

M/s JJPV solar Pvt Ltd.,


Vill Veraval (Shapar),
Dist. Rajkot- 360024,
Gujarat (India)

M/s Groundfos

M/s JJPV solar


Pvt. Ltd.

Submersible
3HP DC
pump, Head
30 meter

M/s JJPV solar Pvt Ltd.,


Vill Veraval (Shapar),
Dist. Rajkot- 360024,
Gujarat (India)

M/s Rotomag

M/s JJPV solar


Pvt. Ltd.

Centrifugal 2
HP DC surface
pump, Head 10
meter

M/s Span pumps Pvt.


Ltd., 104,Arihant,
1187/26, Shivaji nagar,
Pune-411005, India

M/s Groundfos

M/s Surana
Telecom &
Power Ltd,
Hyderabad

Submersible 0.5
HP DC pump,
Head 30 meter

M/s VRG Energy India


Pvt. Ltd., 128, Backbone
shopping center, Rajkot360064, Gujarat, India

M/s Groundfos
Model: SQF
8A-5

M/s PV Power
Technologies
Pvt. Ltd.,
Mumbai

Submersible DC
pump, Head 30
meter

M/s Moserbaer (I) Ltd.,


66, Udyog Vihar,
Greater Noida, G.B.
Nagar (UP)-201306,
India

M/s Sun
Pump, USA

M/s Moserbaer
(I) Ltd.

Submersible DC
Pump, Head 30
meter 2 HP

M/s WAREE Energies


(P) Ltd., 602, Western
Edge-1, Borivali (E),
Mumbai-4000066, India

M/s Lorentz
Pump Model:
PS 1800
SJ8-7

M/s WAREE
Energies (P)
Ltd.

Submersible
2HP DC
Pump, Head
30 meter

M/s Central Electronics


Limited, 4, Industrial
area, Sahidabad,
Ghajiabad (U.P)201010

M/s Lorentz
Pump

M/s Central
Electronics
Limited

Submersible DC
Pump, Head 30
meter 4.6 HP

47

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com


8

113/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
08.08.2012

247/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
8.11.2012

10

244/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
9/11/2012

11

226/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
9/11/2012

12

248/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
27/11/2012

13

243/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
29/11/2012

14

249/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump

M/s BSES Yamuna


Power Limited, Shakti
Kiran Building,
Karkardooma, New
Delhi

M/s Lorentz
Pump
Model:PS1800
CSJ5-12

M/s WAREE
Energies (P)
Ltd.

Submersible
2HP DC
Pump, Head
30 meter

M/s Jain Irrigation


Systems Ltd., Jain
Plastic Park, P.O. Box
72, N.H. No. 6, Jalgaon425001
M/s Shakti Pumps
(India) Ltd., Plot No. 401402-413, Sector -3,
Pithampur, Dhar-454775,
Madhya Pradesh

M/s Lorentz
Pump

M/s Jain
Irrigation
Systems Ltd.

Deep well 3HP


DC pump ,
Head 50 meter

M/s Shakti
Pumps (India)
Ltd.

M/s PV Power
Technologies
Pvt. Ltd.

Submersible
5HP AC deep
well monoblock pump,
Head 50 meter

M/s HBL Power


systems Ltd., Plot No.
263, Patparganj
Industrial Area, Delhi110092

M/s Kirlosker
Brothers Ltd

M/s HBL Power


systems Ltd.

Submersible
3HP AC deep
well monoblock pump,
Head 50 meter

M/s Topsun Energy


Ltd., B-101,GIDC,
Electronic Zone,
Sector-25,
Gandhinagar- 382028,
Gujarat, INDIA
M/s Bright Solar Pvt. Ltd.
Plot No. 90,Nathabhai
Estate,Near
Jashodanagar Cross,
Ahmedabad-380026,
Gujarat, India

M/s Mono
Pumps Ltd.

M/s Topsun
Energy Ltd.

Centrifugal 3HP
DC Submersible
Deep Well
pump, Head :50
meters

M/s Bright
Solar Pvt. Ltd.

M/s Green
Brilliance
Energy Pvt. Ltd.

3HP DC
Submersible
mono-block
pump, Head 50
meter

M/s Duke Plasto


Technique Pvt. Ltd. N.H.
14, Deesa Highway,
Badarpura
Dist: Banaskuntha,
Palanpur-385511,
North Gujarat, India

M/s Duke
Plasto
Technique Pvt.
Ltd.

