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Directions: After reading the document below, please answer the following questions completely and
thoroughly in complete sentence format.
Background Question:
1. What three factors motivated the people of Latin America to rebel against their European
The American Revolution, the French Revolution, and Enlightenment.
Haitian Independence
1. Who controlled the colony of Haiti and what two leaders where responsible for their
Toussaint LOuverture controlled the colony of Haiti, along with Jean-Jacques Dessalines helped Haiti
get their Independence.
2. Why were they able to win their independence so quickly and easily?
Toussaint LOuverture led enslaved Africans in a revolt against the French that ended slavery and
resulted in the new nation of Haiti.
3. How was this movement for independence different from revolutions in the rest of Latin
America? [You will have to answer this question after reading the entire document.]
This movement used the slaves as people to help the Revolution, unlike all of the other Latin American

Viceroyalty of Peru
1. Identify and explain the specific events on the European continent effected the movement for
independence in Peru.
When creoles went to Europe for education, they returned to Latin America and brought ideas of
Revolution with them. This caused Rebellions and after people started to drive towards Independence.

2. The movement from independence was spearheaded by what two creoles. Who were they and
explain how they were able to gain it.
Simon Bolivar and Jose de San Martin. Bolivar and Jose de San Martin were Creoles. Together they
fought for Independence in the Spanish territory, Bolivar in the North and Martin in the South.

3. What name did they give to the independent viceroyality?

The territory was known as Gran Columbia
Viceroyalty of New Spain
1. How did the movement for independence differ from that of Peru?
The Rebellion was held by lower class people, instead of rich creoles.
2. The movement began with the leadership of what two leaders? Explain their rebellion and its
Hidalgo and Morelos were the leaders. Together they rallied up people for a Rebellion against the
Spanish. Hidalgo was defeated. Then Morelos continued fighting for four years.
3. Ironically, a creole DID eventually was successful in gaining freedom from Spain. Who was he,
and whey did favor independence in 1820 when he did not earlier?
Ironically, Agustn de Iturbidethe man who had defeated the rebel Padre Morelosproclaimed
independence in 1821.
4. What government/title did this liberator give the newly independent viceroyalty?
What happened to his government?
Iturbide called himself Emperor, but then died two years later. He refused to acknowledge

1. Why was this colony governed differently than the Spanish colonies just prior to Independence?
The colony was different because the Royal family of Portugal had to flee and move to Brazil from
Napoleon. After Napoleon was overthrown Pedro I stayed and began to control.

2. How did the movement for independence differ in this Portuguese colony than those of the
Spanish colonies?
Independence from Portugal was non-violent whereas Spanish fighting had a lot of bloodshed.