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12.

End Times
The Church View

1.
Definition
Christian eschatology (from the Greek words [eskhatos] last and [logia] discourse) is the
study of beliefs concerning the final events and ultimate purposes of the world. In Christian theology,
eschatology is the doctrine dealing with the destiny of everything God made, including the future of
mankind and the future of the Church, according to the prophesied purposes of God as documented in the
Bible.
Christian eschatology concerns the afterlife, the return of Jesus, the End of the World, resurrection of the
dead, the Last Judgment, renewal of creation, Heaven and Hell, and the consummation of all of God's
purposes, the fulfillment of Messianic prophecy.
The term eschatology is often used in a more popular and narrower sense when comparing various
interpretations of the Book of Revelation and other prophetic parts of the Bible, such as the Book of Daniel
and various sayings of Jesus in the Gospels, such as the Olivet discourse, concerning the timing of what
many Christians believe to be the imminent second coming of Christ. There are various controversies
concerning the order of events leading to and following the return of Jesus and the religious significance of
these events
2.

Viewpoint

Prophetic events prior to the return of Christ


Generally speaking, there are four approaches or perspectives in Christian eschatology.
1.
The Historicist looks to Scripture, and especially to its fulfilled prophecies, for the religious
significance in past or present historical events.
2.
The Preterist believes that most or all of the prophecies, especially of the book of Revelation,
have already been fulfilled. Revelation is understood as predicting the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction
of the temple, which was the event prophesied by Jesus that would signal the "end of the age" (see Matt 24;
Mark 13; Luke 17; 21). The opening and closing verses of the book of Revelation state that the events
prophesied in it were to take place "shortly," and that the time was "near" (Rev 1:1, 3; 22:7, 1012, 20).
The book fits into the category of a "covenant lawsuit," in which judgment is pronounced against the nation
of Israel for violating the stipulations of the Mosaic covenant. It prophesies the end of that covenant, the
beginning of the New Covenant, and the inheritance of the Kingdom of God by the saints (cf. Dan 7:18;
12:17).
2.
The Futurist looks for religious significance for the present time in events that are thought to be
future in history or beyond history. The Futurists have been subdivided into "Premillennialism,"
"Postmillennialism," and "Amillennialism," named after their particular interpretation of the symbolic
"thousand years" of Rev 20.
3.
The Idealist looks for regularities, patterns or laws of history or of the internal life which are of
perpetual religious significance. These patterns may be continually displayed in history or displayed at
numerous times or in a special context (such as in the Liturgy). Idealism may be combined with historicism
or futurism, so that the pattern is an echo of a consummate or archetypical event sometime in history or at
the end of the world. Additionally, some interpretations are purely metaphorical. Diversity of opinion
arises when a particular passage concerning the kingdom of heaven is interpreted ideally, for example,
which other groups interpret as history, and others as future or future beyond history.

3.
A.

Terminology

Second Coming

Mat 26:64
Jesus saith unto him, Thou hast said: nevertheless I say unto you, Hereafter shall ye see the Son of man
sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the clouds of heaven.
Mar 14:62
And Jesus said, I am: and ye shall see the Son of man sitting on the right hand of power, and coming in the
clouds of heaven.
Act 1:9
And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of
their sight.
Rev 1:7
Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they [also] which pierced him: and all
kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen
B.

