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Electrical Measurements Lab

III/IV B. Tech; 1ST Semester –EEE



1. Calibration and testing of single-phase energy meter.

2. Kelvin‟s double bridge - Measurement of resistance –
Determination of Tolerance.
3. Power factor meter.
4. Measurement of parameters of choke coil using
3 -Voltmeter and 3 -Ammeter methods.
5. Measurement of Mutual Inductance.


1. Crompton D.C potentiometer. Calibration of PMMC

2. C.T testing by Silsbee‟s method. Measurement of % ratio error and
phase angle of given C.T by comparison.
3. Schering Bridge and Anderson Bridge.
4. Calibration of LPF wattmeter by Phantom testing.
5. Measurement of 3-phase reactive power with single
Phase wattmeter.


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S.No. Name of the experiment Page No.

1. Single-phase energy meter 3-6

2. Kelvin‟s double bridge 6-9

3. Power factor meter 9-11

4. Measurement of parameters of choke coil 11-15

5. Measurement of Mutual Inductance 15-18

6. Crompton D.C potentiometer 19-23

7. C.T testing by Silsbee‟s method 23-26

8. Schering Bridge and Anderson Bridge 27-31

9. Calibration of LPF wattmeter by Phantom testing. 31-33

Measurement of 3-phase reactive power with single

10. 33-35
Phase wattmeter.

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To calibrate given 1- Φ energy meter using direct loading

Name Plate Details:

Energy meter: Voltage : 240V

Current : 10A
Meter constant : 900 rev / Kwh

Apparatus required:

S.No Name Type Range Qty

1 Energy meter 1- Φ 240V, 10A. 1
2 Voltmeter M.I 0-300V 1
3 Ammeter M.I 0-10A 1
4 Wattmeter UPF 0-300V, 0-10A. 1
5 Autotransformer 1- Φ 230V/ 0-270V, 10A 1
6 Resistive load 1- Φ 230V, 10A 1
7 Stop watch --- --- 1


In a single phase energy meter the supply voltage is aided across

the pressure coil winding this highly inductive as it has very large
number of turns and the reluctance of its magnetic circuit is very low
owing to the presence of air gaps of very small length. Thus the current Ip
throw the pressure coil is proportional to the supply voltage and lags it
by a few degrees less than 90deg. This is because of the winding has
small resistance and there are iron losses in the magnetic circuit current
Ip produces flux Øpg. This flux divides into Øg and Øp. fluxØp is in phase
with Ip and proportional to it.fulx Øp lags voltage by 90deg.

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Circuit Diagram:

1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Keep the autotransformer at zero voltage position and
make sure all the loads are in off position.
3. Now switch on the supply and variac is varied till to
get rated voltage.
4. Apply the load step by step and each step note the
readings of voltmeter, ammeter, wattmeter and time
taken for 25 rev of the disk of the energy meter.
5. Apply the load below rated current.
6. After note the readings switch off the all loads and
minimize the voltage and than switch off the supply.

The energy meter constant = 900 rev / Kwh.
For 900 rev it records 1 unit or 1 Kwh.
For 25 rev it records = 25 / 900 Kwh.
= 1 / 36 Kwh.
= (1000 X 60 X 60) /36 Wsec
Energy meter reading (E1) = 1,00,000 Wsec.
Actual energy consumed (E2) = Wattmeter reading X Time

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Observation Table:

S. Voltag Wattmete Time taken Actual % Error=
Current meter
N e r reading for 25rev energy (E2-E1) /
(A) reading
o (V) (W) (T) (E2) E2

Model Graph:
A graph is drawn between % of error and load current.

+ %


I (amps)


1. Loose connections should be avoided.
2. Meter reading should not exceed beyond their rating.
3. Take readings care fully.

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Hence the calibration of energy meter using direct loading is

1 .why the rotating system of the energy meter is made as small as

2. why use of aluminum disc is preferred over copper disc ?
3. How braking torque can be adjusted in motor meters ?
4. How is the mercury motor meter compensated for fluid friction
at high loads ?
5. How is braking torque obtained in a mercury meter ?
6. How does energy meter differ from a watt meter?
7. What type of meter is used for measuring KVARH?
8. Why are clock meters not used as house service meters?
9. How are clock meters superior to induction type energy meters ?
10. What is self braking torque? Why is it important on high loads?


