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Electrical Measurements Lab

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I-CYCLE

2. Kelvin‟s double bridge - Measurement of resistance –

Determination of Tolerance.

3. Power factor meter.

4. Measurement of parameters of choke coil using

3 -Voltmeter and 3 -Ammeter methods.

5. Measurement of Mutual Inductance.

II- CYCLE

Voltmeter.

2. C.T testing by Silsbee‟s method. Measurement of % ratio error and

phase angle of given C.T by comparison.

3. Schering Bridge and Anderson Bridge.

4. Calibration of LPF wattmeter by Phantom testing.

5. Measurement of 3-phase reactive power with single

Phase wattmeter.

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Electrical Measurements Lab

10. 33-35

Phase wattmeter.

Electrical Measurements Lab

Aim:

To calibrate given 1- Φ energy meter using direct loading

method.

Current : 10A

Meter constant : 900 rev / Kwh

Apparatus required:

1 Energy meter 1- Φ 240V, 10A. 1

2 Voltmeter M.I 0-300V 1

3 Ammeter M.I 0-10A 1

4 Wattmeter UPF 0-300V, 0-10A. 1

5 Autotransformer 1- Φ 230V/ 0-270V, 10A 1

6 Resistive load 1- Φ 230V, 10A 1

7 Stop watch --- --- 1

Theory:

the pressure coil winding this highly inductive as it has very large

number of turns and the reluctance of its magnetic circuit is very low

owing to the presence of air gaps of very small length. Thus the current Ip

throw the pressure coil is proportional to the supply voltage and lags it

by a few degrees less than 90deg. This is because of the winding has

small resistance and there are iron losses in the magnetic circuit current

Ip produces flux Øpg. This flux divides into Øg and Øp. fluxØp is in phase

with Ip and proportional to it.fulx Øp lags voltage by 90deg.

Electrical Measurements Lab

Circuit Diagram:

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.

2. Keep the autotransformer at zero voltage position and

make sure all the loads are in off position.

3. Now switch on the supply and variac is varied till to

get rated voltage.

4. Apply the load step by step and each step note the

readings of voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter and time

taken for 25 rev of the disk of the energy meter.

5. Apply the load below rated current.

6. After note the readings switch off the all loads and

minimize the voltage and than switch off the supply.

Calculations:

The energy meter constant = 900 rev / Kwh.

For 900 rev it records 1 unit or 1 Kwh.

For 25 rev it records = 25 / 900 Kwh.

= 1 / 36 Kwh.

= (1000 X 60 X 60) /36 Wsec

Energy meter reading (E1) = 1,00,000 Wsec.

Actual energy consumed (E2) = Wattmeter reading X Time

Electrical Measurements Lab

Observation Table:

Energy

S. Voltag Wattmete Time taken Actual % Error=

Current meter

N e r reading for 25rev energy (E2-E1) /

(A) reading

o (V) (W) (T) (E2) E2

(E1)

Model Graph:

A graph is drawn between % of error and load current.

+ %

Error

I (amps)

Error

-%

Precautions:

1. Loose connections should be avoided.

2. Meter reading should not exceed beyond their rating.

3. Take readings care fully.

Electrical Measurements Lab

Result:

Hence the calibration of energy meter using direct loading is

Done.

VIVA VOICE QUESTIONS:

possible?

2. why use of aluminum disc is preferred over copper disc ?

3. How braking torque can be adjusted in motor meters ?

4. How is the mercury motor meter compensated for fluid friction

at high loads ?

5. How is braking torque obtained in a mercury meter ?

6. How does energy meter differ from a watt meter?

7. What type of meter is used for measuring KVARH?

8. Why are clock meters not used as house service meters?

9. How are clock meters superior to induction type energy meters ?

10. What is self braking torque? Why is it important on high loads?

Double Bridge.

Apparatus required:

2. Standard resistance.

3. Galvanometer.

4. Unknown resistance wire.

5. Connecting wires.

Electrical Measurements Lab

Theory:

Kelvin‟s double bridge is a modification of wheat stone bridge and

provides greatly increased accuracy in measurement of low valve

resistance‟s‟ represents the resistance of load that connects the unknown

resistance „R‟and standard resistance „S‟ two actual resistance units of

correct ratio be connected between en points „m‟ and „n‟ the

galvanometer be connected to the junction of resistors .