Tribulation

Rev 7:14
And I said unto him, Sir, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they which came out of great
tribulation, and have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.
1
Strong's Number: 2347
Greek: thlipsis
for which see AFFLICATION, B, No. 4, is translated "tribulation" in the RV (for AV, "affiction") in Mar
4:17; 13:19; plural in 2Th 1:4, AV, "tribulations," RV, "afflictions;" in Act 14:22 "many tribulations" (AV,
"much tribulation"); in Mat 24:9, "unto tribulation" (AV, "to be afflicted"); in 2Cr 1:4; 7:4; 2Th 1:6, AV,
"tribulation" for RV, "affliction;" RV and AV, "tribulation(-s)," e.g., in Rom 2:9; 5:3 (twice); 8:35; 12:12;
Eph 3:13; Rev 1:9; 2:9,10,22. In Rev 7:14, "the great tribulation," RV, lit., "the tribulation, the great one"
(not as AV, without the article), is not that in which all saints share; it indicates a definite period spoken of
by the Lord in Mat 24:21,29; Mar 13:19,24, where the time is mentioned as preceding His second advent,
and as a period in which the Jewish nation, restored to Palestine in unbelief by gentile instrumentality, will
suffer an unprecedented outburst of fury on the part of the antichristian powers confederate under the Man
of Sin ( 2Th 2:10-12; cp. Rev 12:13-17); in this tribulation Gentile witnesses for God will share ( Rev 7:9),
but it will be distinctly "the time of Jacob's trouble" ( Jer 30:7); its beginning is signalized by the setting up
of the "abomination of desolation" ( Mat 24:15; Mar 13:14, with Dan 11:31; 12:11). Note: For the verb
thlibo, in the Passive Voice rendered "suffer tribulation" in 1Th 3:4, AV (RV, "suffer affliction"), see
AFFLICT, No. 4
C.

Rapture

1Th 4:16
For the Lord Himself will descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of {the} archangel and with the
trumpet of God, and the dead in Christ will rise first.
1Th 4:17
Then we who are alive and remain will be caught up together with them in the clouds to meet the Lord in
the air, and so we shall always be with the Lord.

2Ki 2:11
And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, [there appeared] a chariot of fire, and
horses of fire, and parted them both asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven

1Cr 15:52
In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be
raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed
Rev 11:12
And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to
heaven in a cloud; and their enemies beheld them.
The word "rapture" comes from the Latin verb rapere which means "to carry off, abduct, seize or take
forcefully" It was used in the Latin Vulgate (about 405 A.D.) translation of 1 Thessalonians 4:17, which is
the primary biblical reference to the event in question, rapiemur "we shall be caught up" translating the
original harpagsometha (passive mood, future tense of harpaz)
It is an event in certain systems of Christian eschatology (the study of the end times) whereby it is believed
that all Christians will be taken from Earth by Jesus Christ into Heaven. Although almost all forms of
Christianity believe that those who are "saved" will enter Heaven, the term "rapture" is applied specifically
to the belief that Christians will be taken into heaven prior to the Second coming of Christ, and there will
be a period of time where non-Christians will still be left on earth before Christ
arrives to set up his earthly kingdom
D.

Millenium

Within the special study of Biblical eschatology, there are diverse opinions about the Kingdom of God.
Some interpret Rev 20:16, concerning the 1,000-year (or millennial) rule of Christ on Earth, to be a
future age. The belief that the Kingdom of God predicted by the Old Testament, the Messianic Age or
Millennium of Messiah, is still future and will come about prior to the final judgment and final eternal state
is called millennialism. A commonly accepted premise of millennialism is that this Messianic rule
promised in the Old Testament has been postponed until God's purposes in the New Testament church have
been fulfilled.
1.
Premillennialism is a futurist historical interpretation. It predicts that Christ's second
coming will inaugurate a literal 1,000-year earthly Kingdom, at the conclusion of which will be the final
judgment.
a Upon Christ's return many anticipate a partial resurrection, only of the faithful, who will reign
with Christ for one thousand years. (
b.
During this time Satan will be imprisoned or restrained in the Abyss or Bottomless Pit. At
the end of the thousand years, Satan will be released to deceive the godless people of Gog, who will have
re-accumulated during the Millennium. The wicked will attempt to surround the Holy City once more
during this Millennial rebellion. Again they will be defeated and for all time.
c.
The Great White Throne Judgement will follow, and Satan will be cast into the Lake of
Fire. The Devil will be condemned to hell for all eternity, together with those who have trusted in him
rather than in God.
d.
This penultimate event is the Last Judgment of the Great White Throne. Each person will
be consigned to either hell or heaven. The end of all things is a new heaven and a new earth, the mystery of
an age of endless ages, when there will no longer be death and "God will be all in all" (1 Cor 15:28). This is
that final moment of ultimate perfection and bliss toward which all orthodox Christians finally direct their
hope.
Premillennialists fall into two primary categories: historic premillennialism and dispensational
premillennialism. Historic premillennialism is so-called because it is the classic form which may be found
in writings of some of the early church fathers, although in an undeveloped form. The Montanist sect

