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4.

Intro:

What did the Leaders expect about the Messiah

Jewish Messianic expectations before the First Century B.C.

1.
Up till now, we have been studying the messianologies that were common between the
Maccabaean revolt and the revolt of Simon ben Kosiba (c.165 BCE - c.140 CE). We have seen that there
were several types (military leader; sage; high-priest; 'prophet like Moses') and that several literary motifs
could be used to describe the Messiah: for example, Balaam's prophecy, son of David, branch, son of man,
and prince.
However, there were clear contradictions. Sometimes, the Messiah is a warrior, sometimes he is a man of
peace. Daniel 7:14 describes the triumphant son of man coming with power, but Isaiah 42.3 states that he
does not even break a bruised read. Daniel 7:13 has him arriving over the clouds, but Zechariah 9:9 states
that he will be riding a donkey.
To make sense of such contradictory messianic notions, the sect at Qumran speculated that there were two
or perhaps even three Messiahs (more). A question that we have not systematically explored, is: what was
the Messiah expected to do?\
To a certain extent, the answer is easy: the Messiah(s) would restore Israel. Adherents of the military
messianology expected that the son of David would throw out the Romans and restore Israel politically;
others believed that he would give the true interpretation of the law and inaugurate Israel's ethical revival;
still others hoped for cultic reforms and a cleaning of the temple by the true high-priest; and there must
have been people who combined these expectations.
The age before the coming of the Messiah is usually likened to a stay in the desert; like Moses, the Messiah
will lead the faithful into the promised land. Isaiah's appeal to 'prepare the way of the Lord in the
wilderness' (40.3) was probably understood as messianic, although this is not easy to prove. It is not certain
whether 4Q176, which announces that Jerusalem will be comforted, assumes the Messiah's ministry, but
Mark 1.2-3 can certainly be interpreted as messianic. Moreover, it is probably no coincidence that Theudas,
the Egyptian prophet and an anonymous prophet led their followers through the desert.

2. The Hebrew Scriptures. . . certainly do contain some extremely important passages that were implicitly
messianic, such as Psalm 2; 2 Samuel 7; Isaiah 7, 9, and 11; Zechariah 9; and Dan 9:26. These passages
may be defined as "messianic" so long as this adjective is not used to denote the prediction of an apocalyptic, eschatological "Messiah."
3. These scriptures were interpreted with precisely this messianic connotation by Jews during the two
centuries before the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple in 70 C.E.
4. The noun, term, or title "the Messiah" appears rarely in the literature of Early Judaism or from roughly
250 B.C.E. to 200 C.E. But it is also true that in the whole history of Israel and Pre- Rabbinic Judaism "the
Messiah" appears with unusual frequency and urgency only during this period, especially from the first
century B.C.E. to 135 C.E.
The proposition that the O.T. contains a large number of predictions concerning the Messiah to come, and
that these are fulfilled in Jesus Christ, may be Scriptual in substance, but it hardly though in form. The
Bible offers very few predictions save the form of promises or threatinings.
***See Appendix A for list of Jewish literature sources fro Messianic themes

Biblical Messianic Expectations before the First century B.C


1.
It is commonly believed in some scholarly circles that there was
no clear messianic idea in Israel until the postexilic period or even
until second century BC. However this approach to messianic texts
assumes that the OT did not read itself in a messianic way1
2.
From 800 B.C. and on, Jewish prophets started to turn their
attention away from the troubled times of the present to a future
promise where a Davidic King would bring in universal peace.2
3.
As you know the Jews were in Israel for around 1,000 years
before Jesus appeared. They had a definite concept of what the Messiah
would be like3
4.
The ideas of the trinity and the incarnation, or certainly the
germs of those ideas, were already present among Jewish believers well
before Jesus came on the scene.4
5.
Rather than contending for a messianic doctrine that results from
a number of scattered predictions throughout the OT, the OT presents
the concept of the Messiah and His work in the context of a n eternal
plan, which was unfolded before the eyes of Israel and the watching
world.5
a.