The second set of ratio arms , „p‟ and „q‟ are used to connect the

galvanometer to point at the appropriate potential between the points „m‟

and „n‟ to eliminate theeffect of connecting lead of resistance „r‟ between

known resistance „R‟ and standard resistance „S‟. P/Q ratio is made

equal to p/q such that the resistance of connecting led „r‟ has no effect

on the measurement.

procedure:

2. Connect the known resistance to balance the bridge.

3. Now switch on the supply press battery key Kb and

galvanometer key KG.

Electrical Measurements Lab

galvanometer shows null deflection.

5. Compare both Kelvin‟s Double Bridge value & standard

value.

6. Now connect the unknown resistance wire in the place of

known resistance.

7. Balancing the P/Q ratio by varying the resistance until

galvanometer shows null deflection.

8. Note the multipliers and calculate the resistance by using

formulas.

Calculations:

R = (P/ Q) S

P = Variable resistance.

Q = Variable resistance.

S = Standard resistance.

Observation Table:

R=(P/Q) S

S.no. P Q s

Ω

Result:

Hence the unknown resistances of different wires are

measured.

VIVA-VOICE

1.What do you mean by low resistance?

2. What do you mean by medium resistance?

3. What do you mean by high resistance?

4. HOW does a megger differ from ohm meter?

5. Why is a megger provided with a slipping clutch?

6. What is a megger ?

7. What is the value of low resistance?

8. What is the value of high resistance?

9. What is the value of medium resistance?

Electrical Measurements Lab

AIM: To calibrate the given dynamo meter power factor meter using

given induction regulator.

APPARATUS REQUIRED:

1 Power factor meter 1-phase 240V,10A 1

2 Phase shift trans 3-phase 415V,500VA 1

former

3 Voltmeter M.I 0-300V 1

4 Ammeter M.I 0-5A 1

5 Watt meter UPF 0-300V,0-5A 1

6 Auto transformer 3-phase 415V/0- 1

440V,15A

7 Auto transformer 1-phase 230V/0- 1

270V,10A

8 Rheostat ----- 50 ohm,5A 1

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Electrical Measurements Lab

PROCEDURE:

1. Connect the ckt as per the ckt diagram.

2. Keep the auto transformers at zero voltage position and first switch

on the 3 phase auto transformer supply

3. Now set the rated voltage appears across the output terminals of

phase shift transformer, which are collected to the pressure coil of

wattmeter and power factor

4. Now switch on the 1-Φ auto transformer supply and is adjusted to

a suitable value say 2A.

5. Check out the reading of power factor meter and wattmeter they

just indicating positive reading

6. First adjust the P.F reading to unity using induction regulator

,keep the voltage and current as constant vary the P.F meter

reading and corresponding wattmeter reading is noted

7. Repeat the experiment for different values of P.F

CALCULATIONS:

Actual reading of P.F =

%error = ×100

OBSERVATION TABLE:

reading reading reading error

factor meter using induction regulator.

Electrical Measurements Lab

VIVA-VOICE

1. How the power factor of a single phase circuit is measured?

2. What is principle of power factor meter?

3. What are the different types of power factor meters?

4. Why is moving iron power factor meter generally used?

5. Why is moving iron PF meters less accurate than dynamometer

type?

6. What is power factor?

7. Give expression for the PF?

8. What is synchroscope and where it is used?

9. What is crossed coil PF meter?

10. What is instrument for speed measurements?

Aim:

To measure the parameters of a given choke coil using

1. 3 Ammeters.

2. 3 Voltmeters.

Apparatus required:

1 Voltmeter M.I 0-75/150/300V 3

2 Ammeter M.I 0-5/10A 3

3 Autotransformer 1- Φ 230V/ 0-270V, 10A 1

0-230Ω, 1.7A. 1

6 Rheostat ---

0-50Ω, 5A. 1

7 Choke coil --- 230V, 1KVA 1

Theory:

The parameters of choke coil includes measuring the values of

R,L,X,Z..etc. the inductor should be so designed that capacitive effects

are negligible . This is particularly important for inductors working at

high frequencies where the inter turn capacitance may drastically change

effective value of inductance.

