Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 12


CLASS CODE : IE673-FALL-2014-63-15




Introduction and Objectives of the Project

A brief description of the methodologies applied

The Main Body of the project:

-Part 0
-Part 1
-Part 2
-Part 3
-Social Networking
-Panorama Navigation Map
-Further work needed/proposed
-References and Bibliography

-Self grade

Introduction and Objectives of the Project:

A brief description of the methodologies applied:

The Main Body of the project :

Part 0:

Part 1:

Radio Frequency Identification Device:

RFIDs are an advanced identification technology that has a significant effect on the
inventory system. The system can provide accurate knowledge of the current inventory.
This also helps in putting together all the parts in a product that is arriving from different
parts of the world without any difficulty. Keeping our product in mind, various parts of the
final are received to the final assembly point from different industries. So each of the
manufactured part is put an RFID tag to access traceability. Different models discussed in
the assignments put forth earlier are reworked including the RFID tags. The CIMpgr model
is designed to be reworked with the inclusion of the RFID in it. They will assist in
segregating the product from the collaborating companies and ensure the product ultimately
gets delivered to the retailers.

The introduction of RFID will also alleviate the problematic areas considered in the CORA
requirement analysis. By addition of the RFID tool in the CORA analysis tool it becomes
very convenient to involve such a technology to be analyze the problems in the system. Any
error occurring in any of the production department of the product can be analysed easily
using the tags that are present in the product.

And similarly in the PFRA spreadsheet the addition of the RFID tags helps in reducing the
risk factor of the product. The addition of this tag in the spreadsheet reduces the rating of
the number which depicts the difference between the traditionally used scanners (where the
rate of risk is higher) and the rate of using the procedure with the RFID tags.

Based on Video 1:

The RFID consists of two parts of interrogators known as reader and tags known as labels.
There are basically two types active and passive tags. Active tags can hold 8K and 32K
worth data. Active tags goes on the materials that goes on shipping or on a plane. Passive
tags can be attached to pallets containing the products and can be tracked using the
information on the reader. When it comes regarding the battery life it basically depends on
the usage of the tags. There are certain batteries that can work for like 14-16 years while
there are certain tags that undergo a rapid usage and lasts only to 2-3 years. There is a
handheld device that picks up the signals from the RFID tags and provides information of
the whereabouts of the product. There is a HUB like structure that picks up the signal and
sends it via the ORACLE server to the ORACLE database. This is done using the tag on the
database. The tag is read and sent i.e. the information is transferred using the database.
There are various kinds of data that can be included in the RFID tags. Information like
shipping weight, temperature, cubic weight, price etc. 16 different information can be stored
on the RFID tags. When the question of why not use a barcode reader instead of an RFID it
gave the idea of how really the RFID tags work. The barcode readers need human
intervention. A human presence in order to track the package and send it through. While on
the usage of RFID we really dont need a human presence, we need to enter the ID of the
tag through we get the entire information on the product. It is like a mobile phone with using
the GPS technology.

Based on Video 2:

It is based on the corporation, which provides logistics solution, consulting supply chain
problems, proving software solutions and a leader in RFID for 20 years. They have about 30
closed loop solutions, consulting services etc.

Impact of RFID on material flow simulation for example considering a EPV tagging solution,
where a pallet of material can either go in a line or come around in a loop or scan it which
basically scans the information regarding the product number, product ID, description etc.
This simulation model knows how much of material is really needed. They offer 6 steps in
the process of consulting which includes Cost Estimation, Project management, Quality
management etc. Few of the advantages in using the RFID in the process or assembly of
techniques are that it is a real-time application, they produce literally ZERO error
information, Quality guidelines, tracking of sub-components in the final assembly, medium
object oriented database. There is practically no room for human error like missing out a tag
or data that is in the pallet and really figures out the whereabouts of the product.

RFID integration into CIMpgr model:

The CIMpgr process model is a set of diagrams, which systematically illustrate the objectto-object relationships between the objects, their functions and entities used for graphically
modeling a process, and gives system-oriented approach to management. Acc. to this
model a desired result is achieved more efficiently when activities are related resources are
managed as a process. This model is majorly used because it is compatible with

international standards. Being a budding enterprise we would like to concentrate on the

international market in order for our project to reach heights of success.

