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,

Introductory Sessions for the


AC Design Guide, 2003
Edition

24 March 2003 and 28 March 2003


(Speakers - Ir K.F. Lau & Ir S. H. Mak)
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

INTRODUCTION
By Ir K.F.Lau

Produced by Members of AC SSG A, B


and C
Four Parts A, B, C and D
Aimed for Health, Safety and Energy
Efficiency
Achievement of Environmental Targets of
ArchSD
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE


AC DESIGN GUIDE
By Ir S.H.Mak

Part A - Scope and General Requirements


Statutory Requirements, Regulations,
and Standards

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Part B - Basic Design and System Fundamental
Basic Refrigerating Principles and System
Components
Design Criteria and Fundamental Refrigeration
Systems
Cooling and Heat Load Survey and Calculation

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

Application of Psychrometric Chart,

Diagram 1: A typical recirculation air


conditioning system: Summer operation

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

Diagram 2: A typical recirculation air


conditioning system: Winter operation

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

Diagram 3: Year round operation with free


cooling

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Pump and Piping Design
Air Distribution System and Duct Sizing
Mechanical Ventilation, with worked Examples

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Part C - System Design - System and
Equipment Selection
Refrigeration Machine / System
Pumping system
Chilled / Hot water distribution system
Refrigerant distribution system
Air distribution system and fan selection

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Fresh air handling system
Automatic control components / System - open
protocol, energy efficiency
Noise and Vibration Control, with worked example
Environmental and Energy Efficient Design
Quick Reference of Design Data - load, power,
outdoor air, Vair
General Rule of Thumb for ACMV Design builders works, IAQ, ee

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Part D - Computer Software / Design Tool Kits
with proven design application being used by
BSB
Cooling Assessment / Calculation (E20-II & Load
700)
Carriers Water Piping Design Program
Carriers Duct Design Program

Carriers Design Load Program

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

RISK ASSESSMENT AND SAFETY


CONSIDERATION FOR AC DESIGN GUIDE
Location of plant/MCC - access, flooding, water
leaking, power/source interruption, ACH,
illumination etc
Automatic Recleanable HEPA filter - shooting
range
Eye Washing, shower / toilet and changing
facilities for BSU
Marking / fence for moving parts and HV
machines
Working platform - FRP design
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Hoisting facility and SWL test
Pipe greater than 300mm installed under
raised floor
Segregation for electrical and water services
Air flow/ACH consideration for Isolation
rooms / lab.
Access for delivery of heavy parts /
materials - refrigerant

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

PLANT ROOM LAYOUT AND


BUILDERS WORK REQUIREMENT
Adequate Space for O & M - access, workshop,
toilet
Electricity source/Txs located near load centre
Area requirement at initial design stage, 2-4%
GFA for AC
Detailed space requirement for AC plant room,
BS/GN113,16.11.2001
Access of Motor Control Center and U/G sea
water pump house
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Reduce AHU room noise transmission
IAQ control for AHU room / A/C plant room Paint
Cooling towers - cleaning water point, bleed
off/drain
Provision for emergency repairs - access hole in
slab
Provision of DG store

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

AIR DUCT AND PIPEWORK DESIGN


CONSIDERATION
Internal Lining for Acoustic Treatment - Avoided
Flanged for duct joints
Use long radius bends for pipeworks
GI supports, duckfoot support
Use prefabricated pipe and duct c/w insulation

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Infinite source air distribution system
MAIN DISTRIBUTION HEADER
Air Pressure = K .Constant Static Head Pressure is maintained through variable
speed

A1

Motorized
volume control
damper controlled
by the room
thermostat

Branch Air Duct


Ao

To Air

Conditioned Space

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ENERGY EFFICIENCY /
CONSERVATION DESIGN
Energy Conservation Measures in Design Building Envelope,
OTTV
Energy Conservation Measures in the AC Design - total energy
heat pump, VSD, metering, CO2 sensor / DCV, Zoning,
thermo/moving sensor

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Total energy heat pump

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Use water cooled condenser for heat rejection
Use heat pump for central / domestic water heating,
e.g. hospital
District cooling / heating
Waste heat reclaim via heat exchanger, heat recovery
chiller

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Heat Recovery Chiller

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Fan Power Floor Panel System and Displacement
Ventilation

AC Code/ Guide of EEO, EMSD, 1998 Edition


ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

DESIGN CONSIDERATION FOR


BETTER IAQ
8-hour average
Parameter

Indoor Air Quality Design


Objectives

Unit

Premier

Standard

Class

Class

Objectives Objectives
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

ppm

< 900

< 1,200

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

ppm

< 1.8

< 8.7

Respirable Suspended Particulate (RSP)

micron gram /m3

< 50

< 180

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

micron gram /m3

< 80

< 150

Ozone (O3)

micron gram /m3

< 50

< 120

Formaldehyde (HCHO)

micron gram /m3

< 30

< 100

Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) micron gram /m3

< 300

< 3,000

Bq/m3

< 150

< 200

Radon (Rn)
Airborne Bacteria

cfu/m

< 500

< 1,000

Room Temperature

20 25.5

---

Relative Humidity

40 70

---

Air Movement

m/s

< 0.2

---

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)

