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The Law of Conversation of Electric Charge

Charge conservation is the principle that electric charge can neither be created nor destroyed. The net
quantity of electric charge, the amount of positive charge minus the amount of negative charge in the
universe, is always conserved.
Coulombs Law
is a law of physics describing the electrostatic interaction between electrically charged particles.
The magnitude of the electrostatic force of interaction between two point charges is directly
proportional to the scalar multiplication of the magnitudes of charges and inversely proportional to the
square of the distance between them. The force is along the straight line joining them. If the two
charges have the same sign, the electrostatic force between them is repulsive; if they have different
sign, the force between them is attractive.
Conductors And Insulators
Conductor: electricity flows easily through a conductor. Copper is a good conductor of electricity and is
commonly used in electrical wiring. The human body is also a good conductor of electricity while
Insulator: insulators resist the flow of electricity. Insulating materials are used to coat copper conducting
wires and are used to make electrical work gloves. Insulators help to protect humans from coming into
contact with electricity flowing through conductors.
Semi-Conductor
A semiconductor is a material which has electrical conductivity between that of a conductor such as
copper and that of an insulator such as glass. Semiconductors are the foundation of modern electronics,
including transistors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), quantum dots and digital and analog
integrated circuits.