Aim: To measure the resistance of given wire by using Kelvin’s

Double Bridge.
Apparatus required:

1. Kelvin‟s Double Bridge experiment board.

2. Standard resistance.
3. Galvanometer.
4. Unknown resistance wire.
5. Connecting wires.


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Kelvin‟s double bridge is a modification of wheat stone bridge and
provides greatly increased accuracy in measurement of low valve
resistance‟s‟ represents the resistance of load that connects the unknown
resistance „R‟and standard resistance „S‟ two actual resistance units of
correct ratio be connected between en points „m‟ and „n‟ the
galvanometer be connected to the junction of resistors .

The second set of ratio arms , „p‟ and „q‟ are used to connect the
galvanometer to point at the appropriate potential between the points „m‟
and „n‟ to eliminate theeffect of connecting lead of resistance „r‟ between
known resistance „R‟ and standard resistance „S‟. P/Q ratio is made
equal to p/q such that the resistance of connecting led „r‟ has no effect
on the measurement.

1. The connections are made as shown in the circuit diagram.

2. Connect the known resistance to balance the bridge.
3. Now switch on the supply press battery key Kb and
galvanometer key KG.

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4. Balancing the P/Q ratio by varying the resistance until

galvanometer shows null deflection.
5. Compare both Kelvin‟s Double Bridge value & standard
6. Now connect the unknown resistance wire in the place of
known resistance.
7. Balancing the P/Q ratio by varying the resistance until
galvanometer shows null deflection.
8. Note the multipliers and calculate the resistance by using

R = (P/ Q) S

Where R = Un known resistance

P = Variable resistance.
Q = Variable resistance.
S = Standard resistance.

Observation Table:

R=(P/Q) S
S.no. P Q s

Hence the unknown resistances of different wires are

1.What do you mean by low resistance?
2. What do you mean by medium resistance?
3. What do you mean by high resistance?
4. HOW does a megger differ from ohm meter?
5. Why is a megger provided with a slipping clutch?
6. What is a megger ?
7. What is the value of low resistance?
8. What is the value of high resistance?
9. What is the value of medium resistance?

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10. Low resistance are provided with four terminals_________________


AIM: To calibrate the given dynamo meter power factor meter using
given induction regulator.

S.NO Name Type Range Qty

1 Power factor meter 1-phase 240V,10A 1
2 Phase shift trans 3-phase 415V,500VA 1
3 Voltmeter M.I 0-300V 1
4 Ammeter M.I 0-5A 1
5 Watt meter UPF 0-300V,0-5A 1
6 Auto transformer 3-phase 415V/0- 1
7 Auto transformer 1-phase 230V/0- 1
8 Rheostat ----- 50 ohm,5A 1


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1. Connect the ckt as per the ckt diagram.
2. Keep the auto transformers at zero voltage position and first switch
on the 3 phase auto transformer supply
3. Now set the rated voltage appears across the output terminals of
phase shift transformer, which are collected to the pressure coil of
wattmeter and power factor
4. Now switch on the 1-Φ auto transformer supply and is adjusted to
a suitable value say 2A.
5. Check out the reading of power factor meter and wattmeter they
just indicating positive reading
6. First adjust the P.F reading to unity using induction regulator
,keep the voltage and current as constant vary the P.F meter
reading and corresponding wattmeter reading is noted
7. Repeat the experiment for different values of P.F

Actual reading of P.F =

%error = ×100


S.No Voltage(V) Current(I) Wattmeter P.F Actual %of

reading reading reading error

RESULT: Hence calibrated the given dynamometer power5

factor meter using induction regulator.

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1. How the power factor of a single phase circuit is measured?
2. What is principle of power factor meter?
3. What are the different types of power factor meters?
4. Why is moving iron power factor meter generally used?
5. Why is moving iron PF meters less accurate than dynamometer
6. What is power factor?
7. Give expression for the PF?
8. What is synchroscope and where it is used?
9. What is crossed coil PF meter?
10. What is instrument for speed measurements?


