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Old Testamanet view of Israel

Gen 12:1 Now the LORD said to Abram, "Go forth from your country, And from your relatives And from
your father's house, To the land which I will show you;
Gen 12:2 And I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so
you shall be a blessing;
Gen 12:3 And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the
families of the earth will be blessed."
A. The Abrahamic Covenant (Gen 12:1-3)
1. The People of Israel
2. The Land of Israel
3. The Blessing (Messiah) from Israel
1. The People
a. Abraham to Moses
b. Joshua to Jesus
c. Jesus to John

- The Patriarchs
- The Prophets
- The Disciples

2. The Land
a. The Promise
b. The Pollution
c. The Pull-out

- 12 Tribes
- 2 Kingdoms split
- The Diaspora

3. The Messiah
a. The Hope
b. The Covenant
c. The Arrival

- The Plan
- The Promise
- The Person
1. The People Israel

a. Abraham to Jacob - The Patriarchs - sign Circumcision

Gen 17:10 "This is My covenant, which you shall keep, between Me and you and your descendants after
you: every male among you shall be circumcised.
Gen 17:11 "And you shall be circumcised in the flesh of your foreskin, and it shall be the sign of the
covenant between Me and you.
Gen 32:27 So he said to him, "What is your name?" And he said, "Jacob."
Gen 32:28 He said, "Your name shall no longer be Jacob, but Israel; for you have striven with God and
with men and have prevailed."
Gen 3:15
Gen 4:1
Gen 9:26
Gen 13:5
Gen 17:19

(Adamic seed)
(Seth branch)
-Seth to Noah
(Shem's branch)
-Shem to Abraham
(Abrahamic branch)
(Isaac's branch)

Gen 35;11

(Jacob's branch) - 12 tribes

B Mosaic Covenant (Ex 19:1-24)


sign Sabbath rules of the Community

1. revealing voice Ex 19:5 "Now then, if you do indeed obey my

voice and keep my covenant, then you shall be my own possession among all the peoples for
all the earth is mine
2. responsibility voice : Ex 19:8 "All that the Lord has spoken we will do"
The 10 Commandments Exodus 20:1-17
1). No other gods
2). No graven images (idols)
3). Dont take the Lords name in vain
4). Keep Sabbath holy (cf. Ex 16:23)
5). Honor father and mother
6). Shalt not kill
7). Shalt not commit adultery
8). Shalt not steal
9). Shalt not bear false witness
10). Shalt not covet
The Law (Exodus 20-Deut.)
The law was more than just the 10 commandments. The law can be broken into 3 parts: The
Moral Law, Civil Law and Ceremonial Law.
Moral Law- was the 10 commandments
Civil Law- pertained to rules of property, slavery, inheritance, marriage
and other civil details.
Ceremonial Law- pertained to the ordinances of the Tabernacle and sacrifices.
3. ratifying voice:
Ex 24:6-8 "So. Moses took the blood and
sprinkled it on the people, and said behold the blood of the covenant, which
the Lord has made with you in accordance with all these words

2. The Land - Israel

A. The Palestinian Covenant

sign Jews living in the Land

a. The Promise
-Gen 12, Deut 29
1). God promised to give the land of Canaan to Abraham (Gen. 12:6-7;
13:14-18; 15:7,18) along with everything from the "river of Egypt unto the great
river, the river Euphrates".

