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Ryan Ellis

Professor Janice Lee

Research Techniques and Technology
13 November 2014
Bibliographic Essay
This essay will explore multiple journal articles, websites, and books that are retrieved from
searching through Ottawa Universitys online databases, Google Scholar, and from searching
through popular search engines. The research will be about ways in which we can change
factory farms to ensure that the animals that reside in them will have better living conditions.
There will be a total of 12 sources from the databases as well as search engine research
techniques. Throughout the essay the sources will be explored and the content retrieved as well
as formatting, authorship and date will be the main points to look at in order to define the
credibility of the source.

The number one benefit of information technology is that it empowers people to do what
they want to do. It lets people be creative. It lets people be productive. It lets people learn things
they didnt think they could learn before, so in a sense its all about potential. - Steve Ballmer.
There is an abundance of information available to the modern researcher. If one is truly
invested in gaining knowledge regarding a subject, they can do so in a relatively easy fashion.
One can take the easiest approach and Google the subject and read the first few topics that
appear. Some others might feel a little more committed to finding researched data regarding the
topic and they may explore their librarys database for credible sources. Others may look
through books. The point is, there is information out there for anyone who wants it, and in the
modern world it is easily accessible.
The point of this essay is to explore a total of 12 sources regarding factory farms. The
question this essay will present is what are some ways in which a culture can change factory
farms to ensure that life for the animals that reside there is less torturous. The exploration of
these sources will come from databases as well as from search engines. This essay will explore
the authorship, date, and sources of each article/website/journal in order to decide which
information could be used within a research dimension.
To begin, the first piece that I retrieved was from the Google Scholar database and the
work itself is titled Animal Agriculture and Social Ethics for Animals, from the Encyclopedia of
Animal Science. This source covers the history of animal rights as well as their stay on factory
farms. The article also explains how laws glide over animal cruelty because societies need them
for nutrition. They were agricultural: rose to be slaughtered for food. The piece then goes on to
say that the times have changed and the cruelty of animals on factory farms is increasing. The
article introduces a new ethic, that should be required when treating factory farm animals and
they should be legislated.
This source already has a high level of credibility. The source comes from an
encyclopedia regarding a certain subject; therefore, the production only introduces experts

regarding the subject. Once the expert author has concluded the writing, it is edited and peer
reviewed by the people who were hired to do the job of editing exclusively. The sources used
throughout the piece as well as the basic information presented throughout is researched and
ensured that it is all accurate. The author, Bernard E. Rollin also adds to the credibility. It is
stated in the article that he resides at Colorado State University, adding the strengthening
support that he is well-educated on the subject matter. The article also does a very nice job of
using proper language for more educated readers that will be reading the encyclopedia.
However, this piece is well out of the five year credibility span. This makes the source
less credible to use for a research paper. Since the source is ten years old it is recommended
not to use because so much time has passed and information has changed.
Needless to say, the information presented by the article and the whole encyclopedia
itself is worth reading and learning about, but as for including it in a research project, it is not
recommended because of how long ago that it was released.
On Eating Animals by Namit Arora from The Humanist magazine is the next source
that will be discussed. The article focuses primarily on the slaughter of cows in American factory
farms and their mistreatment. Many of the cows on these farms are fed hormone laced food that
fattens the cows up, allowing more meat to be on the cow right before slaughter to maximize
profit. Many people who consume these tortured animals have animals of their own that they
treat with love, completely unaware of the damage that their food has gone through throughout
its life.
The author of the article as well as the publisher contains a substantial amount of
credibility. Even though The Humanist is not a scholarly journal, the author of the article is
well-educated on the topic of animal cruelty. He attended Stanford University and has had his
work published in many other magazines and journals throughout his life. Arora also is
published through multiple academies and museums and his work is licensed by these
institutions. The magazine is intended for a general audience read, but the information provided

is scholar material. The information used by Arora is sourced in the piece itself. Any information
that he uses is cited within the text following the statement.
The article was released by The Humanist in 2013, only a year ago so the information
is still relevant and credible in todays view. The reason the article is still credible is because
little has changed within the year, unlike the ten year gap from the previous source. Not much
can change within one year giving more credibility to this source. The only downfall to this
source is that it is not from a scholarly journal. Overall, this article seems like a great source to
use for a research paper.
The Sociology Compass provides the next example by Lyle Monro from Monash
University, titled Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Animal Rights Movement in Theory and
Practice: A Review of the Sociological Literature. The author states that the animal rights
movement has been one of the most neglected social movements of the modern era. As of now,
social scientists are beginning to realize the importance of the subject in regard to nature itself
and the dangers that face it with the modern world. Nature is a place in society and people are
beginning to see that as well as seeing that animals are a part of that nature and they are being
mishandled. The article then goes on to define the animal rights movement and strategies for
animal activism.
Because the article comes from a journal article, it is intended for a smaller, more
scholarly audience. The journal expects readers to be more educated than those that read
general audience magazines. The journal will deal out more information with higher language
and provide more statistics and insights than the typical magazine. Each piece of information
that is found in the article gives a source for where it came from and proves its credibility. The
reading was released in 2012, making it only two years old at the time of this essay, giving more
credibility to the argument it is providing. Not much has happened with the progress (or lack
thereof) regarding factory farms and animal treatment. The author also provides significant
credibility. He is a Monash University student, providing some evidence of the authors

