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Polynomials and Polynomial


Functions
Identify term, constant, polynomial, monomial, binomial,
trinomial, and the degree of a term and of a polynomial.
Define polynomial functions
Review combining like terms.
Add polynomials
Subtract polynomials
Recognize the graph of a polynomial function from the
degree of the polynomial.

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Term
A TERM is a number or the product of a number and
one or more variables raised to powers.
Ex:
Coefficient is the numerical factor of the term
Ex: -12

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a number

x, y

Monomial: An expression that is a constant, a


variable, or a product of a constant and
variable(s) that are raised to whole number
powers.
Multiply a
number and a
variable

Exponent cant be negative!


Exponent cant have fractions!

Is the given expression a monomial:

18

0.4a b
Yes

Yes
When an equation in one variable is solved the answer is a point on a line.

4x

3
x

No

No

Coefficient of a monomial: The numerical


factor in a monomial.
Degree of a monomial: The sum of the
exponents of all variables in a monomial.

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Identify the coefficient and degree of each monomial:

8p

-m

C: 8
D: 2

C: -1
D: 1

C:one18
When an equation in
variable is solved the answer is a point
C:.
2 on a line

18

23 a 5

6.7uv

D: 0

23 =

C:
D: 5

-6.7
D: 3

2
C: 16
D: 0

Identify Polynomials
A Polynomial is a finite sum of terms in which all
variables are raised to nonnegative integer powers
and no variables appear in any denominator
Polynomial

Not Polynomial

4 x y 7 xz
5

2
5 x 2 x
3
3

5x 2x
6
5x 1
2
x

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Slide 5- 7

Polynomial: A monomial or an expression that


can be written as a sum of monomials.
Examples: 4x, 4x + 8,

2x2 - 5xy + 8y

Polynomial in one variable: A polynomial in


which every variable term has the same
variable.
Example: x2 5x + 2

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Binomial: A polynomial containing two terms.

Trinomial: A polynomial containing three terms.


Degree of a polynomial: The greatest degree of
any of the terms in the polynomial.

Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Identify the type of polynomial and the degree:

4ab

Monomial
D: 3

4n3 3n 1

- 9x 2 z

Binomial
D: 2

x 3 9 x2 x 4

When an equation in one variable is solved the answer is a point on a line.

Trinomial
D: 3

6
8y
x
Not a polynomial

Polynomial
D: 3

22j3 5j2 16j4 21 14 j


Polynomial
D: 4

Evaluate each of the following:

2x y for x 1, y 4
-2(-1)2(4) = -8

n2 n 3

for n 4

(-4)2 (-4) 3 = 16 + 4 3 = 17

a2b

for a 1, b 2

- (-1)2 (2) = - (1)(2) = -2

Writing a Polynomial in Descending Order of Degree


Place the highest degree term first, then the next
highest degree, and so on.

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Write the polynomial in descending order.


2 x 5 7 x 2 x3 4 x 4

4 x 4 x 3 7x 2 2x 5

Objective 2: Define Polynomial


Functions
You can use function notation to represent
polynomials.
EX: P ( x) 3 x 2 2 x 5

This function is called a polynomial function because


the expression is a polynomial.

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Cont.
EX: P(3), substitute 3 for every variable x.

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Objective 3: Review combining like


terms
Terms that are considered to be like terms if they
contain exactly the same variables raised to exactly
the same powers.
Like Terms

Unlike Terms

5 x 2 , x 2

4 x 2 ,3x

7 xy z, 2 xzy
3

12 x 2 y 3 , 2 xy 3

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Combine like terms and write the resulting polynomial


in descending order of degree.
4 x3 6 x 2 3x 3 7 4 x x 3 3 6 x
8 x 3 6 x 2 2x 4

6 a5 2a 2b 3b 1 3a5 3b a 2b
2a 5 3a 2 b 5

Objective 4: Adding Polynomials


To add polynomials, remove the parentheses and
group like terms.

(7 x y xy 11) (6 x y 4)
3

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Cont.
Example 2

(3a b 2a 5) (a b 5)
3

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Cont.
Example 3 & 4:

(4 x y xy 5) (6 x y 1)
2

(2m4 n 5n 1) (m m4 6)

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Objective 5: Subtracting Polynomials


The definition of subtraction of real numbers can be
extended to apply to polynomials. To subtract a
number, we add its opposite.

Ex: a b = a + (- b)
Ex: (4x + 2) (3x 3 ) = (4x + 2) + (-3x + 3)
**To subtract a polynomial, add its opposite. Or
DISTRIBUTE the negative.**

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Cont.
Example 1

(3x 2 4 x 7) (3x 2 2 x 5)
(3x 2 4 x 7) (3x 2 2 x 5)

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Cont.
Example 2 & 3

(7 x 8 x x) (9 x x 18)
4

(12 z 12 z z ) (3z z 12 z )
5

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Slide 5- 23

Summarize the steps in each:


Adding Polynomials

Subtracting Polynomials

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Summarize each
Degree of a Term

Degree of a Polynomial

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Summarize each term and an


example of each:
Polynomial

Monomial

Binomial

Trinomial
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Classify the expression 3x 2 y 3 5.

a) Monomial
b) Binomial
c) Trinomial
d) None of these

5.2

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Slide 5- 27

Classify the expression 3x 2 y 3 5.

a) Monomial
b) Binomial
c) Trinomial
d) None of these

5.2

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Slide 5- 28

Evaluate 3x 5x 8 when x = 3.
3

a) 118
b) 10
c) 10
d) 134

5.2

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Slide 5- 29

Evaluate 3x 5x 8 when x = 3.
3

a) 118
b) 10
c) 10
d) 134

5.2

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Slide 5- 30

Identify the degree of the polynomial.


6 x3 5 x 2 y 4 8 x 6 y 4 y 5
a) 3
b) 5
c) 6
d) 7

5.2

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Identify the degree of the polynomial.


6 x3 5 x 2 y 4 8 x 6 y 4 y 5
a) 3
b) 5
c) 6
d) 7

5.2

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