espoused premillennialism, and their "fanatical excesses" brought premillennialism into discredit with the
wider church (Schaff; [1]).
Dispensational premillennialism is that form which derives from John Nelson Darby (18001882) and
dispensational theology. It is dispensational premillennialism that first taught the notion of a pretribulation
rapture. Pretribulationists believe that the second coming will be in two stages separated by a seven-year
period of tribulation. At the first he will return in the air to rescue those who are Christians at the time (the
rapture). Then follows a seven-year period of suffering, in which the Antichrist will conquer the world and
kill those who refuse to worship him. At the end of the seven years, the final witness will go out before men
and angels, and Christ will return to the earth. He will defeat the Antichrist and rescue the Jews and those
who have converted to Christianity during the tribulation. Dispensationalism has also spawned
2.
Midtribulationists, who believe that Christians will not be removed until 3-1/2 years of
the final seven years of this age have elapsed. They place the Rapture when the Temple sacrifices have
been halted and the Antichrist has enshrined himself in the Temple, calling himself God.
3.
Posttribulationists (generally the view of historic premillennialism) see no appreciable
difference in the timing of the rapture and the "official" second coming. Thus they hold that Christ will not
return until the end of the tribulation and that Christians will suffer for the faith as they bring forth the final
witness associated with the 5th seal.
Non-literal Millennial views
Postmillennialism of the more common form is sometimes called "optimistic amillennialism". As in
amillennialism the "thousand years" is an idiomatic expression for the entire period following the
resurrection of Christ until His return. Neither version anticipates a physical throne set up in geographical
Jerusalem on earth, where Christ will reign for one thousand years. Both believe that Christ is reigning
now, at the right hand of God, in fulfillment of the promises made to David that his throne would be
without end. However, unlike the more usual amillennialism, postmillennial expectation for the future is
optimistic concerning the progress of the Gospel and the increasing practical benefit of Christianity to all
men. Postmillennialists anticipate that prior to Christ's return, the world will have gradually but entirely
converted to Christianity, at least nominally, through the preaching of the gospel. God's legal sanctions in
history are predictable, ensuring the punishment of the wicked and reward of the just, and the power of the
Holy Spirit, working through the gospel, will eventually be pervasive. Stated another way, they believe that
the Second Advent will be an event that continues the state of earthly affairs at the time, rather than
interposing a radical discontinuity to them. Some anticipate a final apostasy, immediately prior to the final
judgment. Postmillennialism of this kind was common in 17th-century Britain and in America in the late
19th century and early 20th century prior to World War I. Additionally, postmillennialists typically
envision a future conversion of the Jewish people, en masse, to the Christian faith. Some versions of
postmillennialism expect the Antichrist to arise in the future, but most have preterist or idealist
interpretations of the Antichrist.
D.
The belief in the pretribulation or midtribulation rapture theories of dispensationalism is often
criticized, on the grounds that it results in the division of Christ's single return into two stages. Some see it
as an impossible "apartheid of the Elect" of sorts which is not seen in scripture. Pretribulationists defend it
on the basis of a scripture passage which affirms that God has not appointed His people to wrath.
Posttribulationists counter that the tribulation associated with the final witness of the saints is in no way
connected to the wrath of God. This wrath of God will only come at the last day, and it will fall upon the
heads of the wicked at the last judgment.
Some specifically criticize dispensational premillennialism for anticipating the rebuilding of the Hebrew
Temple and the offering again of animal sacrifices during the millennial reign of Christ. In
dispensationalism the return of the sacrifices will be ceremonial in nature. Like the ceremony of
Communion or the Lord's Supper, they believe that the sacrifices will be performed on the appointed feast
days in the future Millennium. They say that the reason the animal sacrifices will continue is because they
will be enacted as a memorial to the Savior who came to earth as the Sacrifice Lamb. However, critics view
the idea of blood sacrifices reinstituted after Christ's return as incompatible with Christ's completed work
and find the idea abhorrent (O. T. Allis, Prophecy and the Church, p. 248).

