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Jessica Santos

Annotated Bibliography

"Chapter 10: Suicide Prevention." Mental Health: Facing the Challenges, Building Solutions.
75-82. n.p.: World Health Organization, 2005. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Nov.
In this chapter of Mental Health, the World Health Organization describes many things
such as the risk factors of suicide which is well known for being a notorious consequence of
bullying in general. Of these factors, interpersonal conflict is one of them which consequentially
fall under psychological factors. This was striking because it proceeds to show how much
something as simple as an argument on an online forum can lead to damage the way you think
of yourself, others, and the one who the conflict took place with. Moreover, they analyze the
effects of suicide on those around the victim. On average, a single suicide intimately affects at
least six people. If a suicide occurs in a school or workplace, it has an impact on hundreds of
people. In various cyberbullying cases, the end product is a tragic suicide committed by
someone who does not see any reason to continue living under the conditions they were in. As a
solution, people suggested the following, Suicide prevention programs are needed. They should
consider specific interventions for different groups at risk (for example, age- and gender-related),
including tasks allocated to different sectors (education, social affairs, etc.), and they should be

Crosslin, Katie, and Matt Crosslin. "Cyberbullying At A Texas University - A Mixed Methods
Approach To Examining Online Aggression." Texas Public Health Journal 66.3 (2014):
26-31. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.
This article focuses on research studies made by Matt Crosslin and Katie Crosslin on
undergraduate college students who attend a Texas university that were victims or perpetrators in
cyberbullying at some point in their life. These cyberbullying incidents occasionally occurred
through social media in websites like Instagram, Facebook, or Twitter. The results of the study
showed According to the victimization survey, over 50% of the participants reported that they
had received an upsetting email and a text from someone they know. Additionally, 32.4% of
participants reported experiencing at least 2 of the victimization behaviors described in the
survey. A portion of participants were also involved in Facebook wall posts that were distressing,
as well as had pictures or content posted on other websites that they did not want people to see.
The overall score for victimization ranged from 0 to 20 (Mean = 4.2; SD = 4.3) indicating there
was some victimization, but it did not occur frequently for the majority of participants. This
shows that various age groups and racial groups suffer (majority) from the same exact
victimization and that it is becoming an increasing issue in todays youth.

Magaud, Emilie, Karissa Nyman, and Jean Addington. "Cyberbullying In Those At Clinical
High Risk For Psychosis." Early Intervention In Psychiatry 7.4 (2013): 427-430.
Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.
In this journal, they ran an experiment on 50 people at clinical high risk for psychosis.
The subjects were given the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire with added questions about
cyberbullying. The results of the questionnaire came out as 38% of them reported cyberbullying
at some point in their lives. They also concluded that since these people are more vulnerable due
to the psychosis, the effects could be even more damaging to their emotions and self-perception.
The idea behind the experiment is stated, An association between experiences of childhood

trauma and the later development of psychosis has been suggested with a recent meta-analysis
indicating that individuals with psychosis are 2.72 times more likely than controls to have
experienced childhood adversity. This was shocking data due to the fact that not only do
perpetrators target weak individuals, but they have begun to target individuals with disabilities
that make them that much more vulnerable to the attacks they are subject to.

MESSITT, MAGGIE. "Cyberbullying Happens In Code. Break It." Education Digest 79.9
(2014): 51-54. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.
In this periodical, Maggie Messitt successfully decodes the various puzzles in todays
social media. She exposes many ways that bullying happens online in various social media
networks such as Instagram, Twitter, and Facebook. This article allows those who are not fluent
in todays youths slang to understand the language that is being used which has pretty much
become their main language online. Messitt proceeds to get information from teens active in
social media. She documents, Although Facebook is still rampant with bullying, its use is
slowly decreasing due to its very public nature, explains a 14-year-oId Connecticut girl who has
admitted to sexual bullying and being bullied herself, "because kids are smart and know parents
and college people see it." This supports the fact that teens hide things like cyberbullying from
their parents and anyone with some sort of authority. Messitt states various times show
intelligent the youth is becoming and sneaky as well. They constantly sneak around and are
finding new ways to do things they should not. Cyberbullying is an act that is hidden from most
parents until the victim reaches its breaking point and asks the parent for help.

Nixon, Charisse L. "Current Perspectives: The Impact Of Cyberbullying On Adolescent

Health." Adolescent Health, Medicine & Therapeutics 5.(2014): 143-158. Academic
Search Complete. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.
In Nixons: The Impact of Cyberbullying on Adolescent Health, he summarizes
everything from the effects of being victimized to guiding the future research of cyberbullying, a
topic he considers worthy of further study. In this article, he investigates depression and
Cyberbullying through various studies conducted by numerous researchers. In addition, Nixon
reviews facts about the effects of Cyberbullying that give insight to the situations that many of us
thankfully, have never taken a part of. He synthesizes information from various studies to give us
statistical data on things such as at the age that children become depressed due to certain
situations such as stress from school, family issues, and cyberbullying. This source supports the
topic chosen due to the in depth analysis given on various aspects of cyberbullying and the
effects, victims, and perpetrators of this crime. Overall, this article gives readers a sense of
awareness on what Nixon refers to as an international public health concern among
SIMMONS, KATE D., and YVETTE P. BYNUM. "Cyberbullying: Six Things Administrators
Can Do." Education 134.4 (2014): 452-456. Academic Search Complete. Web. 5 Nov.
In this journal, the history of cyberbullying is analyzed along with as the name suggests 6
things administrators can do to assist in the prevention of cyberbullying. They suggest things
such as creating policies informing students and faculty about what cyberbullying and the
consequences for such actions. Along with this, presentations on cyberbullying should be given
in order to further inform the students of the specific behaviors and how to inform administration
of cyberbullying incidents on campus. The relationship between parent and school is also
highlighted and is considered a critical component in reducing bullying behavior. In the article,
the spread of district-wide cyberbullying awareness is also considered crucial as students move

through schools and grades. The creation of a comfortable environment in which cyberbullying
can be easily reported is also emphasized along with the thorough documentation of
cyberbullying behaviors in order to create a successful argument to punish the perpetrator and
cease the behavior.