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Introduction to

Computer Networks
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Computer Network

Network is a collection of computer connected with

each other physically and logically.
Networking the way to establish the network, the
process of communication.
Communication is the transfer information from one
computer to an other computer
Allows user to share and transfer information

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Components of networking
Sender The components from where the
information is transfer.
Receiver The components to which the information
is transfer.
Medium The components through which the
information is transfer

Need of Computer Networking

Computer network allow the user to share data with
other user in a network. We can share data,
hardware and application.
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History of computer network

The Advanced Research Project Agency designed
ARPANET for united states department of defense
It was the first network in the world . ARPANET was
establish in 1969 USA small computer were used to
manage communication links
These small computer were connected to large
mainframe computer.

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Types of Computer Networks

Networks are classified depending on the

geographical area covered by the network

Area Network
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Area Network

Area Network

Area Network

Local Area Network (LAN) - I

Covers a small area

Connects computers and workstations covering a
local area like, office or home

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Local Area Network (LAN) - II

Advantages of LAN:
Improves productivity due to faster work
Provides easy maintenance
New systems can be installed and configured
Disadvantages of LAN:
Limited number of systems can only be connected
Cannot cover large area
Network performance degrades as number of
users exceeds

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Campus Area Network (CAN)

Made up of multiple LANs within limited area

Connects different LANs in a campus

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Metropolitan Area Network

Interconnects networks within a city

Supports data and voice transmission

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Wide Area Network

Covers a wide geographical area which includes

multiple computers or LANs e.g. Internet

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