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TNH TON CU THANG

1. Mt bng thang

2/ s lm vic ca kt cu:
Cu thang 3 v. tng 1-2 cao 3.300, tng 3-8 cao 3.600 thang loi bn khng c li
mng.
Bn thang s 1 v s 3 c chiu rng l 1,5m
mt u c ngm vo dm sn (dm D4, D4), mt u c ngm vo dm thang
(D3). Bn s 2 c chiu rng l 1,50m cnh di ngm vo dm D1, v gi vo tng.
Hai u c gi vo tng
Chiu rng bc: 300 (mm), Chiu cao bc: 150(mm)
tg =150/300 = 0,5 = 26033 Cos = 0,894
Cu to ca cu thang trc 6 7.(hnh v):
Vt liu - B tng cp bn B20 c:

Rb = 11,5 MPa;

Rbt = 0,90 MPa;


- Ct thp chu lc AII c:
280 MPa; Rsw = 225 MPa;

Rs = Rsc =

l p g r a nito
L p va lt dy 20
Bc cp xy g ch
L p va lt dy 20
bn thang btc t dy 100
l p va tr t dy 15

- Ct thp ai AI c:

Rs = Rsc = 225 MPa; Rsw = 175 MPa.

+ Ti trng tiu chun:

300 daN/cm2, phn di hn: 100daN/cm2

3/ Tnh ton ti trng


a./ Bn thang 1, 3:
* Tnh ti:

+
+

g1 n.g tc

bh

b h
2

1,2 17.

0,15 0,3

27,4 daN/m2
0,15 2 0,3 2
bh
0,3 0,15
2
Lp va lt: g 2 n. . b 2 h 2 1,2 1600 0,015 0,3 2 0,5 2 38,6 daN/m
bh
0,3 0,15
2
Bc gch: g 3 n. 2 b 2 h 2 1,2 1800 2 0,3 2 0,15 2 133,0daN/m

+ Lp gch Ceramic:

+ Lp bn BTCT: g 4 n. . 1,1 2500 0,1 275 daN/m 2


+ Lp va trt mt di: g 5 n. . 1,2 1600 0,015 28,8 daN/m 2
Tng tnh ti:

g = 27,4+38,6+275+133+28,8

= 502,8 daN/m2.

* Hot ti: q = 3001,2 = 360 daN/m2


Tng ti trng tc dng ln bn thang theo phng thng ng:
qb = g + p.cos = 502,8 +3600,894 = 824,6 (daN/m2).
b./ i vi bn s 2 (tnh ring cho bn chiu ngh):
* Tnh ti: Nh i vi bn chiu ti nhng b qua trng lng bc xy.
Tng tnh ti:g = 502,8 133 = 369,7 (daN/m2).
* Hot ti: q = 1,2300 = 360(daN/m2)
Tng ti trng tc dng theo phng ng qb = 360+369,7 = 729,8 (daN/m2)
4/ Tnh ni lc v ct thp bn thang:
a/ i vi bn 1,3:
V bn thang khng c li mng (cn thang) nn Ta ct dy bn rng 100cm. S
tnh ca bn 1,3 c xem nh mt dm n gin:

1575

S tnh:

3000

737.2 daN/m

3388

Vy chiu di thc ca chiu ti: l = 1,575 2 3,00 2 = 3,388 (m);


Quy ti trng tc dng v vung gc vi dm q = 824,60,894 = 737,2 (daN/m2).

q.l 2 737,2 3,388 2


Ta c: M =
=
= 1329,9(daN.m)
8
8
M

132990

Xc nh m= R bh 2 = 115 100 8,5 2 0,16 < R


b
0

Trong ho= hb- a (cm) Ta chn a = 1,5 2 cm.

