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Enzymes and


2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Enzymes have been used in

biotechnology for millennia


2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Enzymes are useful

They are catalysts so the make reactions easier

This increases productivity and yield
As catalysts they are not consumed by the reaction
The may be used over and over again
Enzymes show specificity to the reaction they
Enzymes are sensitive to their environment so they
can be controlled by adjusting the temperature, the
pH or the substrate concentration

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS


Lactase is used to remove the sugar lactose

from milk and other dairy products

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Lactose intolerance

Some people are intolerant of lactose in milk they

cannot digest it
The lactose remains in the digestive system and is
fermented by bacteria
The result is nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and
diarrhea occurring within 4h of consuming milk
The treatment includes taking a tablet of lactase
enzyme with a meal
The lactase digests the lactose in the food
A special lactose free diet may be necessary

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Lactase enzyme (-galactosidase) is extracted
from fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS


Substrate: Lactose
Lactose + H2O

This is a hydrolysis reaction

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Glucose + Galactose


Lactose intolerant patients can

digest their food
Lactose free products can be
prepared for special diets
Lactase is used to hydrolyse
lactose in ice cream into glucose
and galactose to give it a sweeter

Stoney Creek Dairy

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS