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Linear Programming

- Project Management
- Linear Programing
- Chapter 7 Linear Programming Models Graphical and Computer Methods
- linear programming
- Linear Programming
- Linear Programming
- 10) Linear Programming Problems
- Linear Programming
- Linear Programming Simplex
- Linear programming solution examples
- Test Bank for Quantitative Analysis for Management, 12th Edition
- Linear Programming
- Project on Linear Programming Problems
- 44480542 LP Formulation Problems and Solutions
- linear Programming
- Chapter 03 Answers(1)
- Taylor Chap 3 Answers
- LFCH7
- ch7
- Quantitative Techniques MCQs

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TRUE/FALSE

7.1

Management resources that need control include machinery usage, labor volume, money spent,

time used, warehouse space used, and material usage.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.2

In the term linear programming, the word programming comes from the phrase computer

programming.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.3

Linear programming has few applications in the real world due to the assumption of certainty in

the data and relationships of a problem.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.4

Any linear programming problem can be solved using the graphical solution procedure.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.5

ANSWER: FALSE

7.6

constraint usage.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.7

ANSWER: TRUE

7.8

Industrial applications of linear programming might involve several thousand variables and

constraints.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.9

variables.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.10

7.11

The set of solution points that satisfies all of a linear programming problem's constraints

simultaneously is defined as the feasible region in graphical linear programming.

ANSWER: TRUE

An objective function is necessary in a maximization problem but is not required in a minimization

problem.

ANSWER: FALSE

173

7.12

In some instances, an infeasible solution may be the optimum found by the corner-point method.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.13

parameters that will not affect the optimal solution or change the variables in the basis.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.14

ANSWER: TRUE

7.15

In a linear program, the constraints must be linear, but the objective function may be nonlinear.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.16

Early applications of linear programming were primarily industrial in nature, later the technique

was adopted by the military for scheduling and resource management.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.17

One can employ the same algorithm to solve both maximization and minimization problems.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.18

One converts a minimization problem to a maximization problem by reversing the direction of all

constraints.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.19

The graphical method of solution illustrates that the only restriction on a solution is that the

solution must lie along a constraint.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.20

Anytime we have an iso-profit line which is parallel to a constraint, we have the possibility of

multiple solutions.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.21

If the iso-profit line is not parallel to a constraint, then the solution must be unique.

ANSWER: TRUE

174

7.22

The iso-profit solution method and the corner-point solution method always give the same result.

ANSWER: TRUE

7.23

When two or more constraints conflict with one another, we have a condition called

unboundedness.

ANSWER: FALSE

7.24

ANSWER: FALSE

7.25

Sensitivity analysis enables us to look only at the effects of changing the coefficients in the

objective function.

ANSWER: FALSE

*7.26

ANSWER: FALSE

*7.27

ANSWER: FALSE

*7.28

ANSWER: TRUE

*7.29

ANSWER: FALSE

*7.30

ANSWER: FALSE

*7.31

A linear programming approach can be used to solve any problem for which the objective is to

maximize some quantity.

ANSWER: FALSE

175

MULTIPLE CHOICE

7.32

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

machinery usage.

labor volume.

warehouse space utilization.

raw material usage.

all of the above

ANSWER: e

7.33

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

optimization of some objective

a computer program

alternate courses of action to choose from

usage of only linear equations and inequalities

ANSWER: c

7.34

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Proportionality exists in the objective function and constraints.

Additivity exists for the activities.

Divisibility exists, allowing non-integer solutions.

Solutions or variables may take values from to + .

ANSWER: e

7.35

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

need not satisfy all of the constraints, only the non-negativity constraints.

must be a corner point of the feasible region.

must give the maximum possible profit.

ANSWER: a

176

7.36

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

could be any point in the feasible region of the problem.

will always be unique (only one optimal solution possible for any one problem).

will always include at least some of each product or variable.

must always be in whole numbers (integers).

ANSWER: a

7.37

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

a constraint is redundant.

more than one solution is optimal.

the feasible region is unbounded.

there is no solution that satisfies all the constraints given.

ANSWER: e

7.38

In a maximization problem, when one or more of the solution variables and the profit can be made

infinitely large without violating any constraints, then the linear program has

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an infeasible solution.

an unbounded solution.

a redundant constraint.

alternate optimal solutions.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.39

Which of the following is not a part of every linear programming problem formulation?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an objective function

a set of constraints

non-negativity constraints

a redundant constraint

maximization or minimization of a linear function

ANSWER: d

177

7.40

The optimal solution to a maximization linear programming problem can be found by graphing the

feasible region and

(a) finding the profit at every corner point of the feasible region to see which one gives the highest

value.