Layer 0:

Modifications to Layer 0: C7A0 and R6A0. RFID Technology has been included, both as a
control and a resource in the top layer of abstraction. It is portrayed as a control and a
resource because when entering the subsequent layers, RFID is seen as a resource during
the planning stages but as a control in the implementation stages.

Layer 1:

Modifications to Layer 1: R3A1 and R3A2 , R3A3 , C3A4. In the initial blocks A1, A2 and
A3 RFID is portrayed as a resource to be considered and used in the implementation
process. During the implementation process RFID is portrayed as a tool that provides
control over the process rather than being just a resource. RFID would be used to monitor
the location of the molded sensors.

Layer 2:

Modifications to Layer 2: R6A1 and R5A2. All the information on how RFID technology used
to aid the solutions for Eco Engines is going to provide and is gathered and organized in
this layer.

RFID integration into CORA:

CORA code is integrated into four modules which are


So considering all the above parts we design a spreadsheet so that all the above
parameters are met. The main purpose of designing the CORA tool is to study the customer
requirements very carefully and also perform an analysis and get the best output. The ideas
are put down in the chart documentation is carried on. The three major steps are

Define scope, function and purpose

Identify user requirement

Prioritize potential requirements

Functions are first designed. Here the end product is put into functions and the
ATTRIBUTES required for the function is the USER REQUIREMENT. So when all these
attributes are put together they form the product, which is entirely customer friendly. RFID
will be implemented as a new engineering solution which is combine with the effective
logistics because only after the introduction of such a system makes the package of
effective logistics system.
RFID integration into the PFRA:

RFID has been included in the PFRA tool and the results have been that the Severity
Rating of a failure in RFID is low. This result can be backed up by the results obtained in
the CORA worksheet. Because of that RFID is not essential in the solutions Eco Engines is
providing to its customers any fault in RFID will not be critical. Nevertheless if RFID was
considered to be a critical solution its detection and occurrence ratings would be 1, meaning
that a fault in RFID is highly detectable and that a fault is highly improbable.

Collaboration with the integration of RFID:

The four companies will really benefit from the integration of RFID. Since the green
products will be made by our company, and all the raw materials will be channels through
our warehouse; we will be transferring inventory from our warehouses. Thus we can use
RFID to tag all the raw material pallets, and use RFID transferring systems to allocate raw
material to its position to be shipped to be made into green products for separate
companies. This will help expedite the logistics process which will benefit the company in
many ways. Now that RFID technology is one of the critical processes, the management
has analyzed the risks involved if any, while using the RFID technology and it is as under.

One more process that might have risks has been identified and it is using the RFID tags for
product information, tracking, and delivery of finished product to the distributors and
customers. There are couple of failure modes that this process posses. One of the risks that
is identified is that of improper RF transmission and/or Tag failure and the other being
improper information on the Tag. First it will save money spent in separating, and then it will
help accelerate the asset turnover ratio so the companies look good. And the best part of
integration of RFID is we do not need much of people to work because the entire scanning
and manufacturing department is taken over by the RFID technology. It becomes very easy
for the head for jus to browse the information and hand it over to the scanning system. They
can replace the traditional barcode readers in order to save the usage of human resource
and reduce errors.

Part 2:

Continuous improvement is a very large part of the Total Quality Management principles.
This is why performing quality audits at a regular rate is very important to any company that
wants to performing at its highest quality. Normally, an outside, independent company
comes in to perform the audit to make sure they are not biased . When an outside audit is
not being performed, it is also very smart to perform internal audits to make sure that the
daily operations are always running well in preparation for the next external audit. To make
sure that the internal audits are not biased, it would be in the best interest for the procedure
that the auditing team is made up of members that are not involved in the parts of the
company that are being audited.

The Seven Stages

After reading chapter 20 of the 3Debook, universal is ready to set up the auditing process
using the seven stages:

1. Audit Initiation: To start this process,an unbiased audit team leader will be chosen for
this internal audit. Then, audit objectives, scope, and the criteria will be chosen, specifically
to audit the sorting and recycling process. After making sure that the audit is feasible, the
audit team will be chosen, making sure that they are independent of the sorting and
recycling process but also knowledgeable about the process in general so proper
assessments can be made. Lastly, the leader of the audit team will contact the engineers
involved with the sorting and recycling processes to make sure they know what is being

2. Document Review: Before the on-site audit occurs, the documentation involved with
sorting and recycling should be sent to the audit team to be reviewed to make sure that it is
adequate and the engineers will be contacted if they are not. In this stage, the audit team
will decide whether or not it is worth it to continue pursuing this audit until its completion
based on what they glean from the documentation.