The Promise of the Messiah

God first introduced this Promise in Genesis


i.

To Satan Genesis 3:15

And I will put enmity


Between you and the woman,
And between your seed and her seed;
He shall bruise you on the head,
And you shall bruise him on the heel.
ii.

Then Eve carries this on = Genesis 4:1

Now the man had relations with his wife Eve, and she
conceived and gave birth to Cain, and she said, I have
gotten a manchild with the help of the Lord.
iii.

Then to Lemach Genesis 5:28-29

1
The Messianic Hope- is the Hebrew Bible really Messianic? by Michael Rydelnick, Published by B&H Publishing, Nashville, TN
2010 (p. 47)
2
The Messiah Texts-Jewish legend of Three Thouand Years by Raphael Patai, published by Wayne State University Press, Detriot,
MI 1979 (p. Introduction xxiii)
3
You take Jesus, Ill Take God, by Samuel Levine Hamorah Press, 1980 p. 12
4
The Jewish Gospels- The story of Jesus Christ by Daniel Boyarim published by Perseus Distribution 2012 p. Forward vxii. Daniel
Boyarim is a prominent Conservative Jewish scholar who is considered one fo the greatest rabbinic scholars in the world
5
The Messiah ion the Old Testament by Walter Kaiser Jr, published by Zondervan Publishing Grand Rapids, MI 1995 p. 28

Lamech lived one hundred and eighty-two years, and became


the father of a son. 29 Now he called his name Noah,
saying, This one will give us rest from our work and from
the toil of our hands arising from the ground which the
Lord has cursed.
iv.

To Noah Genesis 9:25-27

24 When Noah awoke from his wine, he knew what his youngest
son had done to him. 25 So he said,
Cursed be Canaan;
[l]A servant of servants
He shall be to his brothers.
26 He also said,
Blessed be the Lord,
The God of Shem;
And let Canaan be [m]his servant.
27 May God enlarge Japheth,
And let him dwell in the tents of Shem;
And let Canaan be [n]his servant.
v.

To Abraham Genesis 12:13

Now the Lord said to Abram,


Go forth from your country,
And from your relatives
And from your fathers house,
To the land which I will show you;
2 And I will make you a great nation,
And I will bless you,
And make your name great;
And so you shall be a blessing;
3 And I will bless those who bless you,
And the one who curses you I will [d]curse.
And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.
God gave the promise to Abraham, and through him to all of
mankind, a promise eternally fulfilled and fulfilling in
the history of Israel, amd chiefly fulfilled in Jesus
Christ, He being that which is principal in the history of
Israel.6
The N.T. writers named this single plan or development the
promise. About 40 passages may be cited from almost every
part of the N.T. which contains this word Promise as the

Willis J. Beecher, The prophets and the Promise, (1905) reprint, Grand Rapids: Baker
Books House 1975) p. 178

quintessence of the O.T. teachings. Moreover, there is only


one promise, it is a single plan.7
6 But now I am standing trial because of my hope in the
promise made by God to our ancestors. 7 Our twelve tribes
hope to attain to that promise as they fervently worship
God day and night; and on account of this hope I am accused
by Jews, O king.
(Acts 26:6-7)
13 It was not through the law that the promise was made to
Abraham and his descendants that he would inherit the
world, but through the righteousness that comes from faith
(Romans 4:13)
13 When God made the promise to Abraham, since he had no
one greater by whom to swear, he swore by himself,
(Hebrews 6:13)
b.

