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1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
1.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab\tab 2\line
{\pict\wmetafile8\picw5161\pich3641\picwgoal2925\pichgoal2070\picscalex100\picscal
ey100
0100090000034b03000005000e00000000000400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c
02010001000400000003010800050000000b0200000000050000000c0201000100050000000c02132c
803e050000000b0200000000050000000601010000000500000006010200000007000000fc020000ff
ffff000000040000002d01000008000000fa0205000100000000000000040000002d01010005000000
0601020000000e000000240305007f000e0ce00f0e0ce00f86007f0086007f000e0c08000000fa0200
000000000000000000040000002d01020007000000fc020000ffffff000000040000002d0103000400
0000f0010000050000000601010000000500000006010200000007000000fc02010000000000000004
0000002d01000008000000fa0200005200000000000000040000002d0104000e00000025030500e00f
86007f0086007f000e0ce00f0e0ce00f860008000000250302007f008600e00f8600040000002d0102
00040000002d01030004000000f0010400050000000601010000000500000006010200000007000000
fc020000ffffff000000040000002d010400040000002d010100050000000601020000000e00000024
0305007f00de1be00fde1be00f56107f0056107f00de1b040000002d010200040000002d0103000400
0000f00104000500000006010100000005000000060102000000040000002d01000008000000fa0200
005200000000000000040000002d0104000e00000025030500e00f56107f0056107f00de1be00fde1b
e00f561008000000250302007f005610e00f5610040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000f0
010400050000000601010000000500000006010200000007000000fc020000ffffff00000004000000
2d010400040000002d010100050000000601020000000e000000240305007f008e2be00f8e2be00f05
207f0005207f008e2b040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000f00104000500000006010100
000005000000060102000000040000002d01000008000000fa0200005200000000000000040000002d
0104000e00000025030500e00f05207f0005207f008e2be00f8e2be00f052008000000250302007f00
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5200000000000000040000002d0104000e00000025030500033e2e14ca2a2e14ca2a0618033e061803
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010400040000002d010100050000000601020000000e00000024030500ca2ae427033ee427033e0b24
ca2a0b24ca2ae427040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000f0010400050000000601010000
0005000000060102000000040000002d01000008000000fa0200005200000000000000040000002d01
04000e00000025030500033e0524ca2a0524ca2add27033edd27033e05240800000025030200ca2a05
24033e0524040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000f0010400050000000601010000000500
0000060102000000040000002d01000008000000fa0200005200000000000000040000002d01040008
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df13ca2a5708040000002d010200040000002d01030004000000f00104000500000006010100000003
0000000000}\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx
5040\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i all
three lines correct gains \plain\f1\fs22\b\i 2\plain\f1\fs22\i marks\par one or
two correct gains \plain\f1\fs22\b\i 1\plain\f1\fs22\i mark\par if there are more
than 3 lines then lose mark for each extra line\par\pard\s20\fi-
1134\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s20\fi-
1134\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 (b)\tab
(i)\tab covalent\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 (ii)\tab
four\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
(iii)\tab hard\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071 (iv)\tab three\tab
1\par\pard\s21\fi-567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071 (v)\tab
soft\tab 1\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 (c)\tab
carbon\tab
1\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i accept
C\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b [8]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\ri567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s25\fi-
1701\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
\par\pard\s25\fi-1701\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
2.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab (i)\tab\plain\f1\fs22\i idea that\plain\f1\fs22\tab
2\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\pla
in\f1\fs22 two hydrogen atoms share one pair of electrons
\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}link
ed by a covalent bond\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}each
then has two outer electrons / a full outer shell / two
\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}elec
trons in the highest (occupied) energy level\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\i\tab (2 marks
may be awarded for a correct electron diagram i.e. with electrons on boundary of
or within marked
area).\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\
tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i any two
for 1 mark each\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb240\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s21\fi-567\li1701\ri567\sb240\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(ii)\tab\plain\f1\fs22\i idea that\tab\plain\f1\fs22
2\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\pla
in\f1\fs22 helium atoms do not give / take / share electrons /
react\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}beca
use the (outer) shell / orbit is full\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b\tab
or\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s27\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\sb120\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0
\ls3\pnstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\pla
in\f1\fs22 highest (occupied) energy level is full\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\tab
(\plain\f1\fs22\i but not just\plain\f1\fs22 \loch\f1\hich\f1 \'93contains two
electrons\'94)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320
\tx5040\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i
for 1 mark each\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\page\par\pard\s2
3\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(b)\tab\plain\f1\fs22\i idea that\tab\plain\f1\fs22
2\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 the (attractive) forces between molecules are weak\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\tab
(\plain\f1\fs22\i not \plain\f1\fs22 bonds between
atoms)\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 so little energy is required / it is easy for molecules to escape from the
liquid*\line / escape from other molecules*\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\tab
(\plain\f1\fs22\i allow\plain\f1\fs22 evaporate / change into a
gas)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx
5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i for 1 mark
each\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b [6]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\ri567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s17\fi-