To measure the parameters of a given choke coil using
1. 3 Ammeters.
2. 3 Voltmeters.
Apparatus required:

S.No Name Type Range Qty

1 Voltmeter M.I 0-75/150/300V 3
2 Ammeter M.I 0-5/10A 3
3 Autotransformer 1- Φ 230V/ 0-270V, 10A 1
0-230Ω, 1.7A. 1
6 Rheostat ---
0-50Ω, 5A. 1
7 Choke coil --- 230V, 1KVA 1
The parameters of choke coil includes measuring the values of
R,L,X,Z..etc. the inductor should be so designed that capacitive effects
are negligible . This is particularly important for inductors working at
high frequencies where the inter turn capacitance may drastically change
effective value of inductance.
The inductor should be desirably unaffected by external magnetic fields
and should produce a minimum interference field of its own. In the 3-
voltmeter method the resistance chosen should be very high for
measuring the parameters of choker. In 3-ammeter method the
resistance chosen was low when compare with the 3-voltmetter method
to find the parameters of choke coils. The resistance should be low when

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compared with their inductance or the inductor should be having high

L/R ratio.
3-Voltmeter Method:
Circuit Diagram:

Fig : 3-voltmeter method

Procedure for 3-Voltmeter method:

1. The autotransformer in minimum output position.
2. By slowly make the connections as per the circuit
3. Initially varying the autotransformer, the voltmeter V1 is
adjusted at deferent values from 0-150V.
4. Note down the corresponding readings of V2, V3.

3-Ammeter Method:

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Procedure for 3-ammetr method:

1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram .
2. Initially the autotransformer in minimum output position.
3. By slowly varying the autotransformer, the ammeter A1 is adjusted at
deferent values from 0-5A.
4. Note down the corresponding readings of A2, A3.

Calculations for 3-Voltmeter method:

Supply voltage = V1
Voltage across standard resistance R = V2
Voltage across choke coil = V3
Power consumed by the choke coil P = V1² - V2²- V3²
Power factor of the choke coil Cosф = V1² - V2²- V3²
Current flowing through the choke coil I = V2/ R
Impedance of the coil (Z) = V3/ I
Resistance of the coil (R) = Z Cosф
Reactance of the coil (X) = Z Sinф
Induction of the coil (L) = X/2Πf

Calculations for 3-Ammeter method:

Power consumed by the choke coil P = [I1² - I2²- I3²] R


Power factor of the choke coil Cosф = (I1²- I2²- I3²)

2 I2 I3

Voltage across the choke coil V = I2 R

Impedance of the coil (Z) = V/ I3
Resistance of the coil (R) = Z Cosф
Reactance of the coil (X) = Z Sinф
Induction of the coil (L) = X/2

Observation table for 3 – Voltmeter method:

P= CosΦ= I=V2 Z=V3

S.No V1 V2 V3 SinΦ R=ZcosΦ XL=ZsinΦ L=XL/2Π f
(V1²- V2²- V3²) 2R (V1²- V2²- V3²) 2 V2 V3 R I

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Average Inductance = Average Resistance =

Observation table for 3 – Ammeter method:

S.N P= CosΦ=
I1 I2 I3 (I1²- I2²- I3²) (I1²- I2²- I3²) SinΦ V= I2R Z=V/I3 R=ZcosΦ XL=ZsinΦ L=XL/2 Π f
o 2R 2 I2 I3

Average Inductance =
Average Resistance=
Parameters of a given choke coil by using 3 Voltmeter &
3 Ammeter methods is measured.


1. what is inductance ?
2. what is formula for inductive reactance ?
3. what is formula for capacitive reactance ?
4. what is capacitance?
5. what is rating of dimmer stat?
6. What is meant by choke coil ?
7. What is the difference between MC &MI instruments?
8. what is resistance?
9. what is meant by power factor?
10. what is power?

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To measure the mutual inductance of a given transformer.

Name Plate details of transformer:

Power 3 KVA
Voltage 230V
Frequency 50 Hz
Phase 1- ф

S.No Name Type Range Qty

1 Transformer --- 230V, 3KVA 1
0-150V 1
2 Voltmeter M.I
0-300V 1
3 Ammeter M.I 0-2A 1
4 Wattmeter LPF 0-2A, 0-150V 1

Circuit Diagram:

Fig: Measurement of mutual inductance

Mutual inductance has been used in great number of bridges
for a variety of purposes known mutual inductances are used in some
circuits for the measurements of known mutual inductances. Variable

