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Graphics

Mathematics for
Computer Graphics

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Graphics Lab @ Korea University

Contents

Complex Numbers

CGVR

Pure imaginary number


Complex conjugate
Representation with polar coordinates

Quaternions

Definition
Addition, scalar multiplication, multiplication, division,
and inverse
3D Rotations

Nonparametric Representations
Parametric Representations
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Complex Numbers

CGVR

Real Part + Imaginary Part:

z x, y
x Re z ,

y Imz

Addition and Subtraction

Scalar Multiplication

Multiplication

z x iy

imaginary
axis

x1 , y1 x2 , y2 x1 x2 , y1 y2

real axis

k x1 , y1 kx1 , ky1

x1 , y1 x2 , y2 x1 x2 y1 y2 , x1 y2 x2 y1

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Pure Imaginary Number &


Complex Conjugate

Imaginary Unit: i 0, 1

i 2 0, 10, 1 1, 0
i 1
Complex Conjugate

z x iy

CGVR

z x iy

Modulus or absolute value

z zz x 2 y 2

Division
z1 z1 z2 x1 , y1 x2 , y2 x1 x2 y1 y2 x2 y1 x1 y2

2
,
2
2
2
2
2
z2 z2 z2
x2 y2
x2 y2
x2 y2

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Representation with Polar


Coordinates

z r cos i sin
Eulers Formula
ei cos i sin
z re i

CGVR

imaginary
axis

z=(x, y)

real axis

Complex Multiplication and Division


z1 r1 i 1 2
i 1 2
z1 z 2 r1r2 e
,
e
z 2 r2
nth Roots
2k
2k
n
n
z r cos

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i sin

, k 0, 1, 2, , n 1

Graphics Lab @ Korea University

Quaternions

CGVR

One Real Part + Three Imaginary Part

q s ia jb kc
Properties: i 2 j 2 k 2 1
ij ji k

jk kj i
ki ik j

Addition and Scalar Multiplication

q1 q2 s1 s2 ia1 a2 j b1 b2 k c1 c2
dq1 s1d ia1d jb1d kc1d

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Ordered-Pair Notation

CGVR

Scalar s + Vector v = (a, b, c)

q s, v
Addition: q1 q2 s1 s2 , v1 v 2

Multiplication

Magnitude

q1q2 s1s2 v1 v 2 , s1 v 2 s2 v1 v1 v 2

q s vv

Inverse

q
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s, v

qq 1 q 1q 1, 0
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3D Rotation

CGVR

For a 3D Point (, , )
A unit quaternion q w, x, y, z its conjugate
q w, x, y, z

q 0, , , q 0, , ,
Rotating (, , ) by angle 2 about the axis
parallel to (a, b, c)

For q cos , sin a, b, c


Rq is a 3D Rotation about (a, b, c) by 2

Rq p q p q
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Nonparametric Representations

Definition

Useful in describing objects

Disadvantages

Object descriptions directly in terms of the


coordinates of the reference frame
Ex. implicit expression: f x, y, z 0
Ex. explicit Expression: z f x, y

Advantages

CGVR

Change the independent variable as derivatives

Implicit vs. Explicit Equations


x2 y 2 r 2 , y r 2 x2

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Parametric Representations

3D Curves with Parameter u

CGVR

Pu xu , yu , z u
Ex. xu r cos2u yu r sin 2u z u 0 0 u 1

3D Surfaces with Parameter u, v

Pu, v xu, v , yu, v , z u, v

Ex. xu, v r sin u cos2v

y u, v r sin u sin 2v
z u, v r cosu
0 u, v 1

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Graphics Lab @ Korea University