education. The scholarly journal chose his article as a significant and reliable piece of
information to give to its well-educated audience. Overall, this journal would stand up as a
reliable piece for a research paper.
The next source comes from Entrepreneur by author Jason Ankeny and it is titled The
More Incredible Egg. The magazine article covers the advancement of a plant-based diet by
Hampton Creek. The new development consists of a plant-based egg alternative that obviously
requires no chicken killing to achieve. The magazine says that Hampton Creek is promoting
their product because it does not contribute to the over 1 billion laid eggs that are in danger of
being killed either from harsh conditions or human treatment.
The article is accompanied by a color picture of Hampton Creeks Josh Tetrick who had
been interviewed for the article. The article provides more examples of food advancements at
the bottom of the article. The reading itself provides no sources for the information that is
presented besides the knowledge of Josh Tetrick who is announcing the product. The magazine
is intended for a general audience. The picture is used to disguise the wall of words that most
readers tend to avoid when they are skimming through a magazine. The article was written and
published this year, so the credibility among that time period is valid. Also, the author Jason
Ankeny has a high editorial position in Fiercemobile content, which furthers his credibility as an
author. He is experienced with writing and editing, so this provides credibility to his articles.
Even though the article does come from a general read magazine, it does provide an
alternative to animal slaughter that could be mentioned within a research paper. This piece of
information could be credible within this framework, and the age of the article also provides a
fresh new look at the modern advances that are aiming towards furthering animal rights.
Natalie Purcell provides the piece for the next examination. Purcells article titled Cruel
Intimacies and Risky Relationships: Accounting for Suffering in Industrial Livestock Production
from the journal Society and Animals examines how the need for profit among livestock can
deter some people away from the cruelty that faces the animals. Most people turn a blind eye to

the fact that most factory farm animals are tortured throughout their existence because of the
amount of money that comes from the animals or for the fact that it is a cheap and easy way to
feed the family. But at what point is physical and emotional damage to animals going to be
justifiable when confronted?
To begin, the author of the piece, Natalie Purcell, is from the University of CaliforniaSanta Cruz and she offers her email as a way for readers to get ahold of her in case they have
any questions regarding the piece, providing evidence that her credibility can be justified. To
continue, the piece itself offers multiple experiments and studies to provide more clear cut
sources to what information the author is presenting. If any reader has a doubt about some of
the information that the author is presenting, they may explore that sector further, if they wish,
with the simple expanding of the citation the author has provided. The article also comes from
an academic journal that specializes in animal treatment, so by producing a work like this would
require extensive research and editing on behalf of the editorial staff of the journal so that their
readers may receive only the most genuine information for the price they are paying. Finally,
2011 is well within the five year timeframe to which an article may still be considered credible.
Overall, the source would be perfect to use within a research paper. All of the
information presented is backed up with legitimate sources and it is well within a timeframe that
would still be considered credible to modern researchers.
Following this source is a periodical article written by Stephanie Brown within Canadian
Dimension titled Do They Not Bleed? The source is written to be in the hands of a general
audience, so it is meant to inform the readers on the living conditions of animals on factory
farms. The author states that the modern view without thought is that animals raised on factory
farms are essentially just products for the people to produce, raise, fatten up, sell and then eat,
instead of thinking of them as living breathing creatures that feel pain.
The article itself does the job of what this essay question wants to answer: to provide the
audience with ways in which living conditions for animals on factory farms can improve. The

basic format of the article follows with 1. Explaining the conditions of the animals on the farms
and how poorly they are treated. 2. Giving examples within the Canadian culture. 3. Offering
ways in which the reader can aid in the fight against animal cruelty.
At the end of the article, the author provides many examples of animal cruelty from
outside sources that the reader may reference to. The author also provides websites in which
the reader can find more information regarding the issue. The magazine does the job by
explaining the situation and ways in which it could be stopped, but what is focused on this essay
is the credibility.
To begin, the magazine itself is provided for a general audience. The article is not
scholarly - not many experiments or statistics are provided throughout the reading. The article is
written in basic language that most readers could easily clarify. The magazine was produced in
2011 so the information provided can still be considered relevant and helpful to the everchanging modern world. Using this magazine as a main source would be risky within the context
of a formal research paper, but it does provide some ways in which the reader can help the
situation which is what the research question asked for. Using this article briefly may aide to
support an argument using the given research question.
Next, we will discuss David DeGrazias article titled Moral Vegetarianism from a Very
Broad Basis found in the Journal of Moral Philosophy. The article defends the point of view
from moral vegetarians. These people chose to not eat meat because of the way that animals
are treated on factory farms among other places. The article explores the idea that animals
have no considerable rights and are therefore treated however their owners choose to treat
them and that is the main reason why moral vegetarians avoid eating meat.
The article provides plenty of sources for any and all information presented throughout
the piece. At the bottom of each page are footnotes that cover all the knowledge the author
used in writing the article. There is no need to dispute the credibility of the article because of the
amount of sources and research that the author did and the clarification that comes from the