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mutual standard inductances have been used as components in bridges

for the measurement of self inductance, capacitance and frequency.
Many such bridges are found in literature, but some of the circuits
represents minor modifications of other bridges that in changes to
achieve greater accuracy or special range of unknown quantities of
terminals of two coils whose mutual inductance is to be measured are
Self inductance= flux linkages per unit current
L= (NΦ/I)
Mutual inductance is phenomenon but two coils coupled together
M= (N2Φ1/I1)
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. L.V side is taken as primary for magnification of no load
3. Keep the autotransformer at minimum voltage output
position and switch on the supply.
4. Now initially apply some voltage to the primary winding
and the corresponding no load current, wattmeter reading
and e.m.f induced in the secondary side (V2) should be
note down.
5. Calculate „M‟ using the formula M= V2 / (ωIm)
6. Repeat the experiment for deferent values of voltage.
7. Take one reading just above the reated voltage.
No load power factor, CosΦ0 = W/ (I0V1)
Ic = I0 CosΦ0 ; Im = I0 SinΦ0
V2 = Induced e.m.f in the secondary side =ω MIm
Mutual induction (M) = V2/( ωIm) Where ω=2πf
Observation Table:

Primary Primary Wattmeter Secondary

M= V2/( ω Im)
S.No voltage current reading Im = I0 SinΦ0 voltage
(V2) (I0) (W0) (V2)

1. No load losses verses primary voltage.
2. Im verses no load voltage of primary.
3. Mutual induction verses voltage of primary.

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Model graph:
M vs V1 W vs V1
Im vs V1


The Mutual inductance of a given transformer is calculated.
1. Loose connections should be avoided.
2. Check the connections before giving supply.
3. Note the readings carefully.
1. What is inductance?
2. What is mutual inductance?
3. What is the formula for voltage across inductance?
4. What is the formula for voltage across capacitance?
5. What is the difference between inductance and mutual
6. Why we are using LPF wattmeter in this experiment?
7. What is LPF wattmeter?
8. What is meant by exciting current?
9. What is meant by magnetizing current?
10. What is the formula for magnetizing current?


Aim: Calibration of PMMC voltmeter and ammeter by using Crompton

D.C Potentiometer.

1. DC Potentiometer.
2. Standard cell
3. Volt ratio box
4. Sensitive Galvanometer

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5. DC power supply : (0-30V,1A)

6. Volt meter: (0-30V), MC
7. Ammeter: (0-1A),MC
8. Rheostat: 50Ω,5A

Circuit diagram:

Fig: DC Crompton Potentiometer

Circuit diagram:

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Calibration of Voltmeter:

Fig: calibration of voltmeter


Crompton’s DC Potentiometer
Crompton‟s DC potentiometer is a slide wire type of potentiometer. The
long slide wire is awkward, and ever for the length shown cannot be read
to a very great degree of precision. Modern laboratory type potentiometer
use calibrated dial resistors and a small circular wire of one (or) more
turns, there by reducing the size of the instrument. The circuit of a
simple laboratory type potentiometer consists of one dial switch with
filter steps ,each having a precession resistors. There is also a single turn
wire. This potentiometer consists of unknown cell. A key and a protective
resistance is used in the galvanometer circuits.
1. Make the connections as per the circuit diagram.
2. Calibrate the DC potentiometer by adjust coarse and fine
rheostats. When Galvanometer has null deflection and
function must be in STD mode.

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3. The voltage across voltmeter is stepped down to a value

suitable for application to a potentiometer with the help of
volt ratio box.
4. For accurse of measurement it is necessary to measure
voltage near the maximum range of the potentiometer.

Calibration of Ammeter:

Fig: Calibration of Ammeter


1. Made the connections as per the circuit diagram.

2. A resistance of suitable value and sufficient current carrying
capacity is placed in series with the ammeter under calibration.
3. The voltage across the standard resistor is measured with the help
of potentiometer and the current trough the standard resistance
can be computed.
4. Current I = VS / R
Where VS = Voltage across the standard resistor as indicated by
the potentiometer.
R = Resistance of standard resistor.

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Tabular column:
Calibration of Voltmeter:

S.No Voltage from Voltmeter % Error =

DC potentiometer (Vin) ((I out - I in)/ I out) x 100

Calibration of Ammeter:

S.No Iin I out = Vs / % Error= ((I out -I in)/ I out) x 100

(Amps) (Amps)

RESULT: Thus PMMC Voltmeter and Ammeter using DC Crompton

Potentiometer are calibrated.