E.
Armageddon refers generally to end times or giant, apocalyptic catastrophes in various religions
and cultures. It may also refer to any great loss of life in battle or use of weapons of mass destruction.
The word Armageddon is thought to be derived from the Hebrew words Har Megido () , meaning
"Mountain of Megiddo". The site referred to is a valley plain called Megiddo, the location of many decisive
battles in ancient times, including the Battle of Megiddo. There is no literal "mountain of Megiddo"
anywhere in the Promised Land, although there is an archaeological mound nearby, representing the ruins
of at least 20 cities that flourished between 5,000 years ago and 650 BC. Some would argue that the word
Armageddon is an early example of a mondegreen.
The only mention of the word Armageddon in the Bible appears in Revelation 16:16: "And he gathered
them together into a place called in the Hebrew tongue Armageddon" (KJV). The Bible includes many
passages that refer to the concept of Armageddon, however. But this specific Bible prophecy reference is
ambiguous whether any event actually takes place here, or whether the gathering of armies is only to be
seen as a sign.
In fact, a gathering of the Roman army occurred at this place as a staging ground for one of their assaults
on Jerusalem in AD 67. This is consistent with the preterist interpretation that the events of Revelation
16:17-21 refer to events culminating in the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70. However, one indication
that the book predicts a future event is the mention of an army from the east of two hundred million, a
number that would not have been likely in any battle of that period.
Before the Second World War, the First World War was commonly referred to in newspapers and books as
"Armageddon", in addition to "the Great War".

II
1.
A.

Jewish View

End Times = End of Days (Messianic Age)

The Jewish Messiah : The Criteria

The Jewish tradition of "The Messiah" has its foundation in numerous biblical references, and understands
"The Messiah" to be a human being - without any overtone of deity or divinity - who will bring about
certain changes in the world and fulfill certain criteria before he can be acknowledged as "The Messiah".
First of all, he must be Jewish - "...you may appoint a king over you, whom the L-rd your G-d shall
choose: one from among your brethren shall you set as king over you." (Deuteronomy 17:15)
He must be a member of the tribe of Judah - "The staff shall not depart from Judah, nor the sceptre from
between his feet..." (Genesis 49:10)
He must be a direct male descendant of King David and King Solomon, his son - "And when your days
(David) are fulfilled, and you shall sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after you, who shall issue
from your bowels, and I will establish his kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make
firm the throne of his kingdom forever..." (2 Samuel 7:12 - 13)
He must gather the Jewish people from exile and return them to Israel -"And he shall set up a banner
for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the dispersed of Judah from
the four corners of the earth." (Isaiah 11:12)
He must rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem - "...and I will set my sanctuary in their midst forever and my
tabernacle shall be with them.." (Ezekiel 37:26 - 27)
He will rule at a time of world-wide peace - "...they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their
spears into pruning hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war
anymore." (Micah 4:3)

He will rule at a time when the Jewish people will observe G-d's commandments - "My servant David
shall be king over them; and they shall all have one shepherd. They shall follow My ordinances and be
careful to observe My statutes." (Ezekiel 37:24)
He will rule at a time when all people will come to acknowledge and serve one G-d - "And it shall
come to pass that from one new moon to another and from one Sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to
worship before Me, says the L-rd" (Isaiah 66:23)
All of these criteria are best stated in the book of Ezekiel Chapter 37 verses 24-28:
And David my servant shall be king over them; and they shall all have one shepherd. they shall also follow
My judgments and observe My statutes, and do them. And they shall dwell in the land that I have given to
Yaakov my servant, in which your fathers have dwelt and they shall dwell there, they and their children,
and their children's children forever; and my servant David shall be their prince forever. Moreover, I will
make a covenant of peace with them, it shall be an everlasting covenant with them, which I will give them;
and I will multiply them and I will set my sanctuary in the midst of them forevermore. And my tabernacle
shall be with them: and I will be their G-d and they will be my people. Then the nations shall know that I
am the L-rd who sanctifies Israel, when My sanctuary will be in the midst of them forevermore.
If an individual fails to fulfill even one of these conditions, then he cannot be "The Messiah." A
careful analysis of these criteria shows us that to date, no one has fulfilled every condition
B.

