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Chapter 6

From Few Come Many


I. A model is used to test the feasibility of a limited number of atoms
A. 4 elements are used to make compounds
1. With 4 elements over 80 compounds are able to be made
B. It is very reasonable to assume that 92 elements could account for all matter in
nature
1. analogy of the alphabet and words (26 letters, millions of words)
II. Chemical Formulas
A. Formulas are made when chemical symbols are combined
1. First letter is capital
2. Second letter is lower case
3. No more than two letters
4. No two elements may be the same
B. Symbols are named for virtually everything
1. People, places, gods, planets, latin, greek, german
C. Coefficients vs. Subscripts
1. Subscripts-sub means below and refers to the element to its left
2. The coefficient refers to the entire compound to its right
3. If you have a radical with a subscript, the subscript refers to everything inside
the radical
D. Chemical Equation
1. Reactants rearrange to make Products
a. Law of Conservation of Mass
i. Single Replacement Reactions
Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
One compound and an element makes a new compound and a new element.
ii. Double Replacement Reactions
ZnBr2 + 2HCl ZnCl2 + 2HBr
Two compounds make two new compounds.
III. Density
A. Mass of an object divided by the volume of an object
1. Mass is in grams
2. Volume in cc
a. volume could be in ML if water displacement is used.
i. 1ML = 1 CC = 1 GM
B. Graph of density is a direct relationship (homogenous)
Density of an object is a ratio of mass to volume. Therefore, it is unchanging if the object
is homogenous. This is why you can cut an object into any number of pieces and the density
of the objects remain unchanged.