3. Preparing for an On-site Audit: In this stage, the audit plan will be prepared by the
internal audit team, making sure that it contains objective, a scope, duration,
roles/responsibilities, allocation of resources, and a follow up plan for after the audit. After
making sure that the engineering team of the sorting and recycling process approve the
plan, then the work will be assigned to the audit team, who then prepares work documents
to use during the audit.

4. Conducting an On-site Audit: After completing an opening meeting with the audit team,
the audits will begin as planned. All the auditors will be looking for issues and will follow the
checklists that they have created and provide proper recommendations for the engineering
team being audited. After the audit is complete, a conclusion meeting should be held to

review everything that has been analyzed and make sure that the engineer team doesn't
exactly have to follow all the recommendations that were made by the audit team, if they
are not required by law.

5. Audit Reporting: The audit team leader will put together a report for those involved in
the sorting and recycling process, making sure to include all the findings and
recommendations for improvement. After the report gets approved, it will be distributed.

6. Audit Completion: For this internal audit, the documents pertaining to the audit will be
kept in our records so we have something to compare to for our next internal audit.

7. Audit Follow-up: If there were any serious issues found during the internal audit, a
CAPA may need to be started. If that is the case, this stage will make sure that the change
was made successfully to the audited process. After all the proper changes have been
planned and made, then this would conclude this internal audit.

The Planning Questions

These are the questions that must be answered while planning any audit:

Who should be audited? Each department of the company that is responsible for carrying
out a process should be audited.

Why should it be audited? Each process department should be audited to make sure that
they are continuously upholding the same amount of quality, whether or not an external
audit is going to occur. Continuous improvement is the TQM way.

What type of audit should be conducted? Internal audits should be conducted in the
company when there is a lapse of time between external audits from ISO and other external

What should be the depth and scope of these audits? The scope of the audit will follow
all the way down to the subprocesses that are mapped out in the CIMpgr model.

When should the audit take place? The internal audits will occur in the midpoint between
any planned external audits.

Who will perform the audit? The internal audits will be performed by an audit team made
up of employees that are not involved with the processes that being audited.

Is the audit schedule prepared? The audit schedule will be prepared several weeks
ahead of time and will be posted for all those involved in the plant to review before the audit

Part 3:


1. What was the purpose of the Video Conference?

The main purpose of this video was to hold a meeting about within different
organizations and discuss the different tools that are used in order to analyze the risk
factors and other object oriented tools used in our organization.

2. What software did you use for VC and how?

We used SKYPE to do the video conferencing, which is an amazing tool and can
be installed for free.
Screen Shots provided below:

3. What did you discuss and achieve during the VC session?

Date: 10TH DECEMBER, 2014
Call Started: 4:45am

YOGYASRI: Introduction. I am doing my masters in health care Systems Management as a

full time student. I took this class to understand how quality can be maintained when the
production increases and how products can be manufactured in a green, sustainable way.
How about you?
SNEHA: Introduction. I am a masters student majoring in health care systems. This is my
2nd semester at NJIT. In my opinion this course is really useful as it describes the
management approach to long term success through customer satisfaction.

YOGYASRI: Great. Let me go through my assignment with you on my website and explain
what I did. Your feedback along my explanation will be great.
*Yogyasri explained her companys purpose, structure, and collaboration with four other
companies. yogyasri went through all of her assignments with sneha. Discussed what was
done in each and what was learned from each assignment. Finally discussed how all the
contents of the assignments relate to each other and how they have helped improve the
processes in the company*

SNEHA: I really like the way you collaborated the four companies with your 5th one. Let me
go through my company.
*Sneha described her company Ability Engineering Works and its product the Eco- Lift
Trucks and how it is an environment friendly automobile. Also Explained the collaboration
with the four other companies. Sneha went through her assignments with yogyasri and
asked for her feedback.*
Yogya sri and Sneha will make improvements to their assignment based on each others
feedback. Yogya sri and Sneha thanked each other for their time and input.
Call Ended 6:20.

4.In comparison to a face-to-face visit, versus VC, what is the estimated carbon
footprint saving to the environment? How did you calculate this result?

http://www.carbonfootprint.com This was the website used to calculate the carbon footprint.
And it was greatly reduced because no vehicles were used for travel which greatly reduces

the emission of CO2(carbon dioxide ) we can calculate 0.52 tons of CO2 by avoiding the
flight and 0.32 tons of CO2 by avoiding car travel. Other savings includes rental car, hotel
logging, travelling allowance and miscellaneous.