The Jewish People End Times

In Judaism, the end of the world is called the acharit hayamim (end of days). Tumultuous events will
overturn the old world order, creating a new order in which God is universally recognized as the ruler over
everyone and everything. One of the sages of the Talmud says, "Let the end of days come, but may I not
live to see them", because they will be filled with so much conflict and suffering.
The Talmud, in the tractate Avodah Zarah, page 9A, states that this world as we know it will only exist for
six thousand years. The Jewish calendar (luach) functions completely on the assumption that time begins at
the Creation of the world by God in Genesis. Many people (notably Conservative and Reform Jews and
some Christians) think that the years of the Torah, or Jewish Bible, are symbolic. According to the ancient
Jewish teachings continued by today's Orthodox Jews, the years are literal and consistent throughout all
time, with 24 hours per day and an average of 365 days per year. Appropriate calibrations are, of course,
done with leap years, to account for the difference between the lunar calendar and the solar calendar, since
the Jewish calendar is based on both. Thus the year 2006 equals 5766 years since creation on the present
Jewish calendar. According to this calculation, the end of days will occur in the year 2240.
According to Jewish tradition, the end of the world will come like thus:
During this time Gog, king of Magog, will attack Israel. Who Gog and the Magog nation are is unknown.
Magog will fight a great battle, in which many will die on both sides, but God will intervene and save the
Jews. This is the battle referred to as Armageddon. God, having vanquished this final enemy once and
for all, will accordingly banish all evil from human existence. After the year 6000 (in the Jewish calendar),
the seventh millennium will be an era of holiness, tranquility, spiritual life, and worldwide peace, called the
Olam Haba ("Future World"), where all people will know God directly. The Jewish holiday of Rosh
Hashanah has many identical aspects to the Islamic belief in Qiyamah, such as the title of, "Day of the
sounding of the Shofar".
In Judaism however, whether or not these events will come to pass is a mystery and if they do, it is
unclear whether the end of days will come before, during, or after the year 6000. The tumultuous end times
events may include spiritual difficulties such as immorality etc., and some believe much depends on way
the Jews act. Certain teachings warn that we should not to delve too deeply into these things for they are
difficult to discover and can drive a man insane.

a.
At some point, the Jewish Messiah who will become the anointed King of Israel. He will
divide the Jews in Israel into their original tribal portions in the land. (Ezekiel 37)
b.
Ingathering of the scattered Jewish exiles to geographic Israel, ( Ezekiel 37)
c.
Jacobs trouble (Jer 30:7 'Alas! for that day is great, There is none like it; And it is the time of
Jacob's distress, But he will be saved from it.
d.
The Messiah fights for Israel- 2/3 of Israel is defeated (Zech 13:7-9)
Zec 13:7 "Awake, O sword, against My Shepherd, And against the man, My Associate," Declares the
LORD of hosts. "Strike the Shepherd that the sheep may be scattered; And I will turn My hand against the
little ones.
Zec 13:8 "It will come about in all the land," Declares the LORD, "That two parts in it will be cut off
{and} perish; But the third will be left in it.
Zec 13:9 "And I will bring the third part through the fire, Refine them as silver is refined, And test them as
gold is tested. They will call on My name, And I will answer them; I will say, 'They are My people,' And
they will say, 'The LORD is my God.' "
e.
Messiah Ben Joseph Dies (Zech 12:10)
Zec 12:10 "I will pour out on the house of David and on the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Spirit of grace
and of supplication, so that they will look on Me whom they have pierced; and they will mourn for Him, as
one mourns for an only son, and they will weep bitterly over Him like the bitter weeping over a firstborn.
Zec 12:11 "In that day there will be great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in
the plain of Megiddo.
f.
Messiah Ben David resurrects Messiah ben Joseph and they fight for Israel (Obadiah 15-21)
Oba 1:15 "For the day of the LORD draws near on all the nations. As you have done, it will be done to
you. Your dealings will return on your own head.
Oba 1:16 "Because just as you drank on My holy mountain, All the nations will drink continually. They
will drink and swallow And become as if they had never existed.
Oba 1:17 "But on Mount Zion there will be those who escape, And it will be holy. And the house of Jacob
will possess their possessions.
Oba 1:18 "Then the house of Jacob will be a fire And the house of Joseph a flame; But the house of Esau
{will be} as stubble. And they will set them on fire and consume them, So that there will be no survivor of
the house of Esau," For the LORD has spoken.
Oba 1:19 Then {those of} the Negev will possess the mountain of Esau, And {those of} the Shephelah the
Philistine {plain;} Also, possess the territory of Ephraim and the territory of Samaria, And Benjamin {will
possess} Gilead.
Oba 1:20 And the exiles of this host of the sons of Israel, Who are {among} the Canaanites as far as
Zarephath, And the exiles of Jerusalem who are in Sepharad Will possess the cities of the Negev.
Oba 1:21 The deliverers will ascend Mount Zion To judge the mountain of Esau, And the kingdom will