T m tra bng ph lc 9 gio trnh: Kt cu b tng ct thp - phn cu kin c


bn = 0,92
M

- Din tch ct thp: As = R h =


s
0
Chn 10 a =

100 0,785
13,3cm
5,9

- Kim tra hm lng ct thp: =

13299,0
280 0,92 8,5

= 5,10 cm2.

chn a = 120mm;
As 100 5,9
0,599 > min. =0.10% hp l.
=
bh0 100 8,5

Vy ct thp trong bn 1v 3 dng 10 a120 mm.


bn 3 c b tr v cu to thp tng t nh bn s 3.
b/ i vi bn 2: ( Bn c chiu ngh)
Ta c:

l2
>2 (Bn loi dm)
l1

* Moment gia nhp:


Quy ti trng tc dng v vung gc vi dm q = 824,60,894 = 737,2 (daN/m2)

q.l 2 737,2 1,55 2


M1 =
=
= 221,39(daN.m)
8
8
* Moment chiu ngh:

737.2 daN/m

q.l 2
M 2=
=
8

729,2 1,55 2
=
8
1550

218,8(daN.m)
Mmax =M1=221,39 (daN.m)
M

22139

m= R bh 2 = 115 100 8,5 2 0,021 <


b
0

Mmax = 221,39 daN.m

R
tra ph lc 9 = 0,99
M

- Din tch ct thp: As = R h =


s
0
Chn 6 a =

221390
0,8
280 0,867 8,5

100 0,283
35cm chn a = 200mm;
0 .8

cm2.

- Kim tra hm lng ct thp: =

As 100 0,8
0,094% > min. = 0.10 % hp
=
bh0 100 8,5

l. Vy ct thp trong bn 2 dng 6 a200 mm.


5/ Tnh dm thang:
5.1/ Tnh dm thang D3
a/ Ti trng tc dng:
Chn tit din dm: 200x350 mm2
- Ti trng t sn 2 truyn vo: ( c k n hot ti)
+ chiu ngh q1 = 729,8

1,550
= 566,00 (daN/m);
2

+ bc gia

1,550
= 639,07(daN/m).
2

q2 = 824,6

- Trng lng bn thn: g = 0,20,325001,1+(0,2+20,2)0,0216001,2


=165+25,92 = 190,92(daN/m);
- Ti trng do an thang 1,3 truyn vo: ( c k n hot ti);
q1 = q3 =

q.l 824,6 3,388


=
= 1396,9 (daN/m).
2
2

Vy ti trng tc dng ln dm:


+ Nhnh bin 1,3:
q= 566,00 + 190,92 + 1396,9 = 2153,8 (daN/m);
+ Nhnh gia
q= 639,07+ 190,92 = 829,99 (daN/m).
b./ Xc nh ni lc.
2153,8 daN/m

450

* S
tnh
2153,8 daN/m

900

1500

3648,3

417,6

3648,3

3049,3

1500

* Xc nh ni lc:
+ Phn lc gi:
VA = VB = q1 1,5

q 2 0,9
829,99 0,9
2153,8 1,5
3648,3daN ;
2 cos
2 0,894

+ Moment ti C,D:
MC = MD = V A 1,5

2153,8 1,5 2
2153,8 1,5 2
3648,3 1,5
3049,3daN .m;
2
2

+ Moment gia nhp:


Mnh =

MC

ql2
829,99 0,9 2
3049,3
3143,3daN .m.
8 cos
8 0,894

+ Lc ct c suy ra t biu moment.


c/ Tnh ct thp dc
Dng thp AII-CII, Chn: a=2(cm) h0 = 35-2 = 33(cm).
Moment ln nht trong dm Mmax = 3143,3 (daN.m)
M

31433

0,138 < R =0,623


m= R bh 2 =
115 20 33 2
b
0

tra ph lc 9 = 0,925
M

Din tch ct thp: As = R h =


s
0

Chn thp 3 16 c Fa = 6,03 (cm2)

- Kim tra hm lng ct thp: =

314330
5,93
280 0,992 33

cm2.

As 100 5,93
0,898% > min. = 0.05% . Vy
=
bh0
20 35

ct thp chu moment dng gia nhip l 316


Ct thp trn dng cu to 212
d/ Tnh ct thp ngang:
* Kim tra kh nng chu ng sut nn chnh bng dm
- Lc ct ln nht trong dm (Qmax) on gn gi ta Theo trn biu Q
Qmax = 3648,3 daN = 36,48 kN
Kim tra kh nng chu ng sut nn chnh Qmax 0,31b1Rbbho.
Gi thit hm lng ct ai ti thiu l 6, s = 150mm
=
=