2). This extends from the Nile to the Euphrates surrounding the Jordan River.
This is an area of approximately 300,000 square miles.
3). This was prime land as it connects 3 continents (Europe, Asia & Africa).
***Map of Abraham's world
b. The Practical

- 12 Tribes

***Map of exodus
*** Map of 12 tribes
D. Davidic Covenant - sign the Son
II Sam 7:12-17 (Davidic covenant)
Mathhew 1:1
3. The Messiah
a. The Plan
Gen 3:15
b. The Messianic Hope
Gen 4:1
Gen 5:29
Gen 12:1-3
Gen 49:8-10
II Sam 7:12-17

Man Child
Rest from curse
Your seed will Bless
Judah will be King
David is King forever

E. The New Covenant (Jer 31:31/Heb 8:8) sign written on Hearts

"Behold, days are coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the
house of Israel and with the house of Judah not like the covenant which I made with their
fathers in the day I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant
which they broke, although I was a husband to them," declares the LORD. But this [shall be] the
covenant that I will make with the house of Israel; After those days, saith the LORD, I will put
my law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts; and will be their God, and they shall
be my people.

Israel (disambiguation)
Israel (Hebrew Yisra'el or Yirl, meaning "one who has struggled with God") was the name given
to the biblical patriarch Jacob.
Some bible commentators have claimed that Israel is another name for Isaac rather than Jacob, or that it
may mean either. This appears to be based on Amos 7:9, 16. But against this theory Genesis 32:22-28
clearly gives this name to Jacob, not to Isaac.
From this name are derived:
The Children of Israel, a Biblical term for the Israelites
Children of Israel
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Children of Israel (Hebrew :Bnai Yisrael or Bnei Yisrael or Bnei Yisroel or Bene Israel;) is a

Biblical term for the Israelites. It is also an alternate way of referring to the people known as Hebrews,
Jewish or Bnai Israel. It means Sons or Children of Israel in Hebrew. In the Torah they are the twelve
sons of Jacob who was renamed Israel in Genesis. They are also known as the Twelve Tribes.
The phrase "Children of Israel" refers to the offspring of the Biblical patriarch Jacob, who was renamed
"Israel" after he triumphed in a mysterious night-time struggle with an angel: "...Your name will no longer
be Jacob, but Israel (Yisra'el). [Because] you have become great (sar) before God and man. You have
won." (Genesis 32:29) [1]. Therefore, the name "Israel" denotes "one who has struggled with [the
challenges of] God" and triumphed.
Jacob/Israel had twelve sons who became the progenitors of the biblical Twelve tribes of Israel.
Subsequently when their descendants multiplied during the exile in ancient Egypt the Bible (Exodus) refers
to them as the Children of Israel.
In the midrash, a rabbinic Jewish genre of Biblical interpretation, Jacob has the status of the greatest of
the three patriarchs, since only he produced a righteous family. Abraham had both Isaac and
Ishmael, but the latter was expelled from Abraham's tent due to the negative influence he was
having on Isaac. Isaac in turn had Jacob and Esau, the latter being a hunter and sold his birthright
to his brother. It is only Jacob/Israel who has sons who, after all their internal struggles, emerge as
a united family all loyal "Sons of Israel".
The Kingdom of Israel, the kingdom established by Israelites (1020 BC - 722 BC)
The Land of Israel, the land of the Israelite Kingdom
The State of Israel, the state established by Jews in the Land of Israel or Palestine (1948 - present)
In Israel the name Israel Israeli is sometimes used to mean someone whose name is unknown or
Benai Israel, the native Jews of India.
The Israelites, the descendants of Jacob
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Redirected from Israelites)
Jump to: navigation, search
Tribes of Israel
This template
"The Twelve Tribes" redirects here. For other uses, see The Twelve Tribes (disambiguation).
For the song by Desmond Dekker see Israelites (song).
An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical
patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28. The Israelites were a group
of Hebrews, as described in the Hebrew Bible. There are modern historical debates about the origins of the

The English word Israelite derives from "( Struggled with God", Standard Hebrew Yisrael, Tiberian
Hebrew Yirl).
Please read this entry in conjunction with the entries on:
History of ancient Israel and Judah
Children of Israel
Lost Ten Tribes
Bnai Israel
Contents [hide]
1 Israelites in Biblical times
1.1 The Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Ten Lost Tribes
1.2 Babylonian captivity
2 Jews as Israelites
3 "Israelite" traditions outside mainstream Judaism
3.1 Samaritans
3.2 Messianic Judaism
3.3 Karaite Judaism