be the LORD'S
g.
Defeat of all of Israel's enemies, (Ezekiel 38-39, Zech 14)
h.
Building of the third Jewish Temple in Jerusalem and the resumption of the sacrificial
offerings and Temple service, (Zech 6:12-13)
i.
Revival of the Dead (techiat hameitim), or the Resurrection, (Daniel 12)
"All Israel have a portion in the world to come." (Talmud Sanhedrin 10:1) The Ramban (Nachmanades)
interprets the world to come as the ultimate good and purpose of creation. He therefore holds that the world
to come actually refers to the resurection of the dead. An event that will occur after the messianic age has
already begun. The Ramban holds that all Israel, even the sinners, have a portion in this epoch of
resurection. (The Tzemach Tzedek, Derech Mitzvosecha,Law of Tzitzis).In the Tanakh ("Old Testament"),
Elijahs raising of a young boy from death (1 Kings 17-23), and, Elishas duplication of the feat (2 Kings
4:34-35), were viewed within the scope of Jewish worldview and theology more as resuscitations than bona
fide resurrection which, for the Hebrews at least, came to denote the final 'rising' of all people to
irreversible continuation of (some kind of) bodily life.
Other common associations are the biblical accounts of the antedeluvian Enoch and the prophet Elijah
being ushered into the presence of God without experiencing death. These, however, are more in the way of

ascensions, bodily disappearances , translations or apotheoses than resurrections.


And there is Ezekiels vision of the valley of dry bones being restored as a living army: a metaphorical
prophecy that the house of Israel would one day be gathered from the nations, out of exile, to live in the
land of Israel once more. The actual doctrine of a bodily resurrection is found in the book of Daniel, where
a mysterious angelic figure tells Daniel, "Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake; some to
everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt." (Daniel 12:2)
Other passages in the Old Testament referring to the resurrection of the dead are:
1 Sam. 2: 6 - "he bringeth down to the grave, and bringeth up"
Job 19: 26 - "after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God"
Isa. 26: 19 - "Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise"
Ezek. 37: 12 - "I will open your graves, and cause you to come up"
In the First Century B.C.E, there were debates between the Pharisees who believed in the future
Resurrection, and the Sadducees who did not, over whether or not there was an afterlife. The majority of
Jews seemed to have embraced the belief that there was an afterlife, evidenced by their volatile tendency to
revolt for YHWH's kingdom and its privileges, one of which was resurrection (cf. the narratives of the
Maccabees, Josephus' Wars of the Jews).
Today the main lines of Judaism insist that belief in the Resurrection of the Dead is one of the
cardinal principles of the Jewish faith. A famous Jewish halakhic-legal authority, Maimonides, set down
thirteen main principles of the Jewish faith according to Orthodox Judaism which have ever since been
printed in all Rabbinic prayer books. Resurrection is the thirteenth principle:
"I believe with complete (perfect) faith, that there will be techiat hameitim - revival of the dead, whenever it
will be God's, blessed be He, will (desire) to arise and do so. May (God's) Name be blessed, and may His
remembrance arise, forever and ever"
3.