The inductor should be desirably unaffected by external magnetic fields

and should produce a minimum interference field of its own. In the 3-

voltmeter method the resistance chosen should be very high for

measuring the parameters of choker. In 3-ammeter method the

resistance chosen was low when compare with the 3-voltmetter method

to find the parameters of choke coils. The resistance should be low when

Electrical Measurements Lab

L/R ratio.

L=XL/2πf

3-Voltmeter Method:

Circuit Diagram:

1. The autotransformer in minimum output position.

2. By slowly make the connections as per the circuit

diagram.

3. Initially varying the autotransformer, the voltmeter V1 is

adjusted at deferent values from 0-150V.

4. Note down the corresponding readings of V2, V3.

3-Ammeter Method:

Electrical Measurements Lab

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram .

2. Initially the autotransformer in minimum output position.

3. By slowly varying the autotransformer, the ammeter A1 is adjusted at

deferent values from 0-5A.

4. Note down the corresponding readings of A2, A3.

Supply voltage = V1

Voltage across standard resistance R = V2

Voltage across choke coil = V3

Power consumed by the choke coil P = V1² - V2²- V3²

2R

Power factor of the choke coil Cosф = V1² - V2²- V3²

2V2V3

Current flowing through the choke coil I = V2/ R

Impedance of the coil (Z) = V3/ I

Resistance of the coil (R) = Z Cosф

Reactance of the coil (X) = Z Sinф

Induction of the coil (L) = X/2Πf

2

2 I2 I3

Impedance of the coil (Z) = V/ I3

Resistance of the coil (R) = Z Cosф

Reactance of the coil (X) = Z Sinф

Induction of the coil (L) = X/2

S.No V1 V2 V3 SinΦ R=ZcosΦ XL=ZsinΦ L=XL/2Π f

(V1²- V2²- V3²) 2R (V1²- V2²- V3²) 2 V2 V3 R I

Electrical Measurements Lab

S.N P= CosΦ=

I1 I2 I3 (I1²- I2²- I3²) (I1²- I2²- I3²) SinΦ V= I2R Z=V/I3 R=ZcosΦ XL=ZsinΦ L=XL/2 Π f

o 2R 2 I2 I3

Average Inductance =

Average Resistance=

Result:

Parameters of a given choke coil by using 3 Voltmeter &

3 Ammeter methods is measured.

VIVA-VOICE

1. what is inductance ?

2. what is formula for inductive reactance ?

3. what is formula for capacitive reactance ?

4. what is capacitance?

5. what is rating of dimmer stat?

6. What is meant by choke coil ?

7. What is the difference between MC &MI instruments?

8. what is resistance?

9. what is meant by power factor?

10. what is power?

Electrical Measurements Lab

Aim:

To measure the mutual inductance of a given transformer.

Power 3 KVA

Voltage 230V

Frequency 50 Hz

Phase 1- ф

Apparatus:

1 Transformer --- 230V, 3KVA 1

0-150V 1

2 Voltmeter M.I

0-300V 1

3 Ammeter M.I 0-2A 1

4 Wattmeter LPF 0-2A, 0-150V 1

Circuit Diagram:

Theory:

Mutual inductance has been used in great number of bridges

for a variety of purposes known mutual inductances are used in some

circuits for the measurements of known mutual inductances. Variable

Electrical Measurements Lab

for the measurement of self inductance, capacitance and frequency.

Many such bridges are found in literature, but some of the circuits

represents minor modifications of other bridges that in changes to

achieve greater accuracy or special range of unknown quantities of

terminals of two coils whose mutual inductance is to be measured are

available.

Self inductance= flux linkages per unit current

L= (NΦ/I)

Mutual inductance is phenomenon but two coils coupled together

M= (N2Φ1/I1)

Procedure:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.

2. L.V side is taken as primary for magnification of no load

current.

3. Keep the autotransformer at minimum voltage output

position and switch on the supply.

4. Now initially apply some voltage to the primary winding

and the corresponding no load current, wattmeter reading

and e.m.f induced in the secondary side (V2) should be

note down.

5. Calculate „M‟ using the formula M= V2 / (ωIm)

6. Repeat the experiment for deferent values of voltage.

7. Take one reading just above the reated voltage.

Calculations:

No load power factor, CosΦ0 = W/ (I0V1)

Ic = I0 CosΦ0 ; Im = I0 SinΦ0

V2 = Induced e.m.f in the secondary side =ω MIm

Mutual induction (M) = V2/( ωIm) Where ω=2πf

Observation Table:

M= V2/( ω Im)

S.No voltage current reading Im = I0 SinΦ0 voltage

(V2) (I0) (W0) (V2)

Graph:

1. No load losses verses primary voltage.

2. Im verses no load voltage of primary.

3. Mutual induction verses voltage of primary.

Electrical Measurements Lab

Model graph:

M vs V1 W vs V1

Im vs V1

M,W,Im

V1

Result:

The Mutual inductance of a given transformer is calculated.

Precautions:

1. Loose connections should be avoided.

2. Check the connections before giving supply.

3. Note the readings carefully.

VIVA-VOICE

1. What is inductance?

2. What is mutual inductance?

3. What is the formula for voltage across inductance?

4. What is the formula for voltage across capacitance?

5. What is the difference between inductance and mutual

6. Why we are using LPF wattmeter in this experiment?

7. What is LPF wattmeter?

8. What is meant by exciting current?

9. What is meant by magnetizing current?

10. What is the formula for magnetizing current?

D.C Potentiometer.

Apparatus:

1. DC Potentiometer.

2. Standard cell

3. Volt ratio box

4. Sensitive Galvanometer

Electrical Measurements Lab

6. Volt meter: (0-30V), MC

7. Ammeter: (0-1A),MC

8. Rheostat: 50Ω,5A

Circuit diagram:

Circuit diagram:

Electrical Measurements Lab

Calibration of Voltmeter:

Theory:

Crompton’s DC Potentiometer

Crompton‟s DC potentiometer is a slide wire type of potentiometer. The

long slide wire is awkward, and ever for the length shown cannot be read

to a very great degree of precision. Modern laboratory type potentiometer

use calibrated dial resistors and a small circular wire of one (or) more

turns, there by reducing the size of the instrument. The circuit of a

simple laboratory type potentiometer consists of one dial switch with

filter steps ,each having a precession resistors. There is also a single turn

wire. This potentiometer consists of unknown cell. A key and a protective

resistance is used in the galvanometer circuits.

Procedure:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.

2. Calibrate the DC potentiometer by adjust coarse and fine

rheostats. When Galvanometer has null deflection and

function must be in STD mode.

Electrical Measurements Lab

suitable for application to a potentiometer with the help of

volt ratio box.

4. For accurse of measurement it is necessary to measure

voltage near the maximum range of the potentiometer.

Calibration of Ammeter:

Procedure:

2. A resistance of suitable value and sufficient current carrying

capacity is placed in series with the ammeter under calibration.

3. The voltage across the standard resistor is measured with the help

of potentiometer and the current trough the standard resistance

can be computed.

4. Current I = VS / R

Where VS = Voltage across the standard resistor as indicated by

the potentiometer.

R = Resistance of standard resistor.

Electrical Measurements Lab

Tabular column:

Calibration of Voltmeter:

DC potentiometer (Vin) ((I out - I in)/ I out) x 100

(Vact)

Calibration of Ammeter:

S

(Amps) (Amps)

Potentiometer are calibrated.

VIVA-VOICE

2. How is the dc potentiometer is standardized?

3. What is dc potentiometer ?

4. What is ac potentiometer?

5. What is the difference between dc and ac potentiometer?

6. What is polar type potentiometer ?

7. What is coordinate type potentiometer?

8. What is difference between polar and coordinate type potentiometer?

9. Why are ac potentiometer not very widely used?

10. On what basis ac potentiometer are classified?

Electrical Measurements Lab

AIM:

To test the given current transformer by Silsbee‟s method and to

determine the Phase Angle and Percentage Ratio error.

APPARATUS:

1 Phase shifting transformer --- ---- ----

2 Precision C.T (0-5A) 1

4 Ammeters MI (0-5A) 4

UPF (0-2.5A, 0-300V) 1

THEORY:

Silsbee‟s method is a comparison method. There are two types of

Silsbee‟s methods: deflection and null. Only deflection method is

described here. Here the ratio and phase angle of the test transformer X

are determined, in terms of that of a standard transformer S having the

same nominal ratio. The two transformers are connected with their

primaries in series. An adjustable burden is put in the secondary circuit

of the transformer under test.

An ammeter is included in the secondary circuit of the standard

transformer so that the current may be sent to the desired value .

w1 is a wattmeter whose current coil is connected to carry the

secondary current of the standard transformer. The current coil of

wattmeter w2 carries current ∆I which is the difference between the

secondary currents of the standard and test transformer s. The voltage

Circuits of the wattmeter‟s (I .e; their pressure coils) are supplied in

parallel from a phase shifting transformer at a constant voltage v.

Electrical Measurements Lab

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Procedure:

1. The connections are made as per the ckt diagram.

2. With the (10x4) rheostat cutout the supply switch to the auto

transformer is closed.

Electrical Measurements Lab

is gradually increased.

4. The current ID1, bring the difference of C.T‟s,s secondary

current (Iss-Isx),, should be zero If it is twice that of Iss or Isx,

the supply is opened & the connections to any one of the C.T

secondaries are reversed.

5. This ensures proper polarity of C.T secondaries the current (Ip)

through the C.T primaries is made equal to a fixed value using

auto transformer .

6. The burden ( 10x )Ω rheostat is introduced in the secondary

ckt . of the C.T to be Compared. This resistance is gradually cut

in fill the current Id Is equal to a fixed value.

7. BY operating the phase shifter, the wattmeter Ws is made to

indicate zero .The readings Of the ammeter & wattmeter WD2 are

noted.

8. Now Ws is adjusted to indicate maximum reading by means of

phase shifter and the Reading of the ammeters and wattmeters

WD1 are noted.

9. The voltage V applied to the wattmeters potential coils is also

noted. The above Procedure is repeated for different primary

currents like 15 amp & 20amp .

Calculations :

Nominal ratio of standard C.T = 2

Ratio error of standard C.T = 0.5%

Phase angle error of standard C.T = 8

Actual ratio of standard C.T = 2/(1+0.005) =Na‟

Actual ratio of C.T under test is

given by Na = Na‟[1+WD/VIss]

%Error = NR-AR/AR

Phase angle error for the C.T

under test = βx = [βs + (WD2/VIss)(180/Π)]

Tabular column:

S.NO Ip(A) Iss(A) ID(A) Ws(A) WD1(W) WD2(W) Isx(A) RATIO Phase

ERROR angle

error

Electrical Measurements Lab

Phasor diagram:

V b

V a

ISX ISS

Φ r

IP

RESULT: Hence the phase angle and percentage ratio error are

calculated by using Silsbee’s method.

VIVA-VOICE

1. What is meant by the term “instrument transformer”?

2. What is instrument transformer?

3. How do instrument transformer is differ from power transformer?

4. What do you understand by ammeter shunt?

5. What do you understand by voltmeter multiplier?

6. Why instrument transformers are used?

7. What is meant by turn “burden “of an instrument transformer?

8. How do current transformer is differ from potential transformer?

9. What is formula for ratio error?

10. What is formula for phase angle error?

AIM: To determine the value of given capacitor and obtain its

dissipation factor.

APPARATUS:

1. Schering bridge

2. Function generator

3. CRO

4. Probes and connecting wires

5. Digital voltmeter

THEORY: Schering bridge is widely used for capacitance and

the dissipation factor measurement in fact schering bridge is one

of the most important of the A.C bridges, it is extensively used in

measurement of capacitance in general and in particular in the

measurement of proper he of insulators capacitor bushing ,

insulating oil and other insulating materials . The bridge is

particularly suitable for small capacitance and is then usually

Electrical Measurements Lab

measurement done on small capacitance suffer from many

disadvantages it carried out at low voltage high voltage schering

bridge is preferable for such measurement.

TABULAR FORM:

R1(Ω) R2(Ω) C3(µf) CX=(R1/R2)C3 Dissipation

factor

Average capacitance =

Dissipation factor=

Average Dissipation factor=

Electrical Measurements Lab

PROCEDURE:

1) The bridge is connected as shown in circuit diagram.

2) The oscilloscope is connected across the point b and d.

3) The bridge is balanced by adjusting Cy and Ry.

