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QUOTES FROM THE MADONNAS OF ECHO PARK

Ashleys Part- Fucking cholos go hunt for black people! You wetbacks been trying to kill us up and
down these streets. (85)
- This quote was from chapter 4, after Efren Mendoza had killed an African-American teenager while
driving people on a bus. A man from the crowd felt that Efren had killed the teenager on purpose. This
made me curious to learn more about the tension between the Hispanics/Latinos and the Blacks during the
early 1980s in Los Angeles. It also made me curious to learn more about the violence that has occurred
and may still be occurring in Los Angeles. What are some of the factors in violence?

QUOTES FROM OTHER SOURCES:


Ashleys Part: It is certainly true that the acrimony between African Americans and Latinos cannot be
resolved until both sides address their own unconscious biases about one another Latino Anti-Black
Violence in Los Angeles (3)
- I chose this quote particularly because it applies to us in general. We should all be aware of our
perceptual biases. Unless we come to terms that not all our biases are correct, we cannot fully come
together.
Beas Part: Hernndez, Tanya Kater. "Latino Anti-Black Violence In Los Angeles: Not "Made In The
USA." Harvard Journal Of African American Public Policy 13.(2007): 37-40. Academic Search Premier.
Web. 20 Oct. 2014.
Quote: Over the years, the hostility has been explained as a natural reaction to competition for bluecollar jobs in a tight labor market, or as the result of turf battles and cultural disputes in changing
neighborhoods. Other have suggested that perhaps Latinos have simply been adept at learning the U.S
lesson of anti-Black racism, or that perhaps Black Americans are resentful at having the benefits of civil
rights movement extended to Latinos.
- I picked this quote because I believe it is important to know the reasons why different racial
backgrounds would be so violent towards each other. It would give people awareness about the situation
and in result the can act different to decrease the crimes and violent.
Ambers Part: Kingsbury, Alex. Gangs in the U.S. CQ Researcher 16 Jun. 2010: 583-604.
"Violent-crime rates are near historic lows in the United States, but in many urban areas violent crime,
particularly homicide, remains pervasive, largely due to street gangs. In some areas police blame 80
percent of all crime on gangs."

Holder told a group of social workers in New Orleans. But there are areas where the reduction numbers
we celebrate mean nothing where children are accustomed to the sounds of gunshots; where young
people are lured into gangs; where funerals outnumber weddings.
" The crisis has largely been ignored, in part because gangs are relatively localized to their own
communities"
First, we must address the personal, family and community factors that cause young people to choose
gangs over more productive alternatives, Gonzales said. The more success we have in prevention, the
fewer people we'll have to prosecute for violent activity down the road.
"78 percent, agree that prevention is more effective in reducing gang violence than law enforcement.
Moreover, the public thinks the economic downturn is causing much of the current gang violence."
- I chose this quote because it talks about the high rates of violence are increasing throughout the years
from gang violence, but there are solutions to reduce those crimes as people from the community are
focusing more on how to stop this violence instead of ignoring them to protect the present and future
generations.
Wins Part:
Sampson, Robert J., and Janet L. Lauritsen. 1997. Racial and ethnic disparities in crime and criminal
justice in the United States. Crime and Justice 21: 311-374.
"The United State is dominated by three race and ethnic groups - non-Hispanic whites (75 percent), nonHispanic blacks (12 percent), and Hispanics (9 percent). In urban areas where crime rates tend to be
highest, non-Hispanic whites no longer represent the majority population in many of the nation's largest
cities (e.g. Los Angeles, Chicago, Detroit)."
Lauries Part: Erlanger, Howard S. "Estrangement, Machismo And Gang Violence." Social Science
Quarterly (University Of Texas Press) 60.2 (1979): 235-248.Academic Search Premier. Web. 24 Oct.
2014.
"Subcultural values, it is argued, define certain circumstances and stimuli that appropriately evoke
physical aggression, especially on the part of young black and Hispanic males."
I chose this passage from my selected source because it solely addresses a majority of Los Angeles'
physical violence as an act mostly done by black and Hispanic male youths. Statistics have proven that
the crime rates among these ethnic groups of males are fueled by sub-cultural influences they are
surrounded by.

GRAPHS AND CHARTS:

CITEhttp://www.ronunz.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/RaceCrime-Unz-July20131.pdf

NOTES FOR CONCLUSION


Ashleys Part: LATINO ANTI-BLACK VIOLENCE IN LOS ANGELES: NOT MADE IN THE USA
(2007). Hernndez, Tanya Kater. "Latino Anti-Black Violence in Los Angeles: Not "Made in the USA."
Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy 13.(2007): 37-40. Academic Search Premier. Web.
20 Oct. 2014.
- During the trail of Cheryl Green (a fourteen year old African American who was killed by members of a
Latino gang), prosecutors demonstrated that African American residents were being threatened and killed
in an effort to force them out of a Latino neighborhood, in the sense of ethnic cleansing.
- Over the years, this hostility has been explained that there is a competition for blue-collar jobs in a tight
labor market or culture disputes in changing neighborhoods.
- However, they are insufficient to explain the extremity of the ethnic violence.
- Racism and anti-Black particular is a pervasive and historically entrenched reality of life in Latin
America and the Caribbean (2 for stats)
- Communities of Latinos in the United States show a marked social distance from African Americans.
- The acrimony between African Americans Latinos cannot be resolved until both sides address their own
unconscious biases about one another.
- But recent violence in Los Angeles has involved Latinos targeting peaceful African American citizens.
- Notable examples that these two groups can work together: Young Lords alliance with the Blank
Panthers in the 1960s.

THE EFFECTS OF IMMIGRANT CONCENTRATION ON CHANGES IN NEIGHBORHOOD CRIME


RATES (2013). MacDonald, John, John Hipp, and Charlotte Gill. "The Effects of Immigrant
Concentration on Changes In Neighborhood Crime Rates." Journal of Quantitative Criminology 29.2
(2013): 191-215. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2014.

- Immigrant concentration (gathering) is associated with reductions in neighborhood crime rates in the
city of Los Angeles.
- The tendency to settle into disadvantaged areas exposed their children to economic disadvantage, a
culture of conflict between new arrivals and native residents (2)
Beas Part:

Population change and turnover in neighborhoods can increase crime rates by breaking down social
networks and informal social controls and introducing competing normative cultures or creating
differential social organization by displacing non-immigrants from work.
Mexicans in particular, selectively migrate to the United States on characteristics that
predispose them to low crime, such as motivation to work, ambition, and a desire not to be deported.
Ousey and Kurbins results suggest that increasing immigrant populations are associated with greater
within-city reductions in violent crime.
If immigrants are simply less criminally involved than non-immigrants
this would lead to reductions in crime simply by the movement patterns of recent migrants
Place stratification models have noted that crime production is one of the many negative effects on
local environments that results from eroding employment and housing segregation.
Segmented assimilation theory by contrast suggests that an increasing encampment of
new immigrants into areas of distressed poverty may produce net reductions in neighborhood crime rates
by providing a larger set of the residential population with new orientations and incentives to avoid
criminal behavior.
Racial disparities in the propensity for crime and violence might lead some to speculate that
immigrants are simply replacing African American populations in economically distressed LA
neighborhoods.
The biggest predicted reductions in crime occurred in areas of concentrated poverty located in the
Southeast and Central sections of Los Angeles, areas that have been historically linked to crime and gang
violence among native Latino populations.
(THIS IS NOT PART OF THE NOTES)- Ashley this article has some good data that we can use for
the poster.