Part 3 :

Project Design Details

3.1 Design methodology in achieving the various IAQ parameter


Please indicate special design process other than those proposed below:IAQ Parameters

Treatment and Conditioning

Please v

Remarks/Other

Process

if apply

Treatment
Process

dioxide
Dilution by outdoor air
IAQ Undertaking Design Carbon
Carbon monoxide
Dilution by outdoor air
Form and Associated
Respirable Suspended Particulate Filtration
Electrostatic Precipitation
Particulate
Design Methodologies Nitrogen dioxide Electronic air cleaner
Ozone

Dilution/purging by outdoor air


Activate carbon Filter

Formaldehyde

Electronic air cleaner

Total Volatile

Electronic air cleaner

Organic Compound
Radon

Purging by outdoor air


Activate carbon filter

Airborne Bacteria

Germicidal Ultraviolet Sterilizer

Room Temperature

Heating / cooling

Relative Humidity

Dehumidifier / Humidifier

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
A.

Basic Steps Taken to Achieve the IAQ Objectives


A.1

Get the air conditioning design right

_______

A.2

Get the air conditioning installation right

_______

Please state reasons for non-compliance and other measures, if any, to compensate for the
non-compliance. Indicate with NA for not applicable.
B.

Essential Steps in the Air Conditioning Design to Achieve the IAQ Objectives

B.1

Provide adequate outdoor air to sustain healthy environment


and to dilute contaminants

_______

B.2

locate outdoor intakes as high level above ground as practicable

_______

B.3

Provide adequate air treatment and conditioning

_______

(please specify the way of achievement in separate sheets)


B.4

Provide comfort air conditioning by achieving the followings:


- Temperature :
20 25.5 oC
_______
- Humidity Control:

40 70% RH

_______

- Noise Level :

NC35 NC45

_______

Please state reasons for non-compliance and other measures,

if any,

to

compensate for the non-compliance. Indicate with NA if not applicable.

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
C. Energy Conversation Measure in the Air Conditioning Design
C.1

Specify Energy Efficiency Requirements

_______

Please list out minimum COP/efficiencies for major equipment in separate sheets
C.2

C.3

Waste Heat Reclaim


- Condenser waste heat reclaim

_______

- Exhaust air waste heat reclaim

_______

Please state type of equipment to be adopted with variable speed drives in separate
sheets

C.4

_______

Please indicate method to adopt demand control ventilation, use separate sheets if
required

_______

Please state reasons for non-compliance and other measures, if any,


compensate for the non-compliance. Indicate with NA if not applicable.
3.3

Other design applications, use separate sheet(s) if applicable

Project Building Services Officer

to

_________

__________________________________
Name in Block Letter and Signature

date _______

** please delete where not applicable, put NA for not applicable items

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
The Requirements of Occupational Safety and Health
Ordinance (OSHO)
IAQ Undertaking Design Form and Associated Design
Methodologies
Guideline on Calculation of Outdoor Air Rate
Pressurization of building for better control of ingress of
untreated air
Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger (Heat Pipe Coils) for RH
Control
Spot Ventilation and Displacement ventilation for Kitchen
Area - cooking/washing: 24C to 26 C, 55% to 62% RH;
outdoor air: 8L/s /person; exhaust air: 7.5L/s/m2

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
Free Air Cooling - Air Purging, Optimizing Energy
Efficiency at mild seasons

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ENVIRONMENTAL TARGET AND


OBJECTIVES
Cooling / heating load > 400kW Central Plant use
HRM - 75% projects
IAQ equipment for specific projects, e.g. hospitals,
RCP, markets - 80%
Zero ozone-depleting refrigerants for machine <
35kW - 90% projects
*Zone control with occupancy sensor - 70%
projects

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)
*CO2 sensor to control to optimize OA below
800ppm - 85% projects
*Water-cooled heat rejection for central AC
system in WSD zone 60%
* Pre-insulated pipework - 40% projects
* BSB Environmental Targets for Year 2003, BSB
Circular 4/2003 - data collection form input

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

(contd)

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

DESIGN / PROJECTS
ADOPTED IN ARCHSD

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

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OEA

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[]

[]

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

( / )

OEA
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND LIFE


CYCLE COSTS
Capital Costs
Heat recovery unit
Associate control
Ductwork connection
Filter
Increase fan size for additional pressure drop
Reduce size for cooler or heater
Reduce refrigeration plant size

ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS AND LIFE


CYCLE COSTS
Annual Costs
Savings in energy for cooling and heating
Additional fan energy consumption
Energy consumption of ancillary equipment,
e.g. motor for thermal wheel
Maintenance cost
Interest, r
NPV analysis discount factor 1/(1+r)n
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT

Question
&
Answer
~Thank You~
ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES DEPARTMENT