ASN
2 28,3

=0,0019;
bs
200 150
E a 21 10 4
7,78;
=
E b 27 10 3

1= 1+5 = 1+57,780,0019 = 1,074<1,3 (h s xt n nh hng ca ct


ai t vung gc vi trc cu kin);
b1=1 - Rb = 1- 0,0111,5 = 0,885
0,31b1Rbbho = 0,31,0740,88511,5200330 = 216608 N = 216,6 kN
0,31b1Rbbho= 216,6 kN> Qmax = 36,48 kN bo m kh nng chu ng sut
nn chnh ca bng dm.
* Kim tra iu kin tnh ton ct ai
Nu Qmax Qb min b3 .(1 f n ).Rbt .b.ho 0,6.(1 f n ).Rbt .b.ho th khng cn
tnh ton ct ai m t theo cu to nh trn.
Trong :
+ f = 0 v tt din ch nht;
+ n = 0 v khng c lc ko hoc nn.
Qbmin =0,60,90200330 = 35,64 kN< Qmax= 36,48kN cn tnh ton li ct ai
* Kim tra cng ca tit din nghing theo lc ct:
iu kin: Qmax Qu

b 2 .(1 f n ).Rbt .b.ho2


qswc q
c

+Tnh Mb = b2(1 + f + n)Rbtbh02 =210,902003302 =39,204106 Nmm


= 39,20 kNm.
+Tnh q1 = 2153,8 daN/m = 21,54 kN/m;
+Tnh Qb1 = 2

M b q1

= 2(

21,54 39,20

) = 58,12 kN;

Qb1
58,12

96,86 kN > Qmax = 36,48 kN tha mn iu kin (4.66)


0,6
0,6
2
Qmax
Qb21 36,48 2 58,12 2
13,88 0 ;
+Tnh qsw =
=
4 36,86
4M b

Kim tra iu kin qsw<

Qb min
35,64

54kN
2h0
2 0,33
2

Q
Q

Q
qsw max b 2 q1 max b 2 q1 max
2.ho b3
2.ho b3 2.h o
qsw =

36,48
2

21,54
2 0,33 0,6

36,48
2

21,54
2 0,33 0,6

36,48

2 0,33

Chn ai 6, hai nhnh, xc nh li khong cch ct ai


Stt =

Rsw Asw 175 2 28,3

632,9mm < Schn


q sw
12,65

12,65kN

do phi chn ct ai theo cu to ti thiu:


+ khu vc gn gi ta: 6, hai nhnh, s = 150mm;
+ khu vc gia dm: 6, hai nhnh, s = 300mm.
Vy ct ai c chn v b tr theo cu tao
(on gi 6 s150, on gia nhp 6, s=300mm)
5.2 Tnh dm thang D4 (D4).
a./ Ti trng tc dng:
Chn tit din dm:250x350
- Ti trng do an thang 1,3 truyn vo: ( k n hot ti);
q3 = q1=

q.l 824,6 3,388


=
= 1396,9 (daN/m).
2
2

- Ti trng t sn S16 truyn vo qs16 =

903,15 1,5
= 677,4 (daN/m)
2

- Trng lng bn thn: g = 0,250,3525001,1+(0,2+20,2)0,0216001,2


=218,75+25,92 = 244,4(daN/m);
Vy ti trng tc dng ln dm:
+ on khng c an thang q1 = 677,6 + 244,4 = 922 (daN/m);
+ on c an thang:

q2 = 868,28 +1396,9 = 2265(daN/m).

Ngoi ra ti v tr cch gi phi 1 on 1,9 m cn c lc tp trung do dm Ds


truyn vo, lc ny tnh bng ti trng t sn S17 truyn vo v tng trn dm Ds
P= (999,151,9/2)4,5/2 = 2135daN
b/ Xc nh ni lc:
+ Phn lc gi:
MA=

2665 1,5 2
4,5
922 4,5 (
1,5) 2135 4,1 6V B 0
2
2

VB = 27310/6 = 4551,73 daN; VA=5729,77daN.


+ Moment ti gia nhp: M3,0 = V B 3,0 (

922 3,0 2
2135 1,1) 7143 daN.m
2

+ Moment ti ch t lc tp trung P:M4.1= V B 1,9 (


+ Lc ct c suy ra l biu moment.