(b) moving the iso-profit lines towards the origin in a parallel fashion until the last point in the

feasible region is encountered.

(c) locating the point which is highest on the graph.

(d) none of the above

(e) all of the above

ANSWER: a

7.41

Which of the following is not true about product mix linear programming problems?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Limited resources are involved.

They always have integer (whole number) solutions.

The feasible region cannot include negative areas.

none of the above

ANSWER: c

7.42

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

includes the corner-point method and the iso-profit line solution method.

is useful for four or fewer decision variables.

is inappropriate for more than two constraints.

is the most difficult approach, but is useful as a learning tool.

can only be used if no inequalities exist.

ANSWER: a

7.43

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

It is also called the area of feasible solutions.

It is the area satisfying all of the problem's resource restrictions.

All possible solutions to the problem lie in this region.

all of the above

ANSWER: a

178

7.44

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

will yield different results from the iso-profit line solution method.

requires that the profit from all corners of the feasible region be compared.

will provide one, and only one, optimum.

requires that all corners created by all constraints be compared.

will not provide a solution at an intersection or corner where a non-negativity constraint is

involved.

ANSWER: b

7.45

When a constraint line bounding a feasible region has the same slope as an iso-profit line,

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

the problem involves redundancy.

an error has been made in the problem formulation.

a condition of infeasibility exists.

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.46

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

useful only in minimization methods.

an algebraic means for solving the intersection of two constraint equations.

useful only when more than two product variables exist in a product mix problem.

none of the above

ANSWER: c

7.47

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(0,120)

(120,0)

(180,0)

(60,80)

none of the above

ANSWER: c

179

7.48

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

360.

480.

1520.

1560.

none of the above

ANSWER: c

7.49

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(0,120)

(100,10)

(20,90)

(60,90)

none of the above

ANSWER: d

7.50

Maximize

Subject to:

4X + 10Y

3X + 4Y 480

4X + 2Y 360

all variables 0

180

The feasible corner points are (48,84), (0,120), (0,0), (90,0). What is the maximum possible

value for the objective function?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

1032

1200

360

1600

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.51

Maximize

Subject to:

5X + 6Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(0,60)

(105,0)

(120,0)

(100,10)

none of the above

ANSWER: c

7.52

Maximize

Subject to:

5X + 6Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

640.

360.

525.

560.

none of the above

ANSWER: d

181

7.53

Maximize

Subject to:

5X + 6Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(50,40)

(20,50)

(60,30)

(90,10)

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.54

Maximize

Subject to:

20X + 8Y

4X + 2Y 360

1X + 2Y 200

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(100,0).

(90,0).

(80,20).

(0,100).

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.55

Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 50X + 60 Y

Subject to:

8X + 10Y 800 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 500 (raw materials)

all variables 0

The optimal solution is X = 100 Y = 0.

182

How many units of the regular model would be produced based on this solution?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

0

100

50

120

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.56

Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 50X + 60 Y

Subject to:

8X + 10Y 800 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 500 (raw materials)

all variables 0

The optimal solution is X = 100 Y = 0.

How many units of the raw materials would be used to produce this number of units?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

400

200

500

120

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.57

Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 50X + 60 Y

Subject to:

8X + 10Y 800 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 500 (raw materials)

X, Y 0

The optimal solution is X=100, Y=0.

183

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

the second constraint

the third constraint

all of the above

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.58

Minimize

Subject to

20X + 30Y

2X + 4Y 800

6X + 3Y 300

X, Y 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(0,0).

(50,0).

(0,100).

(400,0).

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.59

Maximize

Subject to:

20X + 30Y

X + Y 80

6X + 12Y 600

X, Y 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there is a redundant constraint.

there are multiple optimal solutions.

this cannot be solved graphically.

none of the above

ANSWER: c

184

7.60

Maximize

Subject to

20X + 30Y

X + Y 80

8X + 9Y 600

3X + 2Y 400

X, Y 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there is a redundant constraint.

there are multiple optimal solutions.

this cannot be solved graphically.

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.61

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an increase in the value of the objective function.

no change to the objective function.

either (c) or (a) depending on the constraint.

either (c) or (b) depending on the constraint.

