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Alison Lord

9/27/14

Analyzing Students Thinking


Addition
Examine the following examples of students procedures for solving the same addition problem.
Explain what each student did to obtain the correct answer. Then, choose one of the
strategies and solve the problem 1367 + 498.
1. Kelly
567
+259
700
110
16
826

3. Andy
567 600
+259 +226
826

259
- 33
226

2. Rudy
567
+259

567, 667, 767


777, 787, 797, 807, 817
818, 819, 820, 821, 822
823, 824, 825, 826
4. Yours
1367
+ 498
1000
700
150
16
1816

Explanations:
1. Kelly Kelly used an expanded form. She added by place value, starting with the hundreds
place, then added those together to find her total.

2. Rudy Rudy counted on by hundreds, then tens, then ones until he had counted the
appropriate values represented in the original problem.

3. Andy Andy used equal additions to make the initial problem easier. He added 33 to each
digit. Then he subtracted 33 from his answer since it was added before.

Alison Lord

9/27/14

Subtraction
Examine the following examples of students procedures for solving the same subtraction
problem. Explain what each student did to obtain the correct answer. Then, try Caitlins
procedure to solve the problem 152-39.
1. Caitlin
2. Louis
6313
- 18
45

63
-18

63 10 = 53
52, 51, 50, 49,
48, 47, 46, 45
4. Yours- (use Caitlins procedure)

3. Kenley
63
-18
28
38
48
58
+5

152
- 39
10
10
10
10

or

40
+5
45

152 30 = 122
121, 120, 119, 118, 117,
116, 115, 114, 113
113

Explanations:
1. Caitlin Caitlin subtracted by the tens place, then counted on the number in the ones place.

2. Louis Louis added a ten to the ones place on the top, and added a ten on the bottom to
prevent him from having to carry something over. This seems to be a version of equal additions.

3. Kenley Kenley counted by tens from 18, then added 5 to get to the original 63. To find his
answer, he then added up the number of tens plus the five he used.

Alison Lord

9/27/14

Multiplication
Examine the following examples of students procedures for solving the same multiplication
problem. Explain what each student did to obtain the correct answer. Then, use the lattice
method to solve the problem 57 x 23.
1. Sasha

2. Emily

43
x 62
6
80
180
2400
2666

43 x 62
20 x 62 =1240
20 x 62 =1240
3 x 62 = 186
2666

3. Tabitha Lattice method

0
6

8
6

8
6

x
6
2

4. Yours - Lattice method 57 x 23


5
7
x
1
1
2
1
0
4
11
2
3
3
5
1
1

1,311

Explanations:
1. Sasha Sasha used an expanded notation of the standard algorithm for multiplication where
she multiplied each digit separately, then added those answers together to find her answer.
2. Emily Emily broke the problem up into sections (found a simpler problem to solve). She
saw that it would be easier for her to multiply 62 by 20 twice, then by 3 and add her answers
together.
3. Tabitha Tabitha used the lattice method for multiplication where the diagonal lines serve as
separating place value. She multiplied what was in each box, then added on the diagonal lines to
find the answer.

Alison Lord

9/27/14

Division
Examine the following examples of students procedures for solving the same division problem.
Explain what each student did to obtain the correct answer. Then, use the lattice method to
divide 832 by 6.
1. Doug
137 r 4
5| 689
-500 100 x 5
189
-50
10 x 5
139
-50
10 x 5
89
-50
10 x 5
39
-35
7x5
4
137x5
3. Madelaine

2. Nancy
137 r 4
5| 689
-5
18
-15
39
-35
4

4. Yours Lattice Method or MultiGrid


Stencil (see More Division Strategies)

500 5 = 100
100 5 = 20
50 5 = 10
30 5 = 6
95= 1 r4
689 5 = 137 r 4

832 6

8
1
2

3
5
86=1r2
23 6 = 3 r 5
52 6 = 8 r 4

2
8
4
Answer = 138 r 4

Explanations:
1. Doug Doug used a strategy of using the entire place value for each digit beginning with the
hundreds and grouping by hundreds, then tens, then ones until he found his remainder. He then
added the grouping values together to find his answer.
2. Nancy Nancy used the standard long division algorithm to find her answer. She starts with
the hundreds place and works with just one digit at a time, subtracting until she found her
remainder.
3. Madelaine Madelaine utilized an expanded notation form for dividing where she broke her
original problem into more manageable problems. She saw that if she separated the 689 into
parts consisting of 500, 100, 50, 30 and 9 she would more easily be able to divide. She then
added her answers together to find the overall correct answer to the division problem.