4) The reading are tabulated and C4 and R1 is calculated.

5) A number of reading are taken and average values are

calculated.

CALCULATIONS:

C1=Unknown capacitance

R1= Resistance representing losses in the unknown capacitance

C3=Standard capacitor

R3=Standard non-inductive resistance

R4=Variable non-inductive resistance

C4= Variable capacitor

CX=(R1/R2)C3

Dissipation factor=2∏fCxR1

RESULT:

are measured.

VIVA VOICE QUESTIONS:

Schering bridge?

2. The most useful ac bridge for comparing capacitances of

two air capacitor is______________________________

3. Dissipation factor of a capacitor can be determined by using a

_______________________

4. The capacitance and dielectric loss of a capacitor is generally

measured by ___________

5. A bridge used for measurement of dielectric loss and power

factor is _________________

6. The bridge used for measuring inter –electrode capacitance

is____________________

7. The bridge used for measuring dissipation factor of a

capacitor is___________________

8. Most commonly used AC bridge circuit for the measurement

of capacitance is________

9. The bridge suitable for measurement of capacitance of a

capacitor at high voltage is ___________

10. Why is Schering bridge particularly suitable for

measurement at high voltage?

Electrical Measurements Lab

AIM: To calculate the value of unknown inductance by using

Anderson Bridge.

Apparatus:

1. Anderson Bridge trainer circuit.

2. Connecting wires.

3. Head phones.

4. Unknown inductance.

5. Auto frequency Oscilloscope.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Procedure:

1. Connect the audio oscillator and Head phones to proper

terminals.

2. 230 V supply is given to the Bridge oscillator.

3. In the Bridge the value of P, Q, R is equal to 1000 Ω.

Minimum sound can be obtained by varying „S‟ and „M‟

alternatively.

4. The best way to get balance is to vary „S‟ first to dicers the

sound in the headphones. The final minimum sound can be

obtained by varying „M‟.

Electrical Measurements Lab

the headphones. But only minimum of sound can be

achieved.

6. The value of M, S, and C can be noted. The value of L can

be calculated from formula.

L= C [RQ + (R+S) M]

Where

„L‟ is in henries

„C‟ is in farads

Other resistances are in Ohms.

„S‟ includes the resistance of self-inductance also for all

calculations.

7. The experiment for the same inductance can be reputed

By selecting of deferent value of „C‟ and gating balance by

varying „S‟ and „M‟. The mean vale of „L‟ can be calculated.

Bridge arms:

Q = Non inductive resistance of 1000 Ω

R = Non inductive resistance of 1000 Ω

S = A variable non inductive resistance in the form of 3 decades of

10x1, 10x10, 10x100 Ω.

M = A variable non inductive resistance in the form of 3 decades of

10x1, 10x10, 10x100 Ω.

C = A standard capacitance in the form 4 values of 0.005, 0.01,

0.02,

0.5 µfd selected by a selector switch

Precautions:

1. The value of „C‟ should be small so as to allow sufficient

variations of „M‟.

2. The A.C balance should be obtained by varying „S‟ and „M‟

alternately.

Result:

Hence the unknown value of inductance is measured by using Anderson

Bridge .

Electrical Measurements Lab

VIVA VOICE

1. Maxwell bridge is used for measurement of

_________________________

2. Maxwell‟s bridge is very convenient and useful bridge for

determination of

Inductance of a coil having ________________________

3. why there are two conditions of balance in ac bridges ?

4.why is high grade insulation employed in high impedance bridges?

5. why are highly sensitive detectors undesirable for the operation

of ac bridges ?

6. In an Anderson bridge , the unknown inductance is measured in

terms of________________

7.Anderson bridge is used for the measurement of ______________________

8Anderson bridge is a modification of _________________________________

9.Anderson bridge is used to measure______________________

9.CALIBRATION OF LPF WATTMETER BY PHANTOM LOAD TEST

Apparatus:

Name Type Range Qty

Voltmeter M.I 0-150V 1

ammeter M.I 0-5/10A 1

wattmeter LPF 0-150V,5A 1

Autotransformer ….. 0-270V,10A,1-Ph 2

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :

Electrical Measurements Lab

Theory:

Calibration of LPF watt meter by phantom loading :

When the current rating of a meter under test is high as test with

actual loading arrangements‟ would involve considerable wastage of

power. In order to avoid this”phantom” or “frictions” loading is done.