ANSWER: d

7.62

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an increase in the value of the objective function.

no change to the objective function.

either (c) or (a) depending on the constraint.

either (c) or (b) depending on the constraint.

ANSWER: e

185

7.63

(maximization)?

Constraint 1

Constraint 2

Constraint 3

Constraint 4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

X + XY + Y 12

X 2Y 20

X + 3Y = 48

X + Y + Z 150

Constraint 1

Constraint 2

Constraint 3

Constraint 4

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.64

If two corner points tie for the best value of the objective function, then

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there are an infinite number of optimal solutions.

the problem is unbounded.

the problem is degenerate.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.65

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

the slope of the iso-profit or iso-cost line will change.

the optimal solution to the LP will no longer be optimal.

all of the above

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.66

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

have no effect on the objective function of the linear program.

can produce a significant change in the shape of the feasible solution region.

all of the above

none of the above

ANSWER: d

186

7.67

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

postoptimality analysis.

parametric programming.

optimality analysis.

all of the above

none of the above

ANSWER: d

7.68

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

technological coefficients.

available resources.

all of the above

none of the above

ANSWER: d

7.69

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

minimization of some objective

a computer program

usage of graphs in the solution

usage of linear and nonlinear equations and inequalities

ANSWER: a

7.70

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Proportionality exists in the objective function and constraints.

Independence exists for the activities.

Divisibility exists, allowing only integer solutions.

Solutions or variables may take values from to + .

ANSWER: b

7.71

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

feasible point.

corner point.

intersection of the profit line and a constraint.

intersection of two or more constraints.

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.72

The condition when there is no solution which satisfies all the constraints is called:

(a) boundedness

187

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

redundancy

optimality

dependency

none of the above

ANSWER: e

7.73

In a minimization problem, when one or more of the solution variables and the cost can be made

infinitely large without violating any constraints, then the linear program has

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an infeasible solution.

an unbounded solution.

a redundant constraint.

alternate optimal solutions.

none of the above

ANSWER: e

7.74

If the addition of a constraint to a linear programming problem does not change the solution, the

constraint is said to be

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

unbounded.

non-negative.

infeasible.

redundant.

bounded.

ANSWER: d

7.75

The following is not true about product mix linear programming problems:

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

Individual resources are used in only a single product.

They never have integer (whole number) solutions.

Cost is always to be minimized.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

188

7.76

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

is useful for four or less decision variables.

is useful primarily in helping one understand the linear programming solution process.

is the most difficult approach.

can only be used in a maximization problem.

ANSWER: c

7.77

In order for a linear programming problem to have a unique solution, the solution must exist

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

at the intersection of a non-negativity constraint and a resource constraint.

at the intersection of the objective function and a constraint.

at the intersection of two or more constraints.

none of the above

ANSWER: d

7.78

In order for a linear programming problem to have a multiple solutions, the solution must exist

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

on a constraint parallel to the objective function.

at the intersection of the objective function and a constraint.

at the intersection of three or more constraints.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.79

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(40,48)

(120,0)

(180,120)

(30,36)

none of the above

ANSWER: b

189

7.80

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

2X + 3Y 480

4X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

360.

480.

1520.

1560.

none of the above

ANSWER: e

7.81

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(10,120)

(120,10)

(30,100)

(60,90)

none of the above

ANSWER: c

7.82

Maximize

Subject to:

6X +8Y

3X + 4Y 480

4X + 2Y 360

all variables 0

190

The feasible corner points are (48,84), (0,120), (0,0), (90,0). What is the maximum possible

value for the objective function?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

540

1200

360

960

none of the above

ANSWER: d

7.83

Maximize

Subject to:

5X + 6Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(30,60)

(105,5)

(0,210)

(100,10)

none of the above

ANSWER: d

7.84

Maximize

Subject to:

6X +5Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

530.

360.

525.

560.

none of the above

ANSWER: a

191

7.85

Maximize

Subject to:

5X + 6Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(50,40)

(30,50)

(60,30)

(90,20)

none of the above

ANSWER: e

7.86

Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 50X + 60 Y

Subject to:

8X +10Y 800 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 500 (raw materials)

all variables 0

The optimal solution is X = 100 Y = 0.

How many units of the Deluxe model would be produced based on this solution?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

0

100

50

120

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.87

Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 50X + 60 Y

Subject to:

8X + 10Y 800 (labor hours)

X +Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 500 (raw materials)

all variables 0

The optimal solution is X = 100 Y = 0.