1. How is dc potentiometer made direct reading?

2. How is the dc potentiometer is standardized?
3. What is dc potentiometer ?
4. What is ac potentiometer?
5. What is the difference between dc and ac potentiometer?
6. What is polar type potentiometer ?
7. What is coordinate type potentiometer?
8. What is difference between polar and coordinate type potentiometer?
9. Why are ac potentiometer not very widely used?
10. On what basis ac potentiometer are classified?

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To test the given current transformer by Silsbee‟s method and to
determine the Phase Angle and Percentage Ratio error.


S.No Name Type Range Qty

1 Phase shifting transformer --- ---- ----
2 Precision C.T (0-5A) 1

3 commercial C.T (0-5A) 1

4 Ammeters MI (0-5A) 4

5 Wattmeter LPF (0-2.5A, 0-300V) 1

UPF (0-2.5A, 0-300V) 1

6 Rheostat (50Ω, 5A) 1

Silsbee‟s method is a comparison method. There are two types of
Silsbee‟s methods: deflection and null. Only deflection method is
described here. Here the ratio and phase angle of the test transformer X
are determined, in terms of that of a standard transformer S having the
same nominal ratio. The two transformers are connected with their
primaries in series. An adjustable burden is put in the secondary circuit
of the transformer under test.
An ammeter is included in the secondary circuit of the standard
transformer so that the current may be sent to the desired value .
w1 is a wattmeter whose current coil is connected to carry the
secondary current of the standard transformer. The current coil of
wattmeter w2 carries current ∆I which is the difference between the
secondary currents of the standard and test transformer s. The voltage
Circuits of the wattmeter‟s (I .e; their pressure coils) are supplied in
parallel from a phase shifting transformer at a constant voltage v.

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1. The connections are made as per the ckt diagram.
2. With the (10x4) rheostat cutout the supply switch to the auto
transformer is closed.

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3. Using the auto transformer the current through the ct primaries

is gradually increased.
4. The current ID1, bring the difference of C.T‟s,s secondary
current (Iss-Isx),, should be zero If it is twice that of Iss or Isx,
the supply is opened & the connections to any one of the C.T
secondaries are reversed.
5. This ensures proper polarity of C.T secondaries the current (Ip)
through the C.T primaries is made equal to a fixed value using
auto transformer .
6. The burden ( 10x )Ω rheostat is introduced in the secondary
ckt . of the C.T to be Compared. This resistance is gradually cut
in fill the current Id Is equal to a fixed value.
7. BY operating the phase shifter, the wattmeter Ws is made to
indicate zero .The readings Of the ammeter & wattmeter WD2 are
8. Now Ws is adjusted to indicate maximum reading by means of
phase shifter and the Reading of the ammeters and wattmeters
WD1 are noted.
9. The voltage V applied to the wattmeters potential coils is also
noted. The above Procedure is repeated for different primary
currents like 15 amp & 20amp .
Calculations :
Nominal ratio of standard C.T = 2
Ratio error of standard C.T = 0.5%
Phase angle error of standard C.T = 8
Actual ratio of standard C.T = 2/(1+0.005) =Na‟
Actual ratio of C.T under test is
given by Na = Na‟[1+WD/VIss]
%Error = NR-AR/AR
Phase angle error for the C.T
under test = βx = [βs + (WD2/VIss)(180/Π)]

Tabular column:
S.NO Ip(A) Iss(A) ID(A) Ws(A) WD1(W) WD2(W) Isx(A) RATIO Phase
ERROR angle

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Phasor diagram:

V b

V a

Φ r

RESULT: Hence the phase angle and percentage ratio error are
calculated by using Silsbee’s method.

1. What is meant by the term “instrument transformer”?
2. What is instrument transformer?
3. How do instrument transformer is differ from power transformer?
4. What do you understand by ammeter shunt?
5. What do you understand by voltmeter multiplier?
6. Why instrument transformers are used?
7. What is meant by turn “burden “of an instrument transformer?
8. How do current transformer is differ from potential transformer?
9. What is formula for ratio error?
10. What is formula for phase angle error?