Common terms

End Times = End of Days


Ressurection = Revival of the Dead
Armegedon = Battle of Gog and Magog
Tribulation = Jacobs Trouble
Second Coming = First Coming
Messiah = Mochiach or Son of David
Anti-Christ = Armilus
Acharith-yamim
The latter days; the last days. A Hebrew term for eschatology. The days are pictured as
an army marching past. The is the part that has already passed, while the reshith acharit
is the part that is still approaching. Events said to happen (in theba'ha-acharit ha-yamim
latter days) often had one or even more partial fulfillments in history, which serves as a
tavnit Yom YHWH. or pattern that foreshadows events that will happen in
The other Hebrew term for eschatology is (Footsteps of the Messiah).Iqvot haMashiach
Scriptural history is a carefully woven prophetic that teachesto thosetavnit (pattern)
who have ears to hearthe Footsteps of the Messiah
Armilus
In rabbinic literature, the name of the Antichrist or False messiah of the latter days. The
name was apparently derived from the name Romulus, the legendary founder of the city
of Rome. The sages saw that Scripture intimates that the False messiah will initially rule
the revived Roman Empire, i.e. united Europe, possibly (initially) from Rome

Apocalyptic
Ideas and teachings pertaining to the revelation (apocalypse uncovering, unveiling) of the
last days and the end of the present age. Examples are Dani'el 7-12, Zekharyah 1-6 and
the book of Revelation.
Ba'Yamim ha-hu
In those days... A phrase understood by the sages to signify that something will come
to pass at the time that the Messiah will come and accomplish the final redemption.
BaYom ha-hu
In tht day. A phrase that signifies that something will happen in the Day of YHWH.
The sages identified several phrases which tells us that a passage will have its final
fulfilment in the time when King Messiah would come. Some of these phrases are
summarised in Table G.1 below:
Chevlai Shel Mashiach
Birthpains of the Messiah. Hebrew term for the seven year tribulation period that will
precede the glorious second coming of King Messiah. The excruciating pain, profuse
shedding of blood, and subsequent joy of childbirth is a picture of the agony and the joy
that the believing remnant of Israel as well as gentile believers will experience when they
are born into the Messiah and His kingdom.
The metaphor of passing through labour pains to be born into the isyeshuat Elohim
found throughout the Tanakh.
Table G.3: Prophecies about the Chevlai Shel Mashiachthe Birthpains that will come
upon the earth at the threshold of the Messianic Age.
Book Verses
Genesis 3:16; 35:16-20; 38:27-28; 48:3
2 Kings 19:3
Psalms 48:3-6
Yeshayahu 13:8; 21:3; 23:4; 26:17; 37:3; 42: 14; 54:1; 66:7-9
Yirmeyahu 4:31; 6:24; 13:21; 22:23; 30:6; 31:8; 48:41; 49:22-24; 50:43
Hoshea 9:11-12; 13:13
Micah 4:9-10; 5:3
Mattityahu 24:8
Mark 13:8
Yochanan 16:21-24
1 Thessalonians 5:3
Revelation 12:2
Day of the LORD
See Yom YHWH.
Gey Hinnom
Valley of (the son(s) of) Hinnom. Simplistically translated as hell. A valley to the
South, Southwest and West of Yerushalayim where the social outcasts and those with
unclean diseases dwelt amidst rubbish, sewerage, worms and smoke from ever-present
fires, cut off from the life of Yisra'el. A place of punishment in the age to come.
G'ulah
Redemption. Specifically: t YHWH through the Messiah. The blood ofhe redemption of
bulls and goats can never restore (resurrection and immortality) to ourChayim Olam
nefesh (being). The sacrifices offered in the wilderness and in the Beit HaMiqdash
(Temple) set Yisra'el apart unto YHWH and temporarily covered their transgressions, but
ultimately pointed toward the G'ulah Go'el (redemption) through the (KinsmanRedeemer) who would be sent forth by the Father. We presently have the offirstfruits
redemption, but await the final or full redemption that will happen with the return of
King Messiah.