How many units of the labor hours would be used to produce this number of units?

192

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

400

200

500

120

none of the above

ANSWER: e

7.88

Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 50X + 60 Y

Subject to:

8X + 10Y 500 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 800 (raw materials)

X, Y 0

Which of the constraints is active in determining the solution?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(d)

the second constraint

the third constraint

constraints (a) and (b)

none of the above

ANSWER: a

7.89

Maximize

Subject to:

18X + 36Y

X + Y 80

6X + 12Y 600

X, Y 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there is a redundant constraint.

there are multiple optimal solutions.

this cannot be solved graphically.

none of the above

ANSWER: c

193

7.90

Maximize

Subject to:

20X + 30Y

X + Y 80

12X + 12Y 600

3X + 2Y 400

X, Y 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there is a redundant constraint.

there are multiple optimal solutions.

this cannot be solved graphically.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.91

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an increase in the value of the objective function.

either an increase or decrease in the value of the objective function.

no change in the value of the objective function.

either (b) or (d)

ANSWER: e

7.92

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

an increase in the value of the objective function.

either an increase or decrease in the value of the objective function.

no change in the value of the objective function.

either a decrease or no change in the value of the objective function.

ANSWER: e

194

7.93

(minimization)?

Constraint 1

Constraint 2

Constraint 3

Constraint 4

Constraint 5

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

X + Y 12

X - 2Y 20

X + 3Y = 48

X + Y + Z 150

2X - 3Y + Z > 75

Constraint 1

Constraint 2

Constraint 3

Constraint 4

Constraint 5

ANSWER: e

7.94

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

changes in the price for which the product can be sold.

changes in government rules and regulations.

changes in the raw materials used.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

7.95

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

changes in the value of the resources used.

changes in the amount of resources used for a product.

changes in the degree to which a resource contributes to the cost of a product.

none of the above

ANSWER: c

*7.96

Maximize

Subject to

10X + 30Y

X + 2Y 80

8X + 16Y 640

4X + 2Y 100

X, Y 0

195

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there is a redundant constraint.

there are multiple optimal solutions.

this cannot be solved graphically.

none of the above

ANSWER: b

*7.97

(maximization)?

Constraint 1

Constraint 2

Constraint 3

Constraint 4

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

X + Y 12

X 2Y 20

X + 3Y = 48

X2 + Y + Z 150

Constraint 1

Constraint 2

Constraint 3

Constraint 4

none of the above

ANSWER: d

*7.98

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(40,48)

(120,0)

(180,120)

(30,36)

none of the above

ANSWER: b

196

*7.99

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

2X + 3Y 480

4X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

360.

480.

1520.

1560.

none of the above

ANSWER: e

7.100

Maximize

Subject to:

12X + 10Y

4X + 3Y 480

2X + 3Y 360

all variables 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(10,120)

(120,10)

(30,100)

(60,90)

none of the above

ANSWER: c

*7.101 Consider the following linear programming problem.

Maximize

Subject to:

5X + 6Y

4X + 2Y 420

1X + 2Y 120

all variables 0

197

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(30,30)

(60,40)

(100,5)

(20,40)

none of the above

ANSWER: b

*7.102 Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Minimize cost

Subject to:

= 60X + 50 Y

8X + 10Y 800 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

4X + 5Y 500 (raw materials)

all variables 0

How many units of the Deluxe model would be produced based on this solution?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

0

100

50

120

none of the above

ANSWER: a

*7.103 Two models of a product Regular (X) and Deluxe (Y) are produced by a company. A linear

programming model is used to determine the production schedule. The formulation is as follows:

Maximize profit = 60X + 50 Y

Subject to:

6X +10Y 500 (labor hours)

X + Y 120 (total units demanded)

6X + 5Y 800 (raw materials)

X, Y 0

Which of the constraints is active in determining the solution?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(d)

the first and third constraints

the third constraint

the second constraint

none of the above

ANSWER: a

198

Maximize

Subject to:

15X + 36Y

X + Y 80

27.5X + 55Y 1200

X, Y 0

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

there is a redundant constraint.

there are multiple optimal solutions.

this cannot be solved graphically.

none of the above

ANSWER: e

PROBLEMS

7.105

As a supervisor of a production department, you must decide the daily production totals of a

certain product that has two models, the deluxe and the special. The profit on the deluxe model is

$12 per unit and the special's profit is $10. Each model goes through two phases in the production

process, and there are only 100 man-hours available daily at the construction stage and only 80

man-hours available at the finishing and inspection stage. Each deluxe model requires 20 minutes

of construction time and 10 minutes of finishing and inspection time. Each special model requires

15 minutes of construction time and 15 minutes of finishing and inspection time. The company has

also decided that the special model must comprise at least 40 percent of the production total.