Phantom loading consist of supply the pressure circuit from a

circuit of a required normal voltage and a current circuit from a low

voltage supply. It is possible to circulate the rated current throw the

current circuit with a low voltage supply as the impedance of the circuit

is very low with this arrangement the total power supplied for the test is

that due to the small pressure coil current at normal voltage, pulse that

due to the circuit current supplied at low voltage. The total power ,

required for testing the meter is comparatively very small.

Procedure:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.

2. Initially keep the two autotransformers at minimum output

voltage.

3. By varying the autotransformer in pressure circuit the voltmeter

reading is adjusted to a rated value.

4. By slowly varying the autotransformer reading is adjusted at

different values in steps.

5. The same procedure is repeated by connecting ammeter and

wattmeter 10A range.

Calculations:

True power=VI COSΦ

%Error=(W-Wt/Wt) X 100

Observation table:

For Current 5A:

Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter True %Error

(V) (A) (W) power (W-Wt/Wt) X

VICOSØ 100

Electrical Measurements Lab

Observation table:

For Current 2.5A:

Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter True %Error

(V) (A) (W) power (W-Wt/Wt) X

VICOSØ 100

Model Graph:

-%Error

loading are done.

VIVA-VOICE

1.What is meant by phantom loading?

2.What is meant by low power factor?

3.How is electrostatic wattmeter superior to other types of wattmeter?

4.How does LPF wattmeter are differ from ordinary wattmeter?

5.What is formula for low power factor?

6.What are the errors in wattmeter?

7.What is meant by fictitious load?

8.What are the special features of a wattmeter suitable for working on

LPF circuits?

9.What is the rating of dimmer stat?

Electrical Measurements Lab

WATTMETER

AIM: To measure the reactive power and to draw a characteristics curve

between KVAR and P.F with load current of 3 - Φ system with 1- Φ

wattmeter method.

NAME PLATE DETAILS:

power --- 3 KVA

voltage --- 415V

current --- 4.5A

frequency -----50 HZ

speed -----1440 rpm

APPARATUS:

NAME TYPE RANGE QTY

Voltmeter M.I 0-5A 1

2

Tachometer --------- ---------- 1

Theory:This method can be used only when the load is balanced. The

connections are shown in the figure. The current coil is connected in one

of the lines and one end of the pressure coil to the same line, other end

being connections alternatively to the other two lines. Power

measurements are made in high voltage circuit connecting the wattmeter

to circuit through current and potential transformers. Voltmeters and

Ammeters are affected by only ratio errors while watt meters are

influenced in additional by phase angle errors.

CIRCUITDIAGRAM:

Electrical Measurements Lab

Procedure:

1. Connect the ckt as per the ckt diagram.

2.The motor is started with the help of starter.

3.Varying the load on the motor by tighten the spring balance over the

pully of the motor.

4. Take the corresponding reading of the voltmeter, ammeter and

wattmeter.

5.Repeat the process for different values up to rated current

6.Calculate the reactive power.

Calculations:

Power factor, cosΦ = W/VI

Reactive power, Q = VI sinΦ

KVAR = Q/1000

Model graph:

P .F KVAR

F KVAR

P.F

IL(A)

Precautions:

1. loose connections should be avoided.

2. operate the starter care fully.

3. loads should not exceeding beyond their rating.

4. proper rating meters should be used.

5. check the connections before giving supply.

Result:

Hence the 3- phase reactive power is measured by 1-phase wattmeter

method and characteristics curve between KVAR and P.F with load

currents are plotted.

VIVA-VOICE

1. What is electrodynamometer type wattmeter ?

2. What is meant by KVAR ?

3. What is formula for reactive power?

4. What is meant by UPF wattmeter?

5. What is rating of three phase induction motor?

6. What is meant by TPST switch?

7. What is meant by DOL starter?

8. What is meant by balanced load?

9. What is meant by unbalanced load?

10. What is model graph of reactive power measurement?

Electrical Measurements Lab

Electrical Measurements Lab

Electrical Measurements Lab

Electrical Measurements Lab

Electrical Measurements Lab

Electrical Measurements Lab

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