The Prophecies for Messiah in Judaism

According to Green8 there are 38 references in the Hebrew Bible


to a messiah (=anointed one). Of these 38 references:
2 apply to the patriarchs
6 to the high priest
1 to Cyrus
29 to the Israelite king (mostly to Saul and then to David or an
unnamed Davidic monarch)
The messianic expectations in the Jewish and Christian
faiths are traced back to God's covenant with King David (2
Samuel 7:14) and the aftermath of exile and cessation of the
Davidic dynasty. Hope arose that God would someday restore a
godly king to Israel.Isaiah foretold the coming of a "child" and
"son" who "will be named Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Eternal
Father, Prince of Peace," and whose kingdom will never end (Is
9:6-7). Again Isaiah prophesied the coming of a Branch of David,
on whom the Spirit of God will rest, who will rule the earth with
justice and equity (Is 11:1-5).
In the intertestament period (ca 400 b.c. to the birth of Christ)
several passages of Old Testament Scripture are interpreted in
light of this messianic hope. Besides Isaiah 11:1-5, Genesis
49:10 ("The scepter will not depart from Judah or the staff from
between his feet.") and Numbers 24:17 ("A star will come from
Jacob, and a scepter will arise from Israel") are often appealed
to. 9

Walter C. Kaiser, Jr., Toward and Old Testament Theology, Zondervan Publishing House,
Grand rapids, MI 1978
8
9

Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era, by


http://www.christianitytoday.com/edstetzer/2012/march/closer-look-messianic-expectations.html

Predictions regarding the Promised One's Identity:

Messenger

Verse

Jacob, 2000 BCE

Gen 49:10

Balaam,1500 BCE
Moses, 1500 BCE

Num 24:17
Deut 18:18

Nathan/David, 1000 BCE


David. David, 1000 BCE
Lord. David, 1000 BCE

I Chron 17: 11-14


Psalm 110
Psalms 2

Isaiah, 700 BCE

Isaiah 9:6

Isaiah, 700 BCE

Isaiah 11:1

Isaiah, 700 BCE


Isaiah, 700 BCE

Isaiah 40:10
Isaiah 42:1

Isaiah, 700 BCE


Isaiah, 700 BCE

Isaiah 49:6; 52:13


Isaiah 59: 15-17

Isaiah, 700 BCE


Isaiah, 700 BCE

Isaiah 59:20
Isaiah 61:1-3

The Prediction
He will be a scepter, a ruling
authority
He will be the Star of Jacob
He will be "like Moses,"
who was a Deliverer, a
Miracle Worker, a Leader,
a Judge, a Mediator of a
covenant between God
and man
He will be a son of
He will be David's
He is called Jehovah's
Annointed, Jehovah;s Son
He will be known as a
the Mighty God, the
Everlasting Father, the
Prince of Peace. Child, a
Son, Wonderful
Councelor
Called a Rod, a Branch of
Jesse
Called the Lord God.
Called God's Servant, His
Elect One
Called God's Servant
Called a man, an
intercessor, brought by
Jehovah
Called a Redeemer
Called an anointed
preacher, a proclaimer
Called a Righteous Branch
of David, a King, and the
Lord our Righteousness
Called a shepherd and a
prince forever
Called Son of Man

Jeremiah, 600 BCE

Jeremiah 23:5-6

Ezekiel, 575 BCE

Jeremiah 33:15
Ezekiel 37:24-25

Daniel, 550 BCE

Daniel 7: 13-14

Daniel, 550 BCE


Zechariah, 500 BCE

Daniel 9:25
Zechariah 9:9

Called Messiah the Prince


Called Israel's King

Micah, 700 BCE

Micah 5:2

He will have existed from


old, from everlasting

Messianic Prophecies
i.

Gen 49:10

The scepter shall not depart from Judah,


Nor the rulers staff from between his feet,
Until Shiloh comes,
And to him shall be the obedience of the peoples
until Shiloh comes: [This refers to] the King Messiah, to whom the
kingdom belongs (
), and so did Onkelos render it: [until the
Messiah comes, to whom the kingdom belongs].
At the time of Jesus this was a very clear Messianic passage. The
passage starts out with Jacob telling his son what will happen in the
later days, which Jewish people took as when God would redeem the Jews,
hense the messianic overtures by the writers of the Septuagint and
Targums
***Shiloh is usually interpreted as Peaceful one
ii.