(a) Formulate this as a linear programming problem.

(b) Find the solution that gives the maximum profit.

ANSWER:

(a) Let X1 = number of deluxe models produced

X2 = number of special models produced

Maximize

12X1 + 10X2

Subject to:

1/6X1 + 1/4X2 80

0.4X1 + 0.6X2 0

X1, X2 0

7.106

Profit = $4,000

The Fido Dog Food Company wishes to introduce a new brand of dog biscuits (composed of

chicken and liver flavored biscuits) that meets certain nutritional requirements. The liver flavored

biscuits contain 1 unit of nutrient A and 2 units of nutrient B, while the chicken flavored ones

199

contain 1 unit of nutrient A and 4 units of nutrient B. According to federal requirements, there

must be at least 40 units of nutrient A and 60 units of nutrient B in a package of the new mix. In

addition, the company has decided that there can be no more than 15 liver flavored biscuits in a

package. If it costs 1 cent to make a liver flavored biscuit and 2 cents to make a chicken flavored

one, what is the optimal product mix for a package of the biscuits in order to minimize the firm's

cost?

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Solve this problem graphically, giving the optimal values of all variables.

Are any constraints redundant? If so, which one or ones?

What is the total cost of a package of dog biscuits using the optimal mix?

ANSWER:

(a) Let X1 = number of liver flavored biscuits in a package

X2 = number of chicken flavored biscuits in a package

Minimize

Subject to:

X1 + 2X2

X1 + X2 40

2X1 + 4X2 60

X1 15

X1, X2 0

Optimal solution is (15,25) with cost of 65.

(c) 2X1 + 4X2 60 is redundant

(d) minimum cost = 65 cents

7.107

Maximize

Subject to:

30X1 + 10X2

3X1 + X2 300

X1 + X2 200

X1 100

X2 50

X1 X2 0

X1, X2 0

(a) Solve the problem graphically. Is there more than one optimal solution? Explain.

(b) Are there any redundant constraints?

200

ANSWER:

(a) Corner points (0,50), (0,200), (50,50), (75,75), (50,150)

Optimum solutions: (75,75) and (50,150). Both yield profit of $3,000.

(b) The constraint X1 100 is redundant since 3X1 + X2 300 also means that X1 cannot

exceed 100.

7.108

The No-Glare Company is making two types of antique-style lamps, type #1 and type #2. There is

enough skilled labor to make either 1,000 type #1 or 2,000 type #2 lamps per day. There are only

6,000 inserts available per day, of which the type #1 lamp requires 3 and the type #2 lamp requires

4. Besides these shared constraints, there are only enough fancy switches to make 1,400 of the

type #2 lamps per day. Marginal profit (contribution) is $3 per type #1 lamp and $4 per type #2

lamp. Let X1 = the hundreds of type #1 lamps per day, etc.

(a) Identify each corner point bounding the feasible region and find the total variable profit at each

point.

(b) How many type #1 and type #2 lamps should be produced? What is the maximum possible

profit?

ANSWER:

(a)

Corner points

X1

X2

0

0

0

1,400

133.33 1,400

400

1,200

1,000

0

Profit($)

0

5,600

6,000 *

6,000 *

3,000

b) * Produce 133.33 type #1 lamps and 1,400 type #2 lamps for a profit of $6,000 or produce

400 type #1 lamps and 1,200 type #2 lamps for a profit of $6,000.

7.109

Solve the following linear programming problem using the corner point method.

Maximize

Subject to:

10X + 1Y

4X + 3Y

2X + 4Y

Y

X, Y

36

40

3

0

ANSWER:

Feasible corner points (X,Y):

(0,3) (0,10) (2.4,8.8) (6.75,3)

Maximum profit 70.5 at (6.75,3).

201

7.110

Solve the following linear programming problem using the corner point method.

Maximize

Subject to:

3 X + 5Y

4X + 4Y 48

1X + 2Y 20

Y 2

X, Y 0

ANSWER:

Feasible corner points (X,Y): (0,2) (0,10) (4,8) (10,2)

Maximum profit is 52 at (4,8).

7.111

Billy Penny is trying to determine how many units of two types of lawn mowers to produce each

day. One of these is the standard model, while the other is the deluxe model. The profit per unit on

the standard model is $60, while the profit per unit on the deluxe model is $40. The standard

model requires 20 minutes of assembly time, while the deluxe model requires 35 minutes of

assembly time. The standard model requires 10 minutes of inspection time, while the deluxe model

requires 15 minutes of inspection time. The company must fill an order for 6 deluxe models.

There are 450 minutes of assembly time and 180 minutes of inspection time available each day.

How many units of each product should be manufactured to maximize profits?

ANSWER:

Let X = number of standard model to produce

Y = number of deluxe model to produce

Maximize

Subject to:

60X + 40Y

20X + 35Y 450

10X + 15Y 180

X6

X, Y 0

7.112

Two advertising media are being considered for promotion of a product. Radio ads cost $400 each,

while newspaper ads cost $600 each. The total budget is $7,200 per week. The total number of

ads should be at least 15, with at least 2 of each type. Each newspaper ad reaches 6,000 people,

while each radio ad reaches 2,000 people. The company wishes to reach as many people as

possible while meeting all the constraints stated. How many ads of each type should be placed?

202

ANSWER:

Let R = number of radio ads placed

N = number of newspaper ads placed

Maximize

Subject to:

2000R + 6000N

R + N 15

400R + 600N 7200

R2

N2

R, N 0

Maximum exposure 68,020 with 2 radio and 10.67 newspaper ads.

7.113

Suppose a linear programming (maximization) problem has been solved and the optimal value of

the objective function is $300. Suppose an additional constraint is added to this problem. Explain

how this might affect each of the following:

(a) the feasible region

(b) the optimal value of the objective function

ANSWER:

(a) Adding a new constraint will reduce the size of the feasible region unless it is a redundant

constraint. It can never make the feasible region any larger.

(b) A new constraint can only reduce the size of the feasible region; therefore, the value of the

objective function will either decrease or remain the same. If the original solution is still

feasible, it will remain the optimal solution.

7.114

Upon retirement, Mr. Klaws started to make two types of childrens wooden toys in his shop, Wuns

and Toos. Wuns yield a variable profit of $9 each and Toos have a contribution margin of $8

apiece. Even though his electric saw overheats, he can make 7 Wuns or 14 Toos each day. Since

he doesn't have equipment for drying the lacquer finish he puts on the toys, the drying operation

limits him to 16 Wuns or 8 Toos per day.

(b) For what profit ratios would the optimum solution remain the optimum solution?

203

ANSWER:

Let X1 = numbers of wuns/day

X2 = number of toos/day

Maximize

Subject to:

9X1 + 8X2

2X1 + 1X2 14

1X1 + 2X2 16

X1, X2 0

Optimum profit $84 at (4,6).

7.115

Susanna Nanna is the production manager for a furniture manufacturing company. The company

produces tables (X) and chairs (Y). Each table generates a profit of $80 and requires 3 hours of

assembly time and 4 hours of finishing time. Each chair generates $50 of profit and requires 3

hours of assembly time and 2 hours of finishing time. There are 360 hours of assembly time and

240 hours of finishing time available each month. The following linear programming problem

represents this situation.

Maximize

Subject to:

80X + 50Y

3X + 3Y 360

4X + 2Y 240

X, Y 0

(a) What would the maximum possible profit be?

(b) How many hours of assembly time would be used to maximize profit?

(c) If a new constraint, 2X + 2Y 400, were added, what would happen to the maximum possible

profit?

ANSWER: (a) 6000, (b) 360, (c) it would not change

7.116

As a supervisor of a production department, you must decide the daily production totals of a

certain product that has two models, the deluxe and the special. The profit on the deluxe model is

$12 per unit, and the special's profit is $10. Each model goes through two phases in the production

process, and there are only 100 man-hours available daily at the construction stage and only 80

man-hours available at the finishing and inspection stage. Each deluxe model requires 20 minutes

of construction time and 10 minutes of finishing and inspection time. Each special model requires

15 minutes of construction time and 15 minutes of finishing and inspection time. The company has

also decided that the special model must comprise at most 60 percent of the production total.

Formulate this as a linear programming problem.

