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DEFINITIONS:

Carrying capacity - the maximum number of organisms that can be sustained by available
resources over a given period of time

Population dynamics - changes in population characteristics determined by natality (birth),


mortality (death), immigration (coming in) and emigration (leaving)

Fecundity - the potential for a species to produce offspring in one lifetime

Open population - changes in population size and density is determined by births, deaths,
immigration and emigration

Closed population - changes in population size and density is determined by births and deaths
only

Biotic potential - the maximum rate a population can increase under ideal conditions

Geometric growth - a pattern of population growth where organisms reproduce at fixed intervals
at a constant rate

Exponential growth - a pattern of population growth where organisms reproduce continually at a


constant rate

Logistic growth - a pattern of population growth where the growth levels off (doesn't grow) as
the size of the population reaches its carrying capacity

Lag phase - the initial stage where population growth is slow (because of small population size)

Log phase - the stage where population growth rates are very rapid

Environmental resistance - any factor that limits a populations ability to realize it's biotic

potential when it nears or exceeds the environments carrying capacity

Stationary phase - the phase population growth rates decrease as the population size reaches the
carrying capacity and stabilizes

Dynamic equilibrium - the birth rate equals the death rate and there is not net change in
population size

CALCULATING CHANGES IN POPULATION SIZE


Population Change = [(births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)] x 100
initial population size (n)

CALCULATING GEOMETRIC GROWTH RATES


a pattern of population growth where organisms reproduce at fixed intervals at a constant rate

N(t+1) = Population at the end of year 1


N(t) = Initial population

Lambda = N(t+1)
N(t)

N(t+1) = N(t)Lambda

eg)
a) There is an initial population of 2000 seals. 950 are born, and 150 die. What is the geometric
growth rate?

Lambda = 2800
2000
Lambda = 1.4

b) What will the population of seals be after 2 years?

N(2) = 2800 x 1.4


= 3920

CALCULATING EXPONENTIAL GROWTH RATES


a pattern of population growth where organisms reproduce continually at a constant rate

dN = instantaneous growth rate of the population


dt
r = growth rate per capita
N = population size
td = doubling time

dN = rN
dt

td = 0.69
r
eg)
a) There is a population of 2500 yeast cells that are growing exponentially. The growth rate is
0.03/hour. Calculate the initial instantaneous growth rate of the population.

dN = 0.03 x 2500
dt

dN = 75 per hour
dt

b) How long will it take for the population to double in size?

td = 0.69
0.03
td = 23 hours

CALCULATING LOGISTIC GROWTH RATES


a pattern of population growth where the growth levels off (doesn't grow) as the size of the
population reaches its carrying capacity

dN = population growth rate at a given time


dt
rmax = maximum intrinsic growth
N = population size
K = carrying capacity

dN = rmax N [(K-N)]
dt

eg) There is an initial population size of 20, with a carrying capacity of 1000 and maximum
intrinsic growth of 0.5. What is the logistic growth rate?

dN = 0.5 x 20 [(1000-20)]
dt

dN = 9.8
dt

1000

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

1a)
N(0) = 50000
N(1) = 50000 + 32000 - 29000
= 53000

Lambda = N(t+1)
N(t)
= 53000
50000
= 1.06

b)
After 2 years --> N(t+1) = N(t) Lambda^2
N(2)= 53000 x 1.06
= 56180

After 10 years --> N(10) = 53000 x 1.06 ^10


= 9414.92

2a)
dN = rN
dt
= 0.345 x 980
= 338 per day

b) td = 0.69

= 0.69
0.345
= 2 days

c) 980 x 2 = 1960
1960 x 2 = 3920
3920 x 2 = 7840
7840 x 2 = 15680
15690 x 2 = 31360
31360 x 2 = 62720
62720 x 2 = 125440
125440 x 2 = 250880
250880 x 2 = 501760
501760 x 2 = 1003520
1003520 x 2 = 2007040

11 doubling times, 22 days.

3.
dN = rmax N x [(K-N)]
dt

N(20) = 1(20) x [1000-20]


1000
= 20 x 0.98
= 19.6

N(200) = 1(200) x [1000-200]


1000

= 200 x 0.8
= 160

N(500) = 1(500) x [1000-500]


1000
= 250

N(900) = 1(900) x [1000-900]


1000
= 90

N(990) = 1(990) x [1000-990]


1000
= 9.9

N(1000) = 1(1000) x [1000-1000]


1000
=0

4. No it doesn't influence it. It just multiplies or divides the amounts by whatever the rmax
multiplies or divides by.

QUESTIONS PAGE 670

1.
Change in population growth = [(57+4) - (39)] x100
34
= 64.7%

2. 4.29 = 342a - 43

90
1.25 = a

3.
Change in population growth = [(263) - (26+8+12)] x 100
42
= 516%

4a) This is exponential growth.


b)
dN = rN
dt
= 4.5 x 2
= 9 per year

N(8) = 9 x 8
= 72

5a) This is exponential growth


b)
-temperature conditions stay average (don't go too high or low)
-half the kittens must always be female for each generation
-all kittens must be fertile
c)
-temperature
-predators
-competition for food

7a)
Population growth = (34+12) - 86 x100
198
= 20.2
b) This may be a concern because the amount of births/immigrants is far lower (almost half) than
the number of deaths.The concern may be that this will eventually cause the species to become
extinct.

c) You could speculate about the environment influencing the growth rate, but you shouldn't
make a conclusion because they may not be directly correlated. There may be other factors that
influence it, but with the information we are given, we don't know.

8a) 6^4 = 1296

b) see graph paper

c) It would still be exponentially growing, but the incline would be less steep and increase
slower.

SECTION 14.3 DEFINITIONS

Density dependent factors - influences population regulation more intensely when population
density is larger

Intraspecific competition - individuals of the same population/species compete for resources in


their habitat

Predation - a predator catches, kills, and consumes prey

Allee effect - density dependent phenomenon that occurs when a population fails to reproduce
enough to offset mortality once the density is too low

Minimum viable population size - the lowest number of individuals needed for a population to
continue for a given period of time

Density independent factors - influence population regulation regardless of population density

Limiting factor - any essential resource that is in short supply or unavailable

QUESTIONS PAGE 675

1. Mortality and emigration lower population size, natality and immigration increase population
size

2. Density dependent are factors that influence growth more intensely as population size
increases. Density independent influence growth regardless of population density.

3a) Density independent


b) Density independent
c) Density dependent

4. Density dependent factor


- predation

Density independent factor


-pollution

5a) Density independent


b) see graph paper