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Enzymes and

biotechnology

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Enzymes have been used in


biotechnology for millennia

http://www.touregypt.net/featurestories/bread.htm

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Enzymes are useful

They are catalysts so the make reactions easier


This increases productivity and yield
As catalysts they are not consumed by the reaction
The may be used over and over again
Enzymes show specificity to the reaction they
control
Enzymes are sensitive to their environment so they
can be controlled by adjusting the temperature, the
pH or the substrate concentration

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Lactase

Lactase is used to remove the sugar lactose


from milk and other dairy products

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Lactose intolerance

Some people are intolerant of lactose in milk they


cannot digest it
The lactose remains in the digestive system and is
fermented by bacteria
The result is nausea, cramps, bloating, gas, and
diarrhea occurring within 4h of consuming milk
products
The treatment includes taking a tablet of lactase
enzyme with a meal
The lactase digests the lactose in the food
A special lactose free diet may be necessary

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Source
Lactase enzyme (-galactosidase) is extracted
from fungi such as Aspergillus oryzae
http://biotech.nikkeibp.co.jp/MUSEUM/3.html

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

http://www.biologie.uni-regensburg.de/

Reaction
Substrate: Lactose
-galactosidase
Lactose + H2O

This is a hydrolysis reaction

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS

Glucose + Galactose

Advantages

Lactose intolerant patients can


digest their food
Lactose free products can be
prepared for special diets
Lactase is used to hydrolyse
lactose in ice cream into glucose
and galactose to give it a sweeter
flavour

Stoney Creek Dairy

2008 Paul Billiet ODWS