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Planning for the Future

Today; Costa Ricas

Climate Change Strategy
Devan Darsow, Shana Freed,
Corbin Gentzler

Image: unep.org

"Development that meets the

needs of the present without
compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their
own needs."
from the World Commission on Environment and
(the Brundtland Commission)report Our Common Future 1987

Triple Bottom Line


Rio 1992, Agenda 21 & Costa Rica

Image: United Nations

Agenda 21
I Social and Economic Dimensions

II Conservation and Management of Resources

III Strengthening the Role of Major Groups
IV Means of Implementation

Plan B 4.0
I Cutting Carbon Emissions

II Stabilizing Population
III Eradicating Poverty
IV Restoring Earths Natural Systems


Costa Rica = Pura Vida

The History
Growing population

The Need for Policy

Forest Law No. 4475 (1969)
Made the cost of reforestation tax-deducible

Forest Law No. 7554 (1995)

General Environmental Law

Forest Law No. 7575 (1996)

National market for environmental
Monteverde Cloud Forest Reserve in
April 2008. Ronald Reyes/The Tico

Payments for
Services (PSA)
Headed by the National Forestry
Financing Fund (FONAFIFO)

Based on 4 Ecosystem Services:

Carbon Sequestration

Biodiversity Protection
Hydrological Services
Landscape Aesthetics

Whats the Goal?

To Become Climate Neutral economy by the year 2021.


CO2 Emissions

CO2 Sequestration &

Avoided Emissions

By the year 2021, this balance must be zero

The Climate Change Strategy

Four Components:
1. Metrics: A metric system that is accurate, reliable, and
2. Mitigation: Emission reductions by source
3. Adaptation: Sustainable development resilient to
climate change
4. Capacity-Building: Education, culture, & public

Is Costa Rica Reaching Its

In Reforestation: YES
In Fossil Fuels: NO

Kevin Morris / CC / Flickr

US Climate Action Plan

Climate Change &

Climate Impacts
U.S. Goals
Taking Action on Climate Change and Improving Air Quality
Protecting Americas Waters
Cleaning up the Community and Advancing Sustainable Development
Ensuring Safety of Chemicals and Preventing Pollution
Enforcing Environmental Laws
Facilities and Operations

Taking Actions on Climate

Change and Improving Air
Climate Change Impacts on Tropospheric Ozone

Changing Intensity of Wildfires

Worse Indoor Air Quality

Stratospheric Ozone Layer

Interactions between sulfur, nitrogen, and mercury
deposition with ecosystems is evolving.

Protecting Americas Waters

Climate Change Impacts on Water

Protection of Water Quality

Water Infrastructure.
Quality and Availability of Drinking Water Supplies

Cleaning Up Communities and

Advancing Sustainable Development
Contaminant Releases
due to Flooding from
more intense and
frequent storms and sealevel rise.

EPAs emergency
response to natural

Ensuring the Safety of

Chemicals and Preventing
Impact of Climate Change on Pesticide Exposure

Ensuring the Safety

Enforcing Environmental
Decisions made by EPA about resource allocation.

Facilities and Operations

Agency facilities, personnel safety, physical security
and emergency communications.

Extreme weather effecting emergency operations.

Rio 1992 & Agenda 21

Costa Rica Climate Policy

NCCS & Carbon Neutral Pledge
US Climate Policy

Work Cited

Baxter, K., A. Boisvert, C. Lindberg and K. Mackrael. 2009. Sustainability Primer. The Natural Step.

Beyond the Frame: Developing a Holistic Picture of Costa Ricas Environmental Performance. Environmental Performance Index. N.p., n.d.
Web. 27 Nov. 2014. <http://epi.yale.edu/case-study/beyond-frame-developing-holistic-picture-costa-ricas-environmental-performance>

Brown, Jessica & Bird, Neil. Costa Rica Sustainable Resource Management: Successfully Tackling Tropical Deforestation. Overseas
Development Institute, 2011.

Brown, Lester R. Plan B 4.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization. Earth Policy Institute. W.W. Norton & Company. 2009.

Costa Rica Carbon Neutral 2021: Reality or Unrealistic?" The Costa Rica News, July 21, 2014. Web. 26 Oct. 2014.

"Federal and EPA Adaptation Programs." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2014.

Mauri, Carolina. The National Climate Change Strategy and the Carbon Neutral Challenge. N.p.: Ministry of Environment, Energy, and
Telecommunications, June 2009. PDF. <https://unfccc.int/files/meetings/sb30/press/application/pdf/session4_mitigation.pdf>

Mora, Roberto Dobles. "Costa Rica's Commitment." UN Chronicle 44.2 (2007): 42-47. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Oct. 2014.

Pagiola, Stefano. Payments for Environmental Services in Costa Rica. Payments for Environmental Services in Developing and Developed
Countries 65.4 (2008): 712724.

Rodricks, Sasha. "Enabling the Legal Framework for PES, Costa Rica." The Economics of Ecosystems & Biodiversity, 2010. Web. 26 Nov. 2014.

Shinderman, Matt. Introduction to Sustainability Concepts and the Triple-Bottom Line. Oregon State University-Cascades. Bend, OR. 6 January
2014. Class lecture.

United Nations Conference on Environment & Development. Agenda 21. 3 June 1992. Rio de Janeiro. N.p.