5.What are Green Engineering benefits of using VC?

By video conference, unnecessary travel can be avoided thus reducing Carbon dioxide CO2
emission. Green manufacturing networking with VC allow firms to share infrastructure as a
strategy for enhancing sustainable green production and minimizing costs and universally
help to fight global warming. I also see this in a real world application even when business
are close together because the time wasted by short travel adds up as well.


- UNIVERSAL MACHINERY WAREHOUSE a manufacturer of announces the launching of

an WAREHOUSE for machinery parts.

- The ultimate goal of the four collaborate companies is to start and maintain a ware house
which is highly efficient and safe and ecofriendly.

- Our organization is an ISO 9001:2008 certified and thus it conforms to all the ISO
standards and principles. ISO principles form the basis of the companys prime objective
and that includes customer focus, customer feedback, customer satisfaction, continual

- Over the years has progressively strengthen its managerial and technical cooperation with
his customers- the collaborate companies. We utilize various TQM and quality techniques
that focus on our clients requirements. We use CORA to as a tool to get comprehensive
understand of what our clients expect of us and the appropriate measures we can take to
meet them.

- Our main motto is customer satisfaction and we will strive till the goal is achieved.

Social Networking :

Re: Article: Khama Rhino Sanctuary in Botswana

This is very unfortunate that people are willing to kill animals just to make profit out of it and
this is the main reason why certain kinds of animals get extinct. It would be very difficult to
solve this problem because as long as there is a demand, people who are greedy for money
will find a way to supply that demand regardless on how they do it.Few solutions I can think
of is making stricter enforcement and higher penalties for poaching,Sanctions against
consumer nations. Agricultural reform and wildlife management with exemtions for indigent

Re: Why The Zero Home Matters

The Zero Home is an interesting example of affordable smart home that generates as much
energy as it consumes. The set up is similar to a regular home that is built that gets power
from an outside provider.I think its a great idea.I agree that this is great innovation for future
homes being built in the U.S.The deal should be very attractive for the customers that don't
exactly understand how all of this works.

Panorama navigation map:

In my final look at this 360 Panorama Navigation Map technology created by Dr. Ranky, I
will be discussing how it could be used to perform a remote quality audit. The home screen
of the map is a two dimensional map that allows the user to choose the location of the
panorama that is viewed. This can be used for a 2D image of a manufacturing plant floor
that a remote auditor could click on to view a panorama of a specific location or process.
After entering the panorama environment, there are links that lead to a narrated audiovisual
tour of the current location. This could be used by a fellow auditor that is at the location to
describe any issues in detail while showing the part of the process that is being discussed.
This technology would be incredibly useful is implemented in this way to allow for an auditor
team to only have to send two associates to a plant and be able to collect all the information
and provide full explanations to the rest of the team to view and analyze from even out of
the country. These can be downloaded to a hard drive, so this means that an active internet
connection would not be needed to review this technology and that gives it an advantage of
just video messaging the remote team while at the plant.


In this assignment, we have shown how Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology
could be implemented and used in universal machinery house to improve quality of the
process, improve product quality and customer satisfaction. This improvement was
demonstrated through updates to the following TQM tools: CIMpgr Process Models,
Component Oriented Requirements Analysis (CORA) and the Process Failure Risk Analysis
(PFRA) spreadsheet. Also an internal quality audit was conducted to determine whether the
processes and products are satisfying ISO 9001:2008 Principles. For the most part, they
were, but where deviations were identified, the auditing team made recommendations that
should be applied to improve the company's performance even further in the future.

Further work needed/proposed:

To help better understand these concepts that I learned from doing this course , Total
Quality Management would give a better insight. Applying the concepts practically will help
me understand these objectives better and also help to create a better process. I can look
at items and also incorporate PFRA analysis to analyze failure modes and eliminate future
problems. Ideas on how to green our product or process should be implemented to help
save everyone time and money.

References and Bibliography:

Concurrent Engineering Material by Prof. Paul G. Ranky

Prof. Dr. Paul G. Rankys Taguchi calculator

Self grade:

I expect 100% because I think that I have addressed all the points that were necessary for
the completion of this assignment and I have learned a lot of new concepts which are useful
and helps in improvement.