produced piece that was edited by the journals editorial staff. The article would be an excellent
source to use within a research paper, its only downfall being that it is at the very end of the age
spectrum that is typically allowed for sources. It was produced in 2009, the 5 year mark
reaching right at this article, which might cause speculation because the article is not as up to
date as many other sources. The piece still provides a significant source of credible information
that could be easily used to support a claim of a research paper.
The journal Business & Society Review produced a volume including the work of
Ronald Adams titled Fast Food and Animal Rights: An Examination and Assessment of the
Industrys Response to Social Pressure. This article covered the use of cheap meat production
among the nations fast food chains such as McDonalds, KFC, as well as Burger King. Animal
rights activists associate these fast food chains as having the most cruel factory farms because
of the need to get quick meat out to the restaurants as soon as possible. It is through this rush
that workers develop the sense that these animals are no longer living creatures but just a
product that needs to be harvested with haste.
The article does a very nice job of providing a lot of usable information followed by a
credible link to the source from which the information came or a quick summary of the
experiment that the statistic is from. The author comes from the University of North Florida and
is well-educated. The journal provides credibility as well for all articles must go through an
editing phase and this piece made the cut and revisions were made to ensure maximum
credibility to the readers. The only downside to this source is the age. It was produced and
ready to read in 2008 which is beyond the 5 year limit to information credibility. Modern
researchers want to read information from new sources that are more up to date. The relevance
of the article is high and the information used could contribute to a research paper, but the
researcher must be careful because of the age of the article.
The next source examined in this essay is from one of the most popular general
audience reads: The Huffington Post. The article titled On Factory Farms, Not All Cruelty Is a

Crime, by Paul Shapiro of the Humane Society explores some of the more horrific stories
regarding unnecessary animal cruelty in America on factory farms. The author takes an ironic
turn: a few men were punished for breaking into a factory farm and viciously torturing hundreds
of animals, killing them. But the factory farm does the exact same thing within their walls with
their employees. Many of the animals residing on the farm are beaten, tortured, and killed
senselessly but that goes unnoticed and when the same action is taken by intruders it is called
The Huffington Post provides predominantly liberal messages to a general audience of
readers. The language is direct and to the point and much of the information provided stems
from the authors own knowledge. The author does provide links to information that
complements his own, but other than a source thrown in here and there, no traces of
researched statistics or data have been found. The article is from this year so within that frame
the information presented is credible, and the few examples that are mentioned throughout the
piece are cited with a hyperlink that can take the reader to the source of the information
whenever applicable.
Overall, the information could be used. The author is well-educated among the topic of
humans cruelty to animals on factory farms because of his experience in the Humane Society.
Readers can trust what the author is saying but if there is doubt there are hyperlinks to lead the
reader to proof. All of this and adding the timeframe provides a clear and credible source for
researchers to use in their papers.
The next article used in this essay comes from Laws and Contemporary Problems with
an article by Gaverick Matheny and Cheryl Leahy titled Farm-Animal Welfare, Legislation, and
Trade. This article attempts to give vital statistics to the reader regarding how huge the problem
of animal cruelty among factory farms truly is. Throughout the essay, statistics such as the
average lifespan of a factory farm animal and how much food these animals receive in a given

year. These types of things are what can hit the reader about how massive the torture and
killings are of these animals really is.
This article gives an abundance of sources to go along with the information that is
presented. At the bottom of each page is a footnote regarding any and all information retrieved
and where the reader can research to gain more information. The authors also provide some
credibility within their work. Gaverick Matheny is a Program Manager at the Intelligence
Advanced Research Projects Activity, so with this in mind one can assume that he is welleducated in the ways of research papers. Cheryl Leahy teaches a seminar on animals and
agriculture and the law, so this can give some credibility because of her extensive work within
this subject. The journal itself also provides credibility to the authors because of it being
intended for a scholarly audience. There was an editorial staff that checked the sources and the
information presented. The article is quite old, however. Being produced in 2007, it is well
beyond the five year scope that is usually used within a research project timeframe. One could
use the statistics within that time and compare it to how it has either increased or decreased
(unlikely) from then to now. This could be a great source to use within a research paper given
the proper techniques to acquire the right information.
From www.organicconsumers.org comes the article by David Steele titled Factory
Farms Wide Net of Pain and Destruction. This article attempts to provide information to a wide
net of general audience readers. There are very few sources and the language is quite
elementary in order to reach across a wide spectrum of readers. The article tells of the horrors
that the factory farm animals go through as their lives progress and it even discusses how it
could impact humans with the sickness that is rapidly spread through the farm. It also discusses
how these farms require a great deal of land so much of nature is also being destroyed by these
expanding animal death camps.
This source is published to be read to a general audience so the language is toned down
and the amount of sources is minimal. The magazine itself proclaims that it has tips and ways in