Israelites in Biblical times

Main article: History of ancient Israel and Judah
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Israelites were the descendants of the children of Jacob, later known as
Israel. His twelve male children were Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun, Dan, Gad,
Naphtali, Asher, Joseph, and Benjamin. Twelve tribes of Israel are listed in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible, Old

1759 map of the tribal allotments of Israel

Tribe of Reuben
, Standard Ruven, Tiberian Rn
, Standard Ruuveni, Tiberian Run
Tribe of Simeon
, Standard imon, Tiberian imn
, Standard imoni, Tiberian imn
Tribe of Levi (This is a special case; see further below)
, Standard Levi, Tiberian Lw
Tribe of Judah
, Standard Yhuda, Tiberian Yhh
, Standard Yhudi, Tiberian Yh
Tribe of Dan
, Standard Dan, Tiberian Dn
, Standard Dani, Tiberian Dn
Tribe of Naphtali
, Standard Naftali, Tiberian Nap tl
Tribe of Gad
, Standard Gad, Tiberian G

, Tiberian Standard Gadi, G

Tribe of Asher
, Standard Aer, Tiberian r
, Standard Aeri, Tiberian r
Tribe of Issachar
, Standard Yissaar, Tiberian Yir
, Standard Yissaari, Tiberian Yir
Tribe of Zebulun
, Standard Zvlun, Tiberian Zlun
, Standard Zvuloni, Tiberian Zln
Tribe of Joseph
, Standard Yosef, Tiberian Ysp
, Standard Yosefi, Tiberian Ysp
containing the tribes of his sons:
Tribe of Manasseh
, Samaritan Manatch, Standard Mnae, Tiberian Mnaeh
, Standard Mnai, Tiberian Mna
Tribe of Ephraim
, Samaritan Afrime, Standard Efryim, Tiberian Ep ryim / Ep ryim
, Standard Efrati, Tiberian Ep r
Tribe of Benjamin
, Standard Binyamin, Tiberian Binymn
Standard Ben haYmini, Tiberian Ben-haYmn
The Northern Kingdom of Israel and the Ten Lost Tribes
According to the Hebrew Bible, after the civil war in the time of Solomon's son Rehoboam, ten tribes split
off the United Monarchy to create the northern kingdom of Israel.
These were the nine landed tribes Zebulun, Issachar, Asher, Naphtali, Dan, Manasseh, Ephraim, Reuben
and Gad, and some of Levi which had no land allocation. The Bible makes no reference at this point to the
tribe of Simeon, and we might conjecture the author had in mind that that tribe had already disappeared due
to the curse of Jacob.
Judah, the southern kingdom, had Jerusalem as its capital and was led by King Rehoboam. It was populated
by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin (and also some of Levi and remnants of Simeon).
In 722 BC the Assyrians under Shalmaneser V and then under Sargon II conquered the northern Kingdom
of Israel, destroyed its capital Samaria and sent the Israelites into exile and captivity in Khorason, now part
of eastern Iran and western Afghanistan. The Ten Lost Tribes are those who were deported. In Jewish
popular culture, the ten tribes disappeared from history, leaving only the tribes of Benjamin and Judah and
the Levi who evolved into the modern day Jews. See also Bnai Israel.

Babylonian captivity
Main article: Babylonian captivity
In 586 BC the nation of Judah was conquered by Babylon. About 50 years later, in 539 BC, the Persians
(who had recently conquered Babylon) allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem and rebuild the Temple. By the
end of this era, members of the tribes seem to have abandoned their individual identities in favor of a
common one.

Jews as Israelites
Whatever the historical origin of the Israelite tribes, each tribe had a distinct identity inherited from one's
father as recently as 722 BC, when the Assyrians conquered the northern Kingdom of Israel and sent its
populace into exile. Individual tribes intermarried extensively throughout history. Many Israelites from the
northern kingdom fled to the Southern Kingdom of Judah. At this point in time the tribes living in the
Kingdom of Judah melded into a single people from all the Israelite tribes. In 586 BC the nation of Judah
was conquered by Babylon. About 50 years later, in 539 BC the Persians (who conquered Babylon)
allowed Jews to move back to Jerusalem. By the end of this era, members of the tribes seem to have
abandoned their individual identities.
Jewish religious texts from the first century BC to the present time consistently refer to Jews as "Yisrael",
or "Israelites", rather than "Yehudi", the more specific Hebrew term for "Jew". This usage was adopted in
secular Jewish writing of Hungary in the 1920s and 1930s; Stephen Roth writes, "The word 'Israelite'
denoted only religious affiliation and was free from the ethnic or national conotation attached to the word
'Jew', which Jews in Hungary therefore regarded almost as a derogatory term."[1]
Today's Jews are mostly descended from the Hebrews of the Kingdom of Judah, as well as those who
joined them via religious conversion to Judaism and married with the descendants of the Judaic Hebrews.
Some modern religions maintain that its followers are "Israelites" or "Jews" although the meaning of these
claims differs widely.
Some outside traditional practice of the Law of Moses believe themselves to be the modern descendants of
the Israelites. Such groups include the Latter-day Saints, adherents of British Israelism, the Two House
Movement, and even some anti-semitic groups, denying the Jewish people their ancestry. See also
Samaritans are a very small ethnic group (not more than about 700 persons) and religious sect living in the
State of Israel and the West Bank with many beliefs in common with Judaism. They accept the
canonization of the five books of the Torah and the Book of Joshua (but no other books), and that the only
prophet is Moses. They also preserve their own unique form of Hebrew, and regard themselves as the
descendants of Aphrime (Ephraim) and Manatch (Manasseh). Many regard them as a sect of Judaism, but
they regard themselves as distinct from Jews, and do not refer to themselves as Jews.
Messianic Judaism
Messianic Judaism has many sects, some of which accept the core doctrines of Christianity (doctrines
disputed within Christianity itself) and some which do not or in degrees. Adherence to the precepts of the
Torah, the foundation of Judaism, is also variable depending on the group. It is frequently spear-headed by
Ethnic Jews, but many non-Jews are flocking to their synagogues or meeting places, especially those
embracing the Two House Movement. Many of its non-Jewish converts believe they have been "grafted in"
to the tribes of Israel, thus, believing they are "Jewish" and/or "Israelite", in a similar way Caleb and Ruth
(great grandmother of King David), both non-Jews, joined themselves to ancient Israel.
It is rumored, the Southern Baptist Convention and the Assemblies of God movement actively participate
in establishing Messianic congregations as part of their efforts to evangelize the Jewish people.
Karaite Judaism
Karaite Judaism, relies on the Tanakh as the sole scripture and rejects the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the
Talmuds). It does not require its adherents to wear Tefillin in any form, wear Tzitzit, etc. There are
approximately 50,000 adherents of Karaite Judaism, most of whom reside in Israel. However, exact
numbers are not known, as most Karaites have not participated in any religious censuses. Like the
Samaritans, the division goes back many hundreds of years.

II The Relationship of Israel to the Covenants of God



In Gen 12:1 God chose Abraham out from the Gentiles and made an unconditional promise to him.


LAND (12:1)

God told Abram to go to the land he would show him. Later, after Abraham had acted in faith in his
dealings with Lot, God again confirmed His original promise to give Abraham the land of Canaan (13:1418). The land is promised as well to Isaac (26:2-4) and Jacob (28:13-15). Thus it is clear that one of the
provisions of the covenant God instituted with Abram was that of the land of Canaan.