Numbers 24:17

I shall see him, but not now: I shall behold him, but not nigh: there
shall come a Star out of Jacob, and a Sceptre shall rise out of Israel,
and shall smite the corners of Moab, and destroy all the children of
Sheth.
A star has gone forth: As the Targum [Onkelos] renders, an expression
similar toHe has bent (
) his bow (Lam. 2:4), for a star shoots out
like an arrow; in old French, destent, as if to say, his good fortune
shall rise [prosper]
and a staff will arise: A king who rules dominantly.
which will crush the princes of Moab: This refers to David, of whom it
says,he laid them on the ground and measured two cord-lengths to put
to death (II Sam. 8:2). - [Mid. Aggadah]
This other Passage found in the Penteteuch is adding to the reference
in Gen 49:10, where this ruler from Jacob will rule with a Sceptre
Mightly against our enemies the Moabites, Edomites and Canaanites
iii.

(De 18:18)

I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like unto
thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak unto them
all that I shall command him
iv.

2 Samuel 7:12-16

When your days are complete and you lie down with your fathers, I will
raise up your descendant after you, who will come forth from fnyou, and
I will establish his kingdom He shall build a house for My name, and I
will establish the throne of his kingdom forever. Your house and your
kingdom shall endure before fnMe forever; your throne shall be
established forever.

v.

Psalm 2, 45, 72

The kings of the earth take their stand


And the rulers take counsel together
Against the LORD and against His Anointed, saying,
begotten you: to be called My son and to be beloved to Me as a son for
their sake, as it is stated (II Sam. 7:14) concerning Solomon: I will
be to him a father, and he shall be to Me a son. We find further
concerning David (Ps. 89:27) He shall call Me, You are my Father, my
God, and the Rock of my salvation.
Your throne, O judge, [will exist] forever and ever; the scepter of
equity is the scepter of your kingdom
Your throne, O judge: Your throne, O prince and judge, shall exist
forever and ever, as the matter that is stated (Exod. 7:1): I have
made you a judge ( )over Pharaoh. And why? Because a
scepter of equity is the scepter of your kingdom, that your judgments
are true, and you are fit to govern.
May his name be forever; before the sun, his name will be magnified,
and [people] will bless themselves with him; all nations will praise
him.
will be magnified: Heb. , an expression of kingdom and dominion, as
(Prov. 29:21): he will ultimately be a ruler (( ; )Gen. 21:23),
and to my son ( ), who rules over my property after me; (below
74:8), They said in their heart, their rulers ( )together" ; their
kings together.
vi.

Isaiah 9:6-7

For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government
shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful,
Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of
Peace.Of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no
end, upon the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to order it, and
to establish it with judgment and with justice from henceforth even for
ever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this
And our Rabbis said: The Holy One, blessed be He, wished to make
Hezekiah the Messiah and Sennacherib, Gog and Magog. Said the
ministering angels before the Holy One, blessed be He, Should the one
who stripped the doors of the Temple and sent them to the king of
Assyria, be made Messiah? Immediately, Scripture closed it up.
vii.

Isaiah 11:1-5

And there shall come forth a rod out of the stem of Jesse, and a Branch
shall grow out of his roots: And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon
him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and
might, the spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD

And a shoot shall spring forth from the stem of Jesse: And if you say,
Here are consolations for Hezekiah and his people, that they shall not
fall into his hands. Now what will be with the exile that was exiled to
Halah and Habor, is their hope lost? It is not lost! Eventually, the
King Messiah shall come and redeem them
viii. Ezekiel 34:26
And I shall put up over them one shepherd and he will shepherd them,
namely My servant David; he will shepherd them, and he will be for them
as a shepherd.
My servant David: A king [who will come] from his descendants.
ix.