order to prevent further damage to the earth and the author was chosen for his expertise among
the field. Overall, this article could be useful in establishing some basic groundwork for the
paper. If the researcher needed some information in order to start the paper this would be the
place to go. The article does a nice job of directing the reader to certain experiments or studies
that have already been conducted among animals in these farms. The article was also
published in 2009 so it is within the 5 year timespan that is recommended for research papers.
The final source of this paper comes from the Journal of Agriculture and Environmental
Ethics, and the article is titled Affected Ignorance and Animal Suffering: Why Our Failure to
Debate Factory Farming Puts Us at Moral Risk, by Nancy M. Williams. The article states that
humans are influenced by their social and cultural influences which shape their beliefs. With this
in mind, the author suggests that maybe the reason why there is no effective practice in
maintaining the amount of torture the animals on factory farms go through is because of lack of
environmental discussion regarding the issue.
The credibility of the source is extensive. The author is an award winning writer, and she
published an article through a scholarly journal aimed for higher-educated individuals. This
provides credibility because of the editorial staff that is in charge of researching each set of
information that is presented. Each statistic and reference to an experiment is cited with
footnotes throughout the article. The only downfall seems to be the age because it was
produced in 2008, which is a little older than the recommended timeframe. Some of the
statistics may have changed through the years but the article itself can be used if properly
picked out by the researcher. There is plenty of useful and credible information that is presented
throughout the article.
Represented throughout this essay is what is originally stated: there is an abundance of
information out there regarding just about any topic that a human can imagine. If the researcher
is committed to finding the information then they can do so through multiple ways. There are
databases, search engines among other ways. Throughout this essay, 12 articles/websites were

explored and their credibility was examined regarding the research question what are ways in
which culture can ensure that factory farm animals will have better living conditions.

Works Cited

Rollin, Bernard E. "Animal Agriculture and Social Ethics for Animals."Encyclopedia of

Animal Science. New York, New York (2005). Web. Google Scholar. 13
November 2014.
Arora, Namit. On Eating Animals. The Humanist, 73/4 (2013) 26-31. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 13 November 2014.
Munro, Lyle. Teaching and Learning Guide for: The Animal Rights Movement in Theory and
Practice: A Review of Sociological Culture. Sociology Compass, 6.6 (2012): 511-518.
Academic Search Premier. Web. 16 November 2014.
Ankeny, Jason. The More Incredible Egg. Entrepreneur 42.6 (2014): 50. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 16 November 2014.
Purcell, Natalie. Cruel Intimacies and Risky Relationships:Accounting for Suffering in Industrial
Livestock Production. Society & Animals 19.1 (2011): 59-81. Academic Search
Premier. Web. 16 November 2014.
Brown, Stephanie. Do They Not Bleed? Canadian Dimension 45.4 (2011): 23-26. Academic
Search Premier. Web. 16 November 2014.
DeGrazia, David. Moral Vegetarianism from a Very Broad Basis. Journal of Moral Philosophy
6.2 (2009): 143-165. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 November 2014.
Adams, Ronald. Fast Food and Animal Rights: An Examination and Assessment of the
Industrys Response to Social Pressure. Business & Society Review 113.3 (2008):
301-328. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 November 2014.

Shapiro, Paul. On Factory Farms, Not All Cruelty Is a Crime. HuffingtonPost.com. The
Huffington Post, 9 October 2014. Web. 20 November 2014.
Matheny, Gaverick and Leahy, Cheryl. Farm-Animal Welfare, Legislation, and Trade. Laws

Contemporary Problems 70.1 (2007): 325-358. Google Scholar. Web. 20



Steele, David. Factory Farms Wide Net of Pain and Destruction. organicconsumers.org.
Organic Consumers. 2009. Web. 20 November 2014.
Williams, Nancy M. Affected Ignorance and Animal Suffering: Why Our Failure to Debate
Factory Farming Puts Us at Moral Risk. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental
Ethics 21.4 (2008): 371-384. Google Scholar. Web. 20 November 2014.