SEED (12:2A)

Abram was promised seed, that is, a nation would come from him. God says again to Abram in Gen
13:16 that He would make his offspring like the dust of the earth, so that if anyone could count the dust,
then his [your] offspring could be counted. This same promise was given to Isaac (26:4) and to Jacob
(28:14). Thus it is clear that another of the provisions of the covenant was the guarantee that Abram would
become a great nation, and that nation would occupy the covenanted land.

And we see that the land promise and the seed promise are closely related.


BLESSING (12:2B,3)

In this passage it is expressly stated that Abram would not only be blessed (12:2), but that he would be a
blessing to others and ultimately to the whole world (12:3). Notice that the aspect of universal blessing
depends upon others response to him. God says that He will bless those who bless Abram and curse those
who curse him. We can begin to see here how Gods plan for the world, with its blessing of mankind, has
its origin in His special dealings in and through Abraham based upon this covenant.
You can see how this covenant is ultimately fulfilled in Christ. Those who curse Christ are cursed. There
is much unity in the Bible. Its all tied together, and thats what I hope you will see as we study these
covenants and their fulfillment.


Thus the provisions of the Abrahamic Covenant are three: a land; a seed and blessing (personal, national
and universal).
Here we have the beginning of the nation of Israel because Abraham is the Father of the Jews, the father of
And we begin to see that the seed of Abraham, the nation of Israel, is going to be the vehicle of Gods
blessing on all mankind. It is important to understand this connection. They are not separate unrelated

That this is an unconditional covenant is also important because, since God is faithful, He will fulfill His
promises to Abraham. He will use Abrahams seed to bless mankind. Any particular generation of Israelites
could enjoy these promises if they were obedient to God. But ultimately God would fulfill these promises
by raising up a generation that would be obedient. He would do this regardless of what Abraham or any of
his descendants do.

The covenant is reaffirmed to Abraham in Gen 15:1-21, 17:4-21, 22:15-18; to Isaac in Gen 26:3-5,24; and
to Jacob in Gen 28:13-15; 35:9-12.



Although the term covenant does not appear in the 2 Sam 7 passage, later references make it clear that it is
a covenant. For example, in 2 Sam 23:5 David says, For He has made an everlasting covenant with
me. Also cf. Ps 89:3-4, 28; 1 Kgs 8:23; 2 Chron 13:5; 21:7.
In 2 Sam 7:8 God says, I took you from the pasture, from following the sheep, that you should be ruler
over My people Israel. The shepherd imagery is important to understand because it pictures the kings role
as one who leads, guides and protects. This shepherd imagery is developed throughout the rest of the OT
and Christ refers to Himself as the Good Shepherd when He comes (Jn 10:11, 14)


A great name (dynasty) (7:9)

This echoes the Abrahamic Covenant. God promised Abraham a great name. Davids name would be great
because of his kingship and family line that would descend from him.

A place for my people (10)

This looks back to the Abrahamic Covenant which promised security in the land and shows how important
the land promises are in the covenants with Israel. With the Davidic Covenant God promises rest for the
nation in the land of promise.

An eternal kingdom (11-12,16)

Even after Davids death God would perpetuate the kingdom through Davids descendants who would rule
over the kingdom forever.
This also looks back to the Abrahamic Covenant in which God said that kings would come from his
descendants. (Gen 17:6)

A father-son relationship (13-14)

This is obviously talking about human kings because God says he will correct them when they sin, but it
shows that unlike Sauls kingship, which was cut off, this relationship with David and his descendants
would be eternal.
It had immediate application to David who had that intimate relationship with God. Ps 2 and 51. God gave
the Holy Spirit to David to enable him to lead the nation. David prays in Ps 51 that God would not take His
Spirit from him.