M/sPV
Powertech

Centrifugal 5HP
AC Submersible
Deep Well
Pump, Head :50
meters,

48

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

15

253/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump

M/s Punchline Energy


Pvt. Ltd. 328 Phase 2,
Udyog, Vihar Gurgaon,
Haryana 122016,India

M/s Shroffs
Engineering
Ltd

M/s Kotak Urja


Private Ltd

Submersible
Deep well
pump, 3HP AC
Pump, Head: 50
Meters

29/11/2012
16

257/201213/CSC/SEC
/Pump
30/11/2012

M/s BSES Yamuna


Power Limited
Shakti
Kiran Building,
Karkardooma, New
Delhi-110032

M/s Grundfos,
Denmark

M/s Kotak Urja,


Bangalore

Centrifugal
Submersible 1HP
DC pump, Head:
30 Meters

17

115/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
24/12/2012

M/s Central Electronics


Limited 4, Industrial
Area, Sahibabad
Ghaziabad (U.P)
201010

M/s Rotomag

M/s Central
Electronics
Limited

18

252/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump

M/s JJPV Solar Pvt. Ltd.


Survey No. 236, Plot
No.2, Near Vikas Stove,
NH-8 B, Village Veraval-Shaper, Dist:
Rajkot-360024 Gujarat,

M/s Shakti
Pumps (I) Ltd.

M/s JJPV Solar


Pvt. Ltd.

Centrifugal
2HP DC
Surface
mono-block
pump, 10
Meters
Submersible
3HP AC
Pump,
50 Meters

M/s Jain Irrigation


Systems Ltd., Jain
Plastic Park, P.O. Box:
72, N. H. No. 6, Jalgaon425001

M/s Lorentz
Pump

26/12/2012

19

247/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
04.02.2013

20

316/2013/CSC/
SEC/Pump
21.02.2013

21

254/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump

M/s Jain
Irrigation
Systems Ltd.

M/s Rajasthan
Electronics &
Instruments Limited, 2,
Kanakpura Industrial
Area, Jaipur-3 02012,
Rajasthan

M/s Rotomag

M/s Rajasthan
Electronics &
Instruments
Limited

M/s Alpex Exports Pvt.


Ltd., 81/2, 1st floor, Sri
Aurobindo Marg,, Near
Hero Honda Showroom,

M/s Bright
Solar Pvt. Ltd

M/s Alpex
Exports Pvt.
Ltd.

Submersibl
e 2HP DC
pump,
50 Meters

Shallow well
3HP DC Pump
Head :20
Meters

Submersible
2HP DC
Pump,
30 Meters

49

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com


18.02.2013
22

309/201213/CSC/SEC/
Pump
05.03.2012

23

315/2013/CSC/
SEC/Pump
20.03.2012

24

276/2013/CSC/
SEC/Pump
07/03/2013

25

324/2013/CSC/
SEC/Pump
21/03/2013

Adhchini, New Delhi110017


M/s Jain Irrigation
Systems Ltd., Jain
Plastic Park, P.O. Box:
72, N. H. No. 6, Jalgaon425001

M/s Lorentz

M/s Jain
Irrigation Pvt.
Ltd.

Submersibl
e 3HP DC
pump,
20 Meters

M/s BSES Yamuna


Power Limited, Shakti
Kiran Building,
Karkardooma,
New Delhi-110032

M/s Grundfos

M/s Kotak Urja


Pvt. Ltd.

Submersible 1
HP DC Deep
Well pump , 30
Meters

M/s Waaree Energies


Pvt. Ltd. 602, Western
edge-1, Western
Express Highway,
Borivali (E),
Mumbai-400066, India

M/s Bright
Solar
Pvt.
Ltd.

M/s
Waaree
Energies
Pvt. Ltd.

Submersible
3HP DC, Deep
Well pump , 50
Meters

M/s Bright Solar Pvt.


Ltd. Plot No. 90,
Nathabhai Estate,
Near Jashodanagar
Cross,
Ahmedabad-380026,
Gujarat, India

M/s
PUMPMAN

M/s
Waaree
Energies
Pvt. Ltd.

Submersible 5
HP DC Deep
Well pump , 50
Meters

50

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.2 List of Questions and Responses during SWP User Interview

51

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

52

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

53

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

54

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

55

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.3 List of Images of Site location where Interview conducted of


SWP Users during Thesis Research
7.3.1 1st Interview site location

Figure 9 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (1) near Hirapur Chokdi

56

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.3.2 2nd Interview site location

Figure 10 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (2) near Hirapur Chokdi

57

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.3.3 3rd Interview site location

Figure 11 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (3) near Hirapur Chokdi

58

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.3.4 4th Interview site location

Figure 12 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (4) near Palanpur

59

CEPT/ MTM/ AM0712/ Kevin Kovadia/ kkovadia@gmail.com

7.3.5 5th Interview site location

Figure 13 Site location of Solar Water Pump User (5) near Ghamij Village

___________

60