Micah 5:2

But as for you, Bethlehem Ephrathah,


Too little to be among the clans of Judah,
From you One will go forth for Me to be ruler in Israel.
His goings forth are from long ago,
From the days of eternity.
from you shall emerge for Me: the Messiah, son of David, and so
Scripture says (Ps. 118:22): The stone the builders had rejected
became a cornerstone
x.

Daniel 7:13-14

I kept looking in the night visions,


And behold, with the clouds of heaven
One like a Son of Man was coming,
And He came up to the Ancient of Days
And was presented before Him.
And to Him was given dominion,
Glory and a kingdom,
That all the peoples, nations and men of every language
Might serve Him.
His dominion is an everlasting dominion
Which will not pass away;
And His kingdom is one
Which will not be destroyed.
one like a man was coming: That is the King Messiah.
xi

Zech 9:9

Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion!


Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem!
Behold, your king is coming to you;
He is just and endowed with salvation,
Humble, and mounted on a donkey,
Even on a colt, the foal of a donkey.

and Zech 9.9...If the Israelites are deserving, he [messiah] will come
with the clouds of heaven; if they are not deserving, poor and riding
on a donkey..."
Xii

Zech 14:9

And it shall be one day that shall be known to the Lord, neither day
nor night; and it shall come to pass that at eventide it shall be
light.
And it shall be one day: And this thing shall be one day of the day of
the Holy One, blessed be He. That day shall be known, that
it is for the preparation of the salvation by the Holy One,
blessed be He
neither day: Neither [will it be] a light of splendor, like the light
of the world to come, as it is stated (Isa. 30: 26): The
light of the sun shall be sevenfold as the light of the
seven days.
Xiii

Malachi 4:5-6

Lo, I will send you Elijah the prophet before the coming of the great and
awesome day of the Lord, that he may turn the heart of the fathers back
through the children, and the heart of the children back through their
fathers-lest I come and smite the earth with utter destruction.

c.
The Program,elaborated in the Books of Isaiah, Jeremiah and
Ezekiel.10
-End of world (before everything as follows).
-God redeems Israel (i.e. the Jewish people) from the
captivity that began during the Babylonian Exile, in a new
Exodus
-God returns the Jewish people to the Land of Israel
-God restores the House of David and the Temple in
Jerusalem
-God creates a regent from the House of David (i.e.
the Jewish Messiah) to lead the -Jewish people and the
world and usher in an age of justice and peace
-All nations recognize that the God of Israel is the
only true God
-God resurrects the dead
-God creates a new heaven and a new earth
The Jewish tradition of The Messiah has its foundation in
numerous biblical references, and understands The Messiah to be
a human being without any overtone of deity or divinity who
will bring about certain changes in the world and fulfill certain
criteria before he can be acknowledged as The Messiah.
First of all, he must be Jewish you may appoint a king
over you, whom the L-rd your G-d shall choose: one from among
your brethren shall you set as king over you. (Deuteronomy
17:15)
He must be a member of the tribe of Judah The staff
shall not depart from Judah, nor the sceptre from between his
feet (Genesis 49:10)
He must be a direct male descendant of King David and King
Solomon, his son And when your days (David) are fulfilled, and
you shall sleep with your fathers, I will set up your seed after
you, who shall issue from your bowels, and I will establish his
kingdom. He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm
the throne of his kingdom forever (2 Samuel 7:12 13)
He must gather the Jewish people from exile and return them
to Israel -And he shall set up a banner for the nations, and
shall assemble the outcasts of Israel, and gather together the
dispersed of Judah from the four corners of the earth. (Isaiah
11:12)
He will rule at a time of world-wide peace they shall
beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruning
hooks; nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither
shall they learn war anymore. (Micah 4:3)
10

"Jewish Eschatology". Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 1 May 2012.