1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
\par\pard\s17\fi-1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
3.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab it has strong (attractive) forces \plain\f1\fs22\b
or\plain\f1\fs22\tab 1\line bonds between ions \plain\f1\fs22\b or\plain\f1\fs22
charged
particles\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx50
40\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i do
not accept \loch\f1\hich\f1 \'93..... it has a rigid\line
structure\'94\plain\f1\fs22\b\i or\plain\f1\fs22\i
\loch\f1\hich\f1 \'93particles close together\'94\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(b)\tab there is \plain\f1\fs22\b increased\plain\f1\fs22 vibration of ions
\plain\f1\fs22\b or\plain\f1\fs22\tab 1\line particles on heating\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\tab ions have sufficient
energy to overcome attractive forces \plain\f1\fs22\b or\plain\f1\fs22 to\tab
1\line break out of the rigid structure \plain\f1\fs22\b or\plain\f1\fs22 to move
about\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\t
x5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\b\i
must\plain\f1\fs22\i be in terms of increased\line energy of particles
\plain\f1\fs22\b\i or\plain\f1\fs22\i ions\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(c)\tab ions can go to electrodes or ions are free to move\tab
1\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i do not credit
\loch\f1\hich\f1 \'93ions carry
charges\'94\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b [4]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\ri567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s17\fi-
1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
\par\pard\s17\fi-1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
4.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab\plain\f1\fs22\b X\plain\f1\fs22
\loch\f1\hich\f1 \'96 (metal) atom / ion\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
Y\plain\f1\fs22 \loch\f1\hich\f1 \'96 electron\tab 1\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(b)\tab free electrons or electrons move\tab
1\par\pard\s21\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(allow metal) atoms / ions to slide over each other\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
OR\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071 bonding non - directional for
2 marks\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b [4]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\ri567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s17\fi-
1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b\page\pa
r\pard\s17\fi-1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
5.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab\plain\f1\fs22\i idea that\tab\plain\f1\fs22
2\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 copper has free electrons / electrons that move \line throughout the
structure\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx50
40\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i gains
1 mark\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b\tab
but\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 in copper, electrons from the highest (occupied) energy\line level /outer
shell, are\line free / can move throughout the
structure\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx50
40\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i gains
2 marks\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(b)\tab\plain\f1\fs22\i idea that\tab\plain\f1\fs22
3\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 in graphite, only three bonds are formed by each carbon
atom\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx
5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i for 1
mark\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 one outer electron (per atom), free to
move\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx
5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i for 1
mark\par{\pntext\pard\plain\f2\fs22\'b7\tab}\pard\s22\fi-
284\li1985\ri567\tx1985\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\ls3\ilvl0{\*\pn\pnlvlblt\ilvl0\ls3\p
nstart1\pnf2\pnfs22\pnb0\pni0\pnstrike0\pnul0\pncf0\pncb0{\pntxtb \'b7}}\plain\f1\
fs22 an electric current is a flow of (free)
electrons*\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5
040\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i for
1 mark\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\i\tab (* this
mark to be given in \plain\f1\fs22\b\i either\plain\f1\fs22\i (a)
\plain\f1\fs22\b\i or\plain\f1\fs22\i (b) but not in
both)\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b
[5]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\ri567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s17\fi-
1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
\par\pard\s17\fi-1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
6.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab nanoparticles / they are small(er)\tab
1\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i accept
1\loch\f1\hich\f1 \'96100 nm or a few atoms in size\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\tab so can
easily pass through pores / skin / cell / membranes /\line arteries / veins /
capillaries / into blood stream owtte\tab
1\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i must be a
comparative statement\par can be inferred from small\plain\f1\fs22\i\ul
er\plain\f1\fs22\i particles\par allow absorbed for pass through\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(b)\tab any \plain\f1\fs22\b one \plain\f1\fs22 from:\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab may be toxic (to cells / specific
cells)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\
tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i allow
may harm / damage / kill cells / organs / tissues \plain\f1\fs22\b\i or
\plain\f1\fs22\i may cause cancer\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab to ensure safety \plain\f1\fs22\b or \plain\f1\fs22 reduce risk
\plain\f1\fs22\b or \plain\f1\fs22 risk of
litigation\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5
040\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i
allow may cause allergies / side effects\par ignore harmful / dangerous
unqualified eg harmful to body / people\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab nanoparticles may have different properties\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071 \'95\tab to see if they pass
into the body\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\page\par\pard\s2
3\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 (c)\tab any
\plain\f1\fs22\b two \plain\f1\fs22 sensible ideas from eg:\tab 2\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab testing is expensive \plain\f1\fs22\b or \plain\f1\fs22 testing costs
money\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\t
x5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i allow it
