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Chapter 4 A and B


I. Is Shell + HCl Gas the same as Air
A. Nature is consistent
1. If substances have similar chemical reactions, they have similar atoms
a. indicators-test for the presence of specific atoms or groups of atoms
i. Phenol Red-indicator that turns yellow in CO2
ii. Limewater-turns cloudy in presence of CO2
B. Shell + HCl Gas test results
1. Causes phenol red to turn yellow not air
2. Causes limewater to turn cloudy not air
3. Extinguishes a flame not air
C. Operational Definition
1. Tells how to identify a substance chemically.
a. Operational definition for carbon dioxide, causes phenol red to turn
yellow, limewater to turn cloudy, and causes a flame to go out.
II. Do other substances contain Carbonate Particles? (CO3)
ie Are the number of elements limited?
A. Chalk and baking soda react with HCl CO2
1. Three different substances all contain similar atoms as they all produced
CO2 in the presence with HCl.
a. first evidence that perhaps the number of different kinds of elements
is limited.
2. The three substances must also have some different atoms as well (since they
are different compounds.
3. Zinc + HCl Gas that had no reaction to phenol red or limewater and was
a. This gas was NOT AIR and NOT CO2
b. Process of ruling out was used
c. Gas produced was hydrogen gas
4. Operational definition for Hydrogen-no reaction to phenol red or limewater,
explosive gas.