AIM: To determine the value of given capacitor and obtain its
dissipation factor.
1. Schering bridge
2. Function generator
3. CRO
4. Probes and connecting wires
5. Digital voltmeter
THEORY: Schering bridge is widely used for capacitance and
the dissipation factor measurement in fact schering bridge is one
of the most important of the A.C bridges, it is extensively used in
measurement of capacitance in general and in particular in the
measurement of proper he of insulators capacitor bushing ,
insulating oil and other insulating materials . The bridge is
particularly suitable for small capacitance and is then usually

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supplied from a high frequency or a high voltage sources . The

measurement done on small capacitance suffer from many
disadvantages it carried out at low voltage high voltage schering
bridge is preferable for such measurement.

Fig: Circuit diagram of schering bridge

R1(Ω) R2(Ω) C3(µf) CX=(R1/R2)C3 Dissipation

Average capacitance =
Dissipation factor=
Average Dissipation factor=

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1) The bridge is connected as shown in circuit diagram.
2) The oscilloscope is connected across the point b and d.
3) The bridge is balanced by adjusting Cy and Ry.
4) The reading are tabulated and C4 and R1 is calculated.
5) A number of reading are taken and average values are

C1=Unknown capacitance
R1= Resistance representing losses in the unknown capacitance
C3=Standard capacitor
R3=Standard non-inductive resistance
R4=Variable non-inductive resistance
C4= Variable capacitor
Dissipation factor=2∏fCxR1


Thus the value of given capacitance and Dissipation Factor

are measured.

1. Why a spark is connected across resistance arms in a

Schering bridge?
2. The most useful ac bridge for comparing capacitances of
two air capacitor is______________________________
3. Dissipation factor of a capacitor can be determined by using a
4. The capacitance and dielectric loss of a capacitor is generally
measured by ___________
5. A bridge used for measurement of dielectric loss and power
factor is _________________
6. The bridge used for measuring inter –electrode capacitance
7. The bridge used for measuring dissipation factor of a
capacitor is___________________
8. Most commonly used AC bridge circuit for the measurement
of capacitance is________
9. The bridge suitable for measurement of capacitance of a
capacitor at high voltage is ___________
10. Why is Schering bridge particularly suitable for
measurement at high voltage?

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AIM: To calculate the value of unknown inductance by using
Anderson Bridge.
1. Anderson Bridge trainer circuit.
2. Connecting wires.
3. Head phones.
4. Unknown inductance.
5. Auto frequency Oscilloscope.



1. Connect the audio oscillator and Head phones to proper
2. 230 V supply is given to the Bridge oscillator.
3. In the Bridge the value of P, Q, R is equal to 1000 Ω.
Minimum sound can be obtained by varying „S‟ and „M‟
4. The best way to get balance is to vary „S‟ first to dicers the
sound in the headphones. The final minimum sound can be
obtained by varying „M‟.

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5. It is to be note that the perfect silence cannot be obtained in

the headphones. But only minimum of sound can be
6. The value of M, S, and C can be noted. The value of L can
be calculated from formula.

L= C [RQ + (R+S) M]

„L‟ is in henries
„C‟ is in farads
Other resistances are in Ohms.
„S‟ includes the resistance of self-inductance also for all
7. The experiment for the same inductance can be reputed
By selecting of deferent value of „C‟ and gating balance by
varying „S‟ and „M‟. The mean vale of „L‟ can be calculated.

Bridge arms:

P = Non inductive resistance of 1000 Ω

Q = Non inductive resistance of 1000 Ω
R = Non inductive resistance of 1000 Ω
S = A variable non inductive resistance in the form of 3 decades of
10x1, 10x10, 10x100 Ω.
M = A variable non inductive resistance in the form of 3 decades of
10x1, 10x10, 10x100 Ω.
C = A standard capacitance in the form 4 values of 0.005, 0.01,
0.5 µfd selected by a selector switch
1. The value of „C‟ should be small so as to allow sufficient
variations of „M‟.
2. The A.C balance should be obtained by varying „S‟ and „M‟
Hence the unknown value of inductance is measured by using Anderson
Bridge .

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1. Maxwell bridge is used for measurement of
2. Maxwell‟s bridge is very convenient and useful bridge for
determination of
Inductance of a coil having ________________________
3. why there are two conditions of balance in ac bridges ?
4.why is high grade insulation employed in high impedance bridges?
5. why are highly sensitive detectors undesirable for the operation
of ac bridges ?
6. In an Anderson bridge , the unknown inductance is measured in
terms of________________
7.Anderson bridge is used for the measurement of ______________________
8Anderson bridge is a modification of _________________________________
9.Anderson bridge is used to measure______________________

Aim: To calibrate the given LPF wattmeter using phantom loading.