10

He will rule at a time when the Jewish people will observe


G-ds commandments My servant David shall be king over them;
and they shall all have one shepherd. They shall follow My
ordinances and be careful to observe My statutes. (Ezekiel
37:24)
He will rule at a time when all people will come to
acknowledge and serve one G-d And it shall come to pass that
from one new moon to another and from one Sabbath to another,
shall all flesh come to worship before Me, says the L-rd (Isaiah
66:23)
Appendix A: What Must a Messiah Do? century BCE Psalms of Solomon
One of the Pseudepigrapha,[1] the Psalms of Solomon is a group of
eighteen psalms (religious songs or poems) that are not part of any
scriptural canon (they are, however, found in copies of the Peshitta
and the Septuagint).[2] The 17th of the 18 Psalms is similar to Psalm
72 which has traditionally been attributed to Solomon, and hence may be
the reason that the Psalms of Solomon have their name. An alternate
view is that the psalms were so highly regarded that Solomon's name was
attached to it to keep them from being ignored or forgotten
The Messiah must do the following:
destroy unrighteous rulers [17:21]
purge Jerusalem of gentiles [17:21]
destroy all unlawful nations [17:24]
condemn and destroy the wicked [17:25; 17:27]
gather the righteous people together and lead them [17:26]
judge peoples and nations [17:29]
remove the alien and the foreigner from righteous Jews [17:28]
make Gentile nations subservient [17:30]
glorify the Lord from a prominent place above the whole earth [17:30]
make Jerusalem a holy city [17:30]
encourage nations to visit Jerusalem, to see the glory of the Lord
[17:31] Jews from the Diaspora will return [17:31]
The Messiah must be:
a son of David [17:21]
a righteous king [17:32]
the Lord Messiah { The Lords Messiah} [17:32]
subject to God as his king [17:34]
compassionate to all the subservient nations [17:34]
free from sin [17:36]
exhibit understanding, strength and righteousness [17:37]

11

d.

The Prospective Messiah

Early Messianic Figures


a.

Enoch

Enoch walked with God; and he was not, for God took him.
( Gen 5:24)
And He the (Head of Days) came to me (Enoch) and greeted me with his
voice, and said unto me: You are the Son of Man ( i.e. The Messiah)
(1 Enoch 71:14-17)
b.

Moses

The LORD your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among
you, from your countrymen, you shall listen to him
(Deut 18:15)
The Midrash literature on Moses speaks of the 'First' and the 'Last'
Saviours. Midrash Rabbah on Ecclesiastes relates how R. Berechiah said
in the name of R. Yits .hak, who lived before the year 300 AD, that:

"Just as there was a First Saviour so there will be a Last. Just as it


is said of the First Saviour (Ex. 4:20) that 'He took his wife and
sons and put them on a donkey', so it is said of the Last Saviour
that 'He is lowly and riding on a donkey'(Zech. 9:9). As the First
Saviour provided manna (Ex. 16), as it is written, 'Behold I will
pour out bread from heaven upon you,' so will the Last Saviour, as
it is written (Ps. 72:16), 'Let corn abound throughout the land'.
Just as the First Saviour opened a fountain, so the Last Saviour
will provide water, as it is written (Joel 3:18), 'A fountain will
flow out of the LORD'S house'."
(Midrash Qoheleth Rabbati 1.)
c.

Hezekiah

And many were bringing gifts to the LORD at Jerusalem and choice
presents to Hezekiah king of Judah, so that he was exalted in the sight
of all nations thereafter
( II Chron 32:23)
For a child will be born to us, a son will be given to us;
And the government will fnrest on His shoulders;
And His name will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.
( Isaiah 9:6)
R. Johanan said: Since the days of Hezekiah, for it is said, Of
the increase of his government and of peace there shall be no end, upon
the throne of David, and upon his kingdom, to establish it, and to
uphold it with judgement and with righteousness for henceforth even for
ever. The zeal of the Lord of hosts shall perform this. (Shab. 55)
d.