costs money\par ignore litigation\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab testing is time consuming\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071 \'95\tab don\'92t see any
reason to test since normal sized particles\line (of titanium oxide) do not cause
harm\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx
5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i accept
normal sun cream does \plain\f1\fs22\b\i not \plain\f1\fs22\i cause harm
owtte\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab don\'92t want to risk not producing a popular product
(owtte)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040
\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx1
0800\plain\f1\fs22\i eg if unsafe will have to stop production \plain\f1\fs22\b\i
or \plain\f1\fs22\i have to remove product if toxic\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\loch\f1\hich\f1
\'95\tab testing process / unfavourable results might cause alarm /\line reduce
sales / reduce profit (less money)\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071 \'95\tab do not want to be
seen doing animal testing\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b
[5]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\ri567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s25\fi-
1701\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b
\par\pard\s25\fi-1701\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
7.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab (i)\tab 27\tab 2\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9072\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\tx11520\tx122
40\tx12960\tx13680\tx14400\tx15120\tx15840\tx16560\plain\f1\fs22 (ii)\tab
13\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx57
60\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i each for 1
mark\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9072\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\tx11520\tx122
40\tx12960\tx13680\tx14400\tx15120\tx15840\tx16560\plain\f1\fs22
\par\plain\f1\fs22 (b)\tab each proton has a/1 positive charge and each electron
has a/1 negative\tab 2\line charge OR\plain\f1\fs22\b \plain\f1\fs22
electrons and protons have (equal but) opposite charges\line there are equal
numbers of protons and electrons in the atom/\line so charges cancel or
balance (each
other)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\
tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i each for
1 mark\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9072\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\tx11520\tx122
40\tx12960\tx13680\tx14400\tx15120\tx15840\tx16560\plain\f1\fs22
\par\plain\f1\fs22 (c)\tab\tab 3\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
{\pict\wmetafile8\picw13277\pich4703\picwgoal7530\pichgoal2670\picscalex100\picsca
ley100
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000000000000000000000000010044040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000
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040000002e011800070000002105010074005a10eff5040000002d01030004000000f0010200150000
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0000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d0102000500000009020000000
0040000002e01180007000000210501006e00fc0f79ff040000002d01030004000000f001020015000
000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040
000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006500fc0fcdff04000
0002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6
573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e0118000
7000000210501007500fc0f1700040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000
000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000
000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501007400fc0f6b00040000002d0103000400000
0f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6
d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e0118000700000021050100720
0fc0f9900040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000
000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040
000002e01180007000000210501006f00fc0fd100040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000f
b0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000000400000
02d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006e00fc0f2501040000002
d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d65732
04e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000
000210501007300fc0f7901040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff00000000000
09001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d010200050000000
90200000000040000002e01180007000000210501003100d20d4500040000002d01030004000000f00
1020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616
e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501003000d20
d9900040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff00000000000090010000000000000
20454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d010200050000000902000000000400000
02e01180007000000210501003100c70b9c05040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb025
9ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d0
1020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501003000c70bf005040000002d010
30004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e6
57720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e011800070000002
10501003900c70b62fb040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff000000000000900
1000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d0102000500000009020
0000000040000002e01180007000000210501004e00b8103a04040000002d01030004000000f001020
015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000
000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501007500b810b30
4040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff000000000000900100000000000002045
4696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e0
1180007000000210501006d00b8100705040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0
000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020
005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006200b8108805040000002d0103000
4000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e65772
0526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e0118000700000021050
1006500b810dc05040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000
000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000
000040000002e01180007000000210501007200b8102606040000002d01030004000000f0010200150
00000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000000
40000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006f00b8108806040
000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696
d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180
007000000210501006600b810dc06040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff00000
00000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d010200050
00000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006500fc0f7a04040000002d01030004000