922 1,9 2
) 6984 daN.m
2

* S
tnh

P=2135 daN
2665 daN/m

922daN/m

922daN/m

A
1500

2600

1900

6000

6984

7143

5587

* M (daN.m)

4551

664

2800

5729

1791

* Q (daN)

c/ Tnh ct thp dc
Dng thp AII-CII, Chn: a=2(cm) h0 = 35-2 = 33 (cm).
Moment ln nht trong dm Mmax = 7143 (daN.m)
M

71430

0.019 < R =0,623


m= R bh 2 =
115 25 33 2
b
0

tra ph lc 9 = 0,995
M

71430
10,1
280 0,995 33

Din tch ct thp: As = R h =


s
0

Chn thp 220 + 122 c Fa = 10,08 (cm2)

- Kim tra hm lng ct thp: =

cm2.

As 100 10,1
1,32% > min. = 0.05% .
=
bh0
25 33

Vy ct thp chu moment dng gia nhip l 220 + 1 22


d/ Tnh ct thp ngang
* Kim tra kh nng chu ng sut nn chnh bng dm
- Lc ct ln nht trong dm (Qmax) on gn gi ta Theo trn biu
Qmax = 5729 daN = 57,29 kN
Kim tra kh nng chu ng sut nn chnh Qmax 0,31b1Rbbho.
Gi thit hm lng ct ai ti thiu l 6, s = 150mm
=
=

ASN
2 28,3

=0,0019;
bs
200 150
E a 21 10 4
7,78;
=
E b 27 10 3

1= 1+5 = 1+57,780,0019 = 1,074<1,3 (h s xt n nh hng ca ct


ai t vung gc vi trc cu kin);

b1=1 - Rb = 1- 0,0111,5 = 0,885


0,31b1Rbbho = 0,31,0740,88511,5200330 = 216608 N = 216,6 kN
0,31b1Rbbho= 216,6 kN> Qmax = 57,29 kN bo m kh nng chu ng sut
nn chnh ca bng dm.
* Kim tra iu kin tnh ton ct ai
Nu Qmax Qb min b3 .(1 f n ).Rbt .b.ho 0,6.(1 f n ).Rbt .b.ho th khng cn
tnh ton ct ai m t theo cu to nh trn.
Trong :
+ f = 0 v tt din ch nht;
+ n = 0 v khng c lc ko hoc nn.
Qbmin =0,60,90200330 = 35,64 kN< Qmax= 57,29kN cn tnh ton li ct ai
* Kim tra cng ca tit din nghing theo lc ct:
iu kin: Qmax

b 2 .(1 f n ).Rbt .b.ho2


Qu
qswc q
c

+Tnh Mb = b2(1 + f + n)Rbtbh02 =210,902003302 =39,204106 Nmm


= 39,20 kNm.
+Tnh q1 = 2665 daN/m = 26,65 kN/m;
+Tnh Qb1 = 2

M b q1

= 2(

26,65 39, 20

) = 64,64 kN;

Qb1
64,64

107,7 kN > Qmax = 57,29 kN tha mn iu kin (4.66)


0,6
0,6
2
Qmax
Qb21 57,29 2 64,64 2
6,08 0 ;
+Tnh qsw =
=
4 36,86
4M b

Kim tra iu kin qsw<

Qb min
35,64

54kN
2h0
2 0,33
2

Q
Q

Q
qsw max b 2 q1 max b 2 q1 max
2.ho b3
2.ho b3 2.h o
qsw =

57,29
2

26,65
2 0,33 0,6

57,29
2

26,65

0
,
33
0
,
6

57,29

2
0,33

Chn ai 6, hai nhnh, xc nh li khong cch ct ai


Stt =

Rsw Asw 175 2 28,3

431,59mm > schn= 150mm


q sw
22,95

do phi chn ct ai theo cu to ti thiu:


+ khu vc gn gi ta: 6, hai nhnh, s = 150mm;

22,95kN

+ khu vc gia dm: 6, hai nhnh, s = 300mm.


Vy ct ai c chn v b tr theo cu tao
(on gi 6 s150, on gia nhp 6, s =300mm)
Cu to v b tr ct thp cu thang c th hin trong bn v kt cu KC: 03/06.
Th hin bn v tun theo nhng tiu chun hin hnh (TCVN 5572-1991 Bn
v thi cng kt cu BTCT; TCVN 4612 1998- K hiu quy c th hin bn v kt
cu BTCT; TCVN 6048 1995 k hiu cho ct thp b tng).