K'naf
Corner, wing; corner of garment where the are fastened. Malachi 4:2 teaches that tzitzit
the Messiah will come as the (Sun of Righteousness) with healing inShemesh Tzadekah
his k'naf .(wings, corners) When correlated with the creation account of Genesis 1, the
principle that 1 day represents 1000 years, and the fact that the symbolises thetzitzit
Torah, this intimates to us that the Messiah would come to earth as the Light of the
World around the year 4000, and that He will be the Living In the book of Ruth,Torah.
we read how Ruth asked the (kinsman redeemer), Boaz, to spread the of hisgo'el k'naf
garment over her. This is a beautiful intimation about the Messiah and His bride.
Malkut Shamayim
The Kingdom of Heaven, i.e. the Kingdom of YHWH Elohim. In this phrase, as in many
other expressions dating from the last half of the Second Temple period, the term
heaven is used as an evasive synonym or circumlocution for YHWH, the personal
name of the Almighty
Satan
Accuser; adversary. In Israel, a prosecuting attorney in a court of law is called a satan.
The name satan is not a personal name, but a description of a of accusation,relation
being an adversary. The title of the evil (messenger, angel) who was createdmalakh
perfect, but who fell and became the author of sin .cf. Yechezk'el 28
Tikkun
Restitution; re-integration.
Tzemach
Branch, sprout. A metaphoric term for the Messiah in Yeshayahu 4:2,(inter alia)
Yirmeyahu 23:5, 33:15 and Zekharyahu 3:8, 6:12.
Tzidkenu
Our Righteousness. According to Yirmeyahu 23:5-6 and 33:15-16, isYHWH Tzidkenu
a term for the Messiah as well as for Yerushalayim after the triumphant second coming
of King Messiah:
Yirmeyahu 23:5-6
5 The days are coming, declares YHWH, when I will raise up to David a
righteo ng who will reign wisely and do what is just and right inus a KiTzemach,
the land.
6 In his days Yahudah will be saved and Yisra'el will live in safety. This is the
name by which He [i.e. the Anointed King] will be called: YHWH Tzidkenu.
Yemot HaMashiach
The Days of the Messiah. The last 2000 years of the (the present age), i.e.Olam Hazeh
the time between the first and second comings of the Messiah. In this age believers have
the firstfruits of the the Kingdom of Heaven, and await its fulness,Malkut Shamayim
which will dawn with the full redemption at the second coming of King Messiah.
Yisra'el
Yisra is derived from a root meaning El stands for El/Eloah/Elohim. In hismastery.
wrestling with Elohim, i.e. with the the Ya'akovMalakh YHWH, Messenger of the Face,
triumphed and was given the name Yisra'el because he prevailed.
Ya'akov's struggle with the Malakh YHWH is a prophetic -picture of the Torah Chevlai
Shel Mashiach, the time of Ya'akov's trouble, when Ya'akov's descendants will struggle
with a ManMessiah Yahushua. The text of Genesis hints at this eschatological
progressionGenesis 32:26 ( breaks) is in terminology, Genesisthe day Yom Teruah
32:30 is in terminology and Genesis 33:17 is in terminology. In otherYom Kippur Sukkot

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words, the text reflects the eschatological progression built into the Festivals of YHWH.
Ya'akov sent all his family across the river Yabbok and remained behind, alone (Genesis
32:22-23)a picture of the of believers, with Yisra'el staying behind on earth inNatzal
the day of Ya'akov's trouble. When breaks, Ya'akov will struggleThe Day(Yom YHWH)
with the Yahushua the Messiah, the Messenger of the Face of YHWHMalakh YHWH
(Yeshayahu 63:9), the Man in whom all the fulness of Elohim dwells bodily. The
Malakh YHWH will not let go of Ya'akov until Ya'akov blesses Him. Ya'akov will22
prevail and bless Him, i.e. Yisra'el will accept Yahushua as the Messiah. The lasting
injury to Ya'akov's hip is profoundly propheticthe walk of the descendants of Ya'akov
will be changed forever when they bless the Man; they will change from being heelgrabbers to being Yisra'ela Prince with El. In Messiah Yahushua, they will see
Elohim because He is the Face to Face, Messenger of the Face (Malakh
HaPanim Sun of RighteousnessYeshayahu 63:9). The will dawn on them, and they
will rejoice, like calves fed in a and let out to dance and rejoice (Malakhi 4).Sukkah
Yom YHWH
The Day of YHWH; a 1000 year period that will, according to an impressive body of
Scriptural evidence, start on in year , where is expected to be 6000Rosh HaShanah \ \
years since creation (in Jewish chronology, correcting for the fact that approximately 230
to 240 years were not counted). In the article, the Day of the Lord, Encyclopedia
Judaica Yom YHWH reports that the Danish scholar Sigmund Mowinckel discovered that
was originally a New Year, i.e. a Rosh HaShanah Rosh festival. In the article
HaShanah, the states,Encyclopedia Judaica

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