204

ANSWER:

Let X1 = number of deluxe models produced

X2 = number of special models produced

7.117

Maximize

12X1 + 10X2

Subject to:

1/6X1 + 1/4X2 80

1.5X1 + X2 0

X1, X2 0

The Fido Dog Food Company wishes to introduce a new brand of dog biscuits (composed of

chicken and liver flavored biscuits) that meets certain nutritional requirements. The liver flavored

biscuits contain 1 unit of nutrient A and 2 units of nutrient B, while the chicken flavored ones

contain 1 unit of nutrient A and 4 units of nutrient B. According to federal requirements, there

must be at least twice as many units of nutrient A as of nutrient B in a package of the new mix. In

addition, the company has decided that there can be no more than 15 liver flavored biscuits, and at

least 10 chicken flavored biscuits in a package. If it costs 1 cent to make a liver flavored biscuit

and 2 cents to make a chicken flavored one, what is the optimal product mix for a package of the

biscuits in order to minimize the firm's cost?

(a) Formulate this as a linear programming problem.

(b) Are any constraints impossible to achieve? If so which one(s)?

ANSWER:

(a) Let X1 = number of liver flavored biscuits in a package

X2 = number of chicken flavored biscuits in a package

Minimize

Subject to:

X1 + 2X2

3X1 + 7X2 0

X1 15

X2

X1, X2 0

Ratio of A to B

Maximum liver

Minimum chicken

Non-negativity

7.118

The No-Glare Company is making two types of antique-style lamps, type #1 and type #2. There is

enough skilled labor to make either 1,000 type #1 or 2,000 type #2 lamps per day. There are only

6,000 inserts available per day, of which the type #1 requires 3 and the type #2 requires 4. Besides

these shared constraints, there are only enough fancy switches to make 1,400 of the type #2 lamps

per day. Management would like to make at least 10 percent more type #2 lamps than type #1

lamps; however, they do not believe that they can sell more than 25 percent more type #2 lamps

than type #1 lamps. Marginal profit (contribution) is $3 per type #1 lamp and $4 per type #2

lamp.

(a) Formulate this as a linear program.

(b) What constraint may be unrealistic?

ANSWER:

205

Maximize: 300X1 + 400 X2

Subject to: 0.10X1 + 0.05X2 < 1

3X1 + 4X2 60

X2 14

1.1X1 X2 0

1.25X1 X2 0

X1 , X2 0

Labor

Inserts

Fancy switches

Minimum Type #2 to Type #1 ratio

Maximum Type #2 to Type #1 ratio

(b) The labor constraint may be unrealistic because it assumes a continuous tradeoff between labor

required for the Type #1 and Type #2 lamps.

7.119

Two advertising media are being considered for promotion of a product. Radio ads cost $400 each,

while newspaper ads cost $600 each. The total budget is $7,200 per week. The total number of

ads should be at least 15, with at least 2 of each type, and there should be no more than 19 ads in

total. The company does not want the number of newspaper ads to exceed the number of radio ads

by more than 25 percent. Each newspaper ad reaches 6,000 people, 50 percent of whom will

respond; while each radio ad reaches 2,000 people, 20 percent of whom will respond. The

company wishes to reach as many respondents as possible while meeting all the constraints stated.

Develop the appropriate LP model for determining the number of ads of each type that should be

placed?

ANSWER:

Let R = number of radio ads placed

N = number of newspaper ads placed

Maximize:

or

Maximize:

Subject to:

0.20*2000R + 0.50*6000N

500R + 3000N

R + N 15

R + N 19

400R + 600N 7200

1R - N

R2

N2

R, N 0

206

7.120

Suppose a linear programming (maximization) problem has been solved and the optimal value of

the objective function is $300. Suppose a constraint is removed from this problem. Explain how

this might affect each of the following:

(a) the feasible region

(b) the optimal value of the objective function

ANSWER:

(a) Removing a constraint may, if the constraint is not redundant, increase the size of the feasible

region. It can never make the feasible region any smaller. If the constraint was active in the

solution, removing it will also result in a new optimal solution.

(b) Removal of a constraint can only increase or leave the same the size of the feasible region;

therefore, the value of the objective function will either increase or remain the same.

*7.121 Suppose a linear programming (maximization) problem has been solved and the optimal value of

the objective function is $300. Suppose an additional constraint () is added to this problem.

Explain how this might affect each of the following:

(a) the feasible region

(b) the optimal value of the objective function

ANSWER:

(a) Adding a new constraint will either, leave the feasible region as it was, or make it smaller.