Name Type Range Qty
Voltmeter M.I 0-150V 1
ammeter M.I 0-5/10A 1
wattmeter LPF 0-150V,5A 1
Autotransformer ….. 0-270V,10A,1-Ph 2

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Fig: Calibration of LPF wattmeter

Calibration of LPF watt meter by phantom loading :
When the current rating of a meter under test is high as test with
actual loading arrangements‟ would involve considerable wastage of
power. In order to avoid this”phantom” or “frictions” loading is done.
Phantom loading consist of supply the pressure circuit from a
circuit of a required normal voltage and a current circuit from a low
voltage supply. It is possible to circulate the rated current throw the
current circuit with a low voltage supply as the impedance of the circuit
is very low with this arrangement the total power supplied for the test is
that due to the small pressure coil current at normal voltage, pulse that
due to the circuit current supplied at low voltage. The total power ,
required for testing the meter is comparatively very small.
1. Connect the circuit as per the circuit diagram.
2. Initially keep the two autotransformers at minimum output
3. By varying the autotransformer in pressure circuit the voltmeter
reading is adjusted to a rated value.
4. By slowly varying the autotransformer reading is adjusted at
different values in steps.
5. The same procedure is repeated by connecting ammeter and
wattmeter 10A range.

True power=VI COSΦ
%Error=(W-Wt/Wt) X 100

Observation table:
For Current 5A:
Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter True %Error
(V) (A) (W) power (W-Wt/Wt) X

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Observation table:
For Current 2.5A:
Voltmeter Ammeter Wattmeter True %Error
(V) (A) (W) power (W-Wt/Wt) X

Model Graph:

+ %Error (0-5A) (0-25A)


Result: Hence calibrations of the given LPF Wattmeter using Phantom

loading are done.

1.What is meant by phantom loading?
2.What is meant by low power factor?
3.How is electrostatic wattmeter superior to other types of wattmeter?
4.How does LPF wattmeter are differ from ordinary wattmeter?
5.What is formula for low power factor?
6.What are the errors in wattmeter?
7.What is meant by fictitious load?
8.What are the special features of a wattmeter suitable for working on
LPF circuits?
9.What is the rating of dimmer stat?

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AIM: To measure the reactive power and to draw a characteristics curve
between KVAR and P.F with load current of 3 - Φ system with 1- Φ
wattmeter method.
power --- 3 KVA
voltage --- 415V
current --- 4.5A
frequency -----50 HZ
speed -----1440 rpm
Voltmeter M.I 0-5A 1

Ammeter M.I 0-600V 1

Wattmeter UPF 600V,5A

Tachometer --------- ---------- 1

Theory:This method can be used only when the load is balanced. The
connections are shown in the figure. The current coil is connected in one
of the lines and one end of the pressure coil to the same line, other end
being connections alternatively to the other two lines. Power
measurements are made in high voltage circuit connecting the wattmeter
to circuit through current and potential transformers. Voltmeters and
Ammeters are affected by only ratio errors while watt meters are
influenced in additional by phase angle errors.

FIG:Measurement of 3 – Φ Reactive Power with 1- Φ Wattmeter

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1. Connect the ckt as per the ckt diagram.
2.The motor is started with the help of starter.
3.Varying the load on the motor by tighten the spring balance over the
pully of the motor.
4. Take the corresponding reading of the voltmeter, ammeter and
5.Repeat the process for different values up to rated current
6.Calculate the reactive power.
Power factor, cosΦ = W/VI
Reactive power, Q = VI sinΦ
KVAR = Q/1000
Model graph:




1. loose connections should be avoided.
2. operate the starter care fully.
3. loads should not exceeding beyond their rating.
4. proper rating meters should be used.
5. check the connections before giving supply.
Hence the 3- phase reactive power is measured by 1-phase wattmeter
method and characteristics curve between KVAR and P.F with load
currents are plotted.
1. What is electrodynamometer type wattmeter ?
2. What is meant by KVAR ?
3. What is formula for reactive power?
4. What is meant by UPF wattmeter?
5. What is rating of three phase induction motor?
6. What is meant by TPST switch?
7. What is meant by DOL starter?
8. What is meant by balanced load?
9. What is meant by unbalanced load?
10. What is model graph of reactive power measurement?

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