000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526
f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006
c00fc0fc404040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff00000000000090010000000
00000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d010200050000000902000000000
40000002e01180007000000210501006500fc0ff204040000002d01030004000000f00102001500000
0fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00000004000
0002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006300fc0f3c050400000
02d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d657
3204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e011800070
00000210501007400fc0f8605040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff000000000
0009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d0102000500000
0090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501007200fc0fb405040000002d01030004000000f
001020015000000fb0259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d6
16e000000040000002d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501006f00f
c0fec05040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0259ff000000000000900100000000000
0020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002d0102000500000009020000000004000
0002e01180007000000210501006e00fc0f4006040000002d01030004000000f001020015000000fb0
259ff0000000000009001000000000000020454696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000000040000002
d01020005000000090200000000040000002e01180007000000210501007300fc0f9406040000002d0
1030004000000f001020008000000fa0200000000000000000000040000002d01020007000000fc020
000000000000000040000002d0104000e00000025030500e807a711f0f3a711f0f3d40ae807d40ae80
7a71108000000fa02050000000000ffffff00040000002d01050007000000fc020000ffffff0000000
40000002d01060004000000f001020004000000f001040008000000fa0200000000000000000000040
000002d01020007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d0104000800000025030200f0f3df0ce
807df0c040000002d010500040000002d01060004000000f001020004000000f001040008000000fa0
200000000000000000000040000002d01020007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d0104000
800000025030200f0f3ff0ee807ff0e040000002d010500040000002d01060004000000f0010200040
00000f001040008000000fa0200000000000000000000040000002d01020007000000fc02000000000
0000000040000002d0104000800000025030200d4f8a711d4f8d40a040000002d010500040000002d0
1060004000000f001020004000000f001040008000000fa0200000000000000000000040000002d010
20007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d0104000800000025030200e2fda711e2fdd40a040
000002d010500040000002d01060004000000f001020004000000f001040008000000fa02000000000
00000000000040000002d01020007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d01040008000000250
30200f002a711f002d40a040000002d010500040000002d01060004000000f001020004000000f0010
400030000000000}\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx43
20\tx5040\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\
i
each for 1 mark\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b [7]\par\pard\s19\fi-
567\li567\sb120\tx567\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9072\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\tx11520\tx12240
\tx12960\tx13680\tx14400\tx15120\tx15840\tx16560\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\s17\fi-
1134\li1134\ri567\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx3828\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\b\pa
ge\par\pard\s17\fi-1134\li1134\ri567\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx3828\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071
8.\plain\f1\fs22\tab (a)\tab proton\tab + (1)\tab
3\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i both
required\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx2835\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 neutron\tab
1\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i both
required\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx3828\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
electron\tab\plain\f2\fs22 -\plain\f1\fs22
(1)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx5
760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i both
required\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 (b)\tab
2.8.3\tab
1\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\tx576
0\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i accept words
or diagram to this effect\par\pard\s25\fi-
1701\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 \
par\pard\s25\fi-
1701\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\tab (c)\tab
(i)\tab 24\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22 (ii)\tab 52\tab
1\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(d)\tab any \plain\f1\fs22\b one \plain\f1\fs22 of\tab 1\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f2\fs22\loch\f2\hich\f2
\'b7\plain\f1\fs22 gains one or more
electrons\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx50
40\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i
accept gains an electron\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f2\fs22\loch\f2\hich\f2
\'b7\plain\f1\fs22 becomes an
anion\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\t
x5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i do not
credit becomes an ion\par\pard\s21\fi-
567\li1701\ri567\sb120\tx1701\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f2\fs22\loch\f2\hich\f2
\'b7\plain\f1\fs22 becomes a \plain\f1\fs22\ul negative\plain\f1\fs22
ion\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
(e)\tab sodium ions have a (single) positive\tab 1\line charge \plain\f1\fs22\ul
and\plain\f1\fs22 chloride ions have a\line (single) negative
charge\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\
tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\i do not
credit \loch\f1\hich\f1 \'91chlorine ions\'92 but \par allow this error to be
carried forward\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\tab ions with
opposite charge are\tab 1\line attracted (to each
other)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5040\
tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\b\i
or\plain\f1\fs22\i the positive ions and the negative ions are attracted (to each
other)\line\plain\f1\fs22\b\i or\plain\f1\fs22\i the sodium ions and the chloride
ions are attracted (to each other)\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22
\par\pard\s23\fi-
567\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\tab (positive
and negative) ions are\tab 1\line arranged alternatively (in each\line
direction \plain\f1\fs22\b or \plain\f1\fs22
dimension)\par\pard\s18\li2268\ri1701\sb120\tx2268\tx2693\tx2880\tx3600\tx4320\tx5
040\tx5760\tx6480\tx7200\tx7920\tx8640\tx9360\tx10080\tx10800\plain\f1\fs22\b\i
or\plain\f1\fs22\i ions with the same charge are repelled (by each other) no mark
for just ionic bonds\par\pard\s24\qr\tqr\tx9638\plain\f0\fs20\b
[10]\par\pard\s17\fi-
1134\li1134\ri567\sb120\tx567\tx1134\tqr\tx8505\tqr\tx9071\plain\f1\fs22\par\pard\
par }