(b) A new constraint can only reduce the size of the feasible region. Therefore, the value of the

objective function will either stay the same or be lowered.

*7.122 The Dog Food Company wishes to introduce a new brand of dog biscuits (composed of chicken

and liver flavored biscuits) that meets certain nutritional requirements. The liver flavored biscuits

contain 2 units of nutrient A and 1 unit of nutrient B, while the chicken flavored ones contain 3

units of nutrient A and 4 units of nutrient B. According to federal requirements, there must be a

ratio of 3 units of A to 2 of B in the new mix. In addition, the company has decided that there can

be no more than 10 liver flavored biscuits, and that there must be least 10 chicken flavored biscuits

in a package. If it costs 3 cents to make a liver flavored biscuit and 2 cents to make a chicken

flavored one, what is the optimal product mix for a package of the biscuits in order to minimize the

firm's cost?

(a) Formulate this as a linear programming problem.

(b) What is the solution?

207

ANSWER:

(a) Let X1 = number of liver flavored biscuits in a package

X2 = number of chicken flavored biscuits in a package

Minimize

Subject to:

3X1 + 2X2

X1 - 6X2 0

X1 10

X2 0

X1, X2 0

Ratio of A to B

Maximum liver

Minimum chicken

Non-negativity

Chicken: 10 biscuits

*7.123 The No-Glare Company is making two types of automobile headlights, type #1 and type #2. There

is enough skilled labor to make either 2,000 type #1 or 4,000 type #2 lamps per day. There are

only 12,000 inserts available per day, of which the type #1 lamp requires 6 and the type #2 lamp

requires 8. Besides these shared constraints, there are only enough fancy switches to make 2,800

of the type #2 lamps per day. Marginal profit (contribution) is $4 per type #1 lamp and $6 per

type #2 lamp. Let X1 = the hundreds of type #1 lamps per day, etc.

(a) Identify each corner point bounding the feasible region and find the total variable profit at each

point.

(b) How many type #1 and type #2 lamps should be produced? What is the maximum possible

profit?

ANSWER:

(a)

Corner points

X1

X2

0

0

0

15

20

0

Profit($)

0

9,000 *

8,000

b) * Produce 0 type #1 lamps and 1500 type #2 lamps for a profit of $9,000

*7.124 Billy Penny is trying to determine how many units of two types of lawnmowers to produce each

day. One of these is the standard model, while the other is the deluxe model. The profit per unit on

the standard model is $60, while the profit per unit on the deluxe model is $40. The standard

model requires 20 and the deluxe model, 30 minutes of assembly time. The standard model

requires 15 minutes of inspection time; the deluxe model, 30 minutes. The company must fill an

order for 12 deluxe models. There are 525 minutes of assembly time and 220 minutes of

inspection time available each day. How many units of each product should be manufactured to

maximize profits?

208

ANSWER:

Let X1 = number of standard model to produce

X2 = number of deluxe model to produce

Maximize

Subject to:

60X + 40Y

20X + 30Y 525

15X + 30Y < 220

X 12

X, Y 0

SHORT ANSWER/ESSAY

7.125

ANSWER: machinery usage, labor volume, dollars spent, time used, warehouse space usage, raw

material usage

7.126

ANSWER: Objective function rates and resource consumption are known and do not change

during the analyzed time period.

7.127

ANSWER: Rates of consumption exist, e.g., if the production of 1 unit requires 4 units of a

resource, then if 10 units are produced, 40 units of the resource are required.

7.128

ANSWER: The total of all activities equals the sum of individual activities.

7.129

ANSWER: Solutions need not be whole numbers.

7.130

ANSWER: Only solution values of zero or positive values are allowed.

7.131

ANSWER: When there is no solution that can satisfy all constraints simultaneously.

209

7.132

ANSWER: a solution variable that is allowed to increase without limit while satisfying all

constraints

7.133

ANSWER: the presence of one or more constraints that have no effect on the feasible solution area

7.134

ANSWER: More than one optimal solution point exists.

*7.135 Explain, briefly, the difference between an unbounded solution and a bounded solution.

ANSWER: In a bounded solution, one or more of the constraints restricts the solution. In an

unbounded solution, the solution is not restricted.

*7.136 Mathematically, what are the requirements for multiple solutions?

ANSWER: For multiple solutions to occur, the objective function must be parallel to an active

constraint.

210

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