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Running head: MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

Microsoft Office Video Instruction for Adult Learners


Christi Clark
ETD 624
Saginaw Valley State University

MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

Literature Review
Adult education is a topic that is not researched as much as K-12 education, but it is
important we know more about it. According to Knowles (cited in Cercone, 2008), adult learners
learn differently than children, so learning strategies that work for one may not work for the
other. One strategy that could be used is video instruction. Video instruction consists of the
learner watching a video that explains a topic they are trying to learn and there is no face-to-face
instruction. Hampton (cited in Donkor, 2011) says that video allows the learner to play, replay,
pause, and rewind to specific sections of a lesson, and further states that because practice and
rehearsal is so important in developing competency, video is particularly well placed. This
makes instruction more self-directed as opposed to the traditional teacher-led instruction. A topic
that could be taught using video instruction is learning how to use Microsoft Office. Productivity
programs, such as Microsoft Office, have become important to learn because our society is
becoming more reliant on computers (Charness, Kelley, Bosman, & Mottram, 2001). Important
concepts to look at when choosing video instruction as a strategy for adult learners include
learner motivation and satisfaction, understanding if technology is better than traditional methods
for learning, and understanding if self-directed learning would work better than teacher-led
learning. The following review will talk about each of these concepts and find out if video
instruction is a good method for teaching Microsoft Office to adult learners.
Learner Motivation and Satisfaction
Learner motivation and satisfaction is a big part of whether someone is going to retain the
material being presented. Four factors required for learning are instructional material has to keep
the learners attention, the material has to be relevant to what the learner is learning, the learner
has to be confident they can learn the material, and they have to be satisfied with the learning

MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

experience (Rodgers & Withrow-Thorton, 2005). According to Choi and Johnson (2005), video
is a great way to boost learner motivation. They state video-based instruction can effectively be
used to motivate learners by attracting their attention (Choi & Johnson, 2005). Video captures a
persons attention by giving a multi-sensory learning environment that may increase a learners
ability to retain information and to understand more (Zhang, Zhou, Briggs, & Nunamaker, 2006;
Chen, 2012). A study by Choi and Johnson (2007) concluded that video instruction was effective
for learner retention and comprehension because it enhanced learning. The study also showed
that students were more satisfied with video and they felt like the material was more useful than
text-based material (Choi & Johnson, 2007). Donkor (2011) also found, through his research,
that students were more satisfied with video-based instructional materials than text-based
material. Videos could also be used as part of an instruction instead of the entire instruction to
help motivate learners. Ljubojevic, Vaskovic, Stankovic, and Vaskovic (2014) found that video
used in a supplementary way increased student motivation and efficacy. Students felt like the
video enhanced their learning (Ljubojevic et al., 2014). Papa-Gusho (2013) concluded in her
study about adult learner motivation that enhancement of learning was a major factor in
improving a learning environment.
It is essential to look at how motivated learners are to learning computer skills in
particular. One factor in learning computer skills has to do with a learners attitude or anxiety
about learning it. Anxious learners have a hard time becoming competent with using the
computer skills they learned (Downey & Smith, 2011). Buche, Davis, and Vician (2007) agree
by saying anxiety may impair individuals computing abilities. Buche et al. (2007) says one
way to decrease anxiety for some learners is to make the computing environment more intensive.
Once their anxiety is decreased learners are better able to perform computing tasks (Buche et al.,

MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

2007). It is important to overcome anxiety with using computers because technology is becoming
more prevalent in society and classrooms.
Technology versus Traditional Learning Methods
A lot of adult learners are not familiar with using technology as a learning tool. This may
make them hesitant to use it. Adult learners need to see that a new strategy is beneficial to them
and not just something standing in their way to accomplish their goals (Kenner & Weinerman,
2011). This is why it is important to see if technology, like video instruction, is a good way to
present information to adult learners. Most traditional learning methods include instruction that
is face-to-face and teacher-led (Cercone, 2008). This type of learning method isnt necessarily
the best way for modern day adult learners to learn the material. Brecht and Ogilby (2008)
explained some appeals to video instruction compared to traditional instruction were that lectures
could be more detailed because there is no time limit; videos could be replayed for more
repetition, a strategy that is beneficial to adult learners (Cercone, 2008); and videos could be
viewed at a time and location best for the learner. Learners can slow down their learning process
and reflect more easily about what they just observed in the video (Santagata, Zannoni, &
Stigler, 2007). A study done by Todd et al. (1998) showed that adult learners using video
instruction to learn CPR had better understanding of the information than learners that were
taught with teacher-led instruction. Van Duijn, Swanick, and Donald (2014) also found that
video instruction was more beneficial than face-to-face instruction for learning psychomotor
skills.
However, not everyone agrees that video instruction is better than face-to-face
instruction. Jordan and Sanchez (1994) found in their study there was only a slight increase in
retention and satisfaction when video instruction was used over the traditional method. It has

MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

also been argued that learners need a more active instruction and video does not offer that
because it is more passive (Moore, 1993). For this reason, instructors might think of using both
face-to-face instruction and video instruction. Kelly, Lyng, McGrath, and Cannon (2009) proved
this theory in their study of effectiveness of videos for teaching nursing skills. They discovered
video was more effective as a complement to instruction instead of being used as the whole
instruction (Kelly et al., 2009). Vernadakis, Antoniou, Giannousi, Zetou, and Kioumourtzoglou
(2011) did a similar study but looked at using a traditional format or hybrid (technology and
traditional) format to teach Microsoft Office PowerPoint 2003. They found the hybrid format
provided a more efficient learning environment than traditional instruction or a solely technology
based instruction (Vernadakis et al., 2011). Whether a teacher decides to have the learners learn
fully with video instruction or as only part of instruction it would still require the learner to be
self-directed.
Self-directed Learning
Self-directed learning requires the learner to be responsible for their own learning (Ruey,
2010), so it is important to figure out if it is best method for all adult learners. According to Ota,
DiCarlo, Burts, Laird, and Gioe (2006), adult learners learn in a self-directed manner. They came
to that conclusion because of Malcolm Knowles, a well-known theorist on adult learning, who
believed that self-directed learning was an important aspect of adult learning (Cercone, 2008).
Cercone (2008) wanted to figure out if this was true. She found it may be true for some adult
learners, but not all learners will thrive from self-direction (Cercone, 2008). Self-directed
learning is situational and may or may not work depending on a persons learning style (RossGordon, 2011). Russell (2006) also explains in her research that each individuals learning style

MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

should be taken into effect when planning instruction. This means that self-directed learning may
work for some adult learners.
Conclusion
Adult education is something that still needs to be further investigated. There is research
out there about it, but just like any topic the more it is researched the more we will understand it.
Motivation to learn is one factor that is important in adult education. This literature review
looked at whether adult learners were motivated to be taught using video instruction and studies
showed there is motivation for it. Some adult learners seem to enjoy the use of it and find that it
enhances their learning, but not all learners like to learn with video as their only way of
instruction. Each adult learner is unique in their own way as to how they learn best. Some adults
may like it as the only instruction they receive while others may like it as just a complement to
the instruction led by the teacher. Either way adult learners need be sure they can learn in a way
that is self-directed. This type of learning is not beneficial for all adult learners, so it is important
to find out if it will work for them. This is true for anything that is being taught including
Microsoft Office. There is a lack of research on Microsoft Office instruction though and it is
something that needs to be further researched. This is why doing a study about learning
Microsoft Office through video instruction would be beneficial.

MICROSOFT OFFICE VIDEO INSTRUCTION FOR ADULT LEARNERS

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