The Davidic Covenant is parallel to the Abrahamic in many aspects. And more specifically, it is an
amplification of the Seed aspect of the Abrahamic Covenant and the promise that kings would come from
It guarantees that Israel will always have a king. In particular the Covenant stipulates that that king will
come from the line of David, that his kingdom will ultimately be eternal. 2 Sam 7:13.
The question that arises is this: How can God ever fulfill his promises to a nation that continually rebels
and sins? How can there be rest in the land and an eternal kingdom when God has to keep punishing the
nation by having foreign nations come in defeat Israel and haul them off into exile.
The answer: He has to change the people so that they can obey. That is where the next covenant comes in.



The New Covenant is an extension of the promises made to Abraham and David. And we can see that
Israel plays a key role in the realization of these promises. It says the covenant is made with Israel and
Judah, which indicates that the nation will be reunited. It indicates a future time when the following will


Placing the law in the hearts of the Israelites

Jer 31:32 says that this covenant is not like the one God made with Israel when they came out of Egypt. It
is not like the Mosaic Covenant with its Ten Commandments.

How is it different?

Israel didnt keep that covenant, so God is going to change the people on the inside. He is going to write
His law on their hearts. So, in fact it is like the Mosaic Covenant because it is about living according to
Gods ethic. But it is not like the Mosaic Covenant because it will not be an external law imposed on them.
It will be an internal law. God will enable them to keep His law by giving them the Holy Spirit in a new

New relationship with God

God says,I will be their God and they will be my people. and He says they shall all know Me. This
echoes the promise in the Davidic Covenant of a special relationship with God.
So, the New Covenant is also not like the old covenant because there is no need for the priests to act as
mediators between God and man. Men will have direct access. Hebrews 10 tells us this as an application of
the New Covenant.

Forgiveness of sins

Jer 31:34 says For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more.
Although this is mentioned last, it is the foundation for the entire New Covenant. It is because their sins are
forgiven that God can place the law on their hearts and there can be a new relationship with Him.

Christ spoke of this during the Last Supper and said that the New Covenant was established with his death.
In Luk 22:15-20 Jesus says, This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in My blood. His
death brought the forgiveness of sins and is the foundation for this new relationship with God.



There are 6 I wills in the actual covenant section and then in Jer 31:36-37 God says, Only if these
decrees vanish from my sight (which is impossible), will Israel cease to be a nation. and Only if the
heavens can be measured will I reject the descendants of Israel.
So we see a definite eternal future for the nation of Israel promised here.



We said that there was a Land, Seed and Blessing aspect to the Abrahamic Covenant. The Davidic
Covenant was an amplification of the Seed aspect and the New Covenant is an amplification of the
Blessing aspect of the Abrahamic Covenant.



What are the central issues the covenants are dealing with?



Abraham and his descendants were the immediate recipients of Gods promises. But Israel was not
supposed to horde these benefits. They were to be a light to the Gentiles pointing them to the one true God.



God took a pagan, made a nation that would be a mediator between God and the world. Through Israel all
the world would be blessed. Ex 19:6 says that Israel would be a kingdom of priests. What is the role of the
priest? He is the mediator between God and man.



Many passages in the Old Testament speak of the nations coming to God. Gen 12:3; Isa 2:1-4; 49:6; 61:5-6;
Micah 4:1-5
In practice, from Israelite perception, Gentiles were second class citizens. They were proud that they were
Gods chosen people. They forgot their role in Gods plan because they thought they were better than
everyone else.
Theirs was a redemptive role. Jesus understood that world wide blessing was the point. He understood his
role as the Savior to the world.

Next, we will look at how the Church relates to these covenants. Certainly the Church is the greatest
expression to date of the world-wide blessing promised in the covenants. We can see that many of the
promises made in these covenants, especially the New Covenant, seem to be fulfilled in the Church. After
all, we do have the forgiveness of sins, the special relationship with God through the indwelling of the Holy
Spirit, etc.

Some of the questions that arise are: What about Israel? What about all those land promises God made to
Israel? Is there a future for Israel or has the Church replaced Israel? Thats what we will discuss in the next