Cyrus

It is I who says of Cyrus, He is My shepherd!


And he will perform all My desire.'
And fnhe declares of Jerusalem, She will be built,'

12

And of the temple, Your foundation will be laid.'


( Isaiah 44:28)
Thus says the LORD to Cyrus His anointed,
Whom I have taken by the right hand,
To subdue nations before him
And fnto loose the loins of kings;
To open doors before him so that gates will not be shut:
( Isaiah 45:1)
This saith the Lord to His Anointed (Messiah) to Cyrus ( Isaiah 45:1).
Was then Cyrus the Messiah? No, but the Holy One, blessed be He, said
to the Messiah: I complain to you about Cyrus. I said he should rebuild
My House (The Temple) and gather in My exiles, but (all he did was to)
say: Whosover there is among you of all His peoplelet him go up to
Jerusalem ( Ezra 1:3)
Before the Common Era
a.
Judas Maccabeus (167-160 BCE), leader of a
successful revolt against Antiochus' Seleucid empire. Many
considered him the Messiah because he freed the Jews from
foreign domination[4] and many of the events in his life
paralleled the prophecies in Daniel chapter eight.[5]
b.
Simon of Peraea (c. 4 BCE), a former slave of
Herod the Great, who rebelled and was killed by the Romans.
c.
Athronges (c. 4-2? BCE), a shepherd turned
leader of a rebellion with his four brothers against Herod
Archelaus and the Romans after proclaiming himself the
Messiah.[6] He and his brothers were eventually
defeated.[7]
1st century
a.
Judas of Galilee (6 CE), Judas led a violent
resistance to the census imposed for Roman tax purposes by
Quirinius in Iudaea Province around 6 CE. The revolt was
crushed brutally by the Romans.

13

APPENDIX A
The Septuagint (LXX) translation of the OT. [LTJM:121]
Gen 49.10 (Hebrew):The scepter will not depart from Judah, nor the ruler's staff from
between his feet, until he comes to whom it belongs and the obedience of the nations is his. WITH
the LXX version: A ruler shall not fail from Judah, or a prince from his loins, until there come the
things stored up for him; and he is the expectation of the nations.
Num 24.7 (Heb): Water will flow from their buckets; their seed will have abundant water.
"Their king will be greater than Agag; their kingdom will be exalted. WITH the LXX version:
There shall come a man out of his seed, and he shall rule over many nations; and the kingdom of
God shall be exalted, and his kingdom shall be increased.(!)
Num 24.17 (Heb): "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near. A star will come
out of Jacob; a scepter will rise out of Israel. He will crush the foreheads of Moab, the skulls of all
the sons of Sheth. WITH the LXX version: I will point to him, but not now; I bless him, but he
draws not near: a star shall rise out of Jacob, a man shall spring out of Israel; and shall crush the
princes of Moab, and shall spoil all the sons of Seth.
Ps 72.5,7 (Heb): He will endure as long as the sun, as long as the moon, through all
generations....In his days the righteous will flourish; prosperity will abound till the moon is no
more. WITH the LXX version: And he shall continue as long as the sun, and before the moon
forever...In his days shall righteousness spring up; and abundance of peace till the moon be
removed.
Ps 110.3 (Heb): Your troops will be willing on your day of battle. Arrayed in holy
majesty, from the womb of the dawn you will receive the dew of your youth. WITH the LXX
version: With thee is dominion in the day of thy power, in the splendors of thy saints: I have
begotten thee from the womb before the MorningStar.
Is 9.6 (Heb): For to us a child is born, to us a son is given, and the government will be on
his shoulders. And he will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince
of Peace. WITH the LXX version: For a child is born to us, and a son is given to us, whose
government is upon his shoulder: and his name is called the Messenger/Angel of the Great
Council. (cf. the Targum: "the Angel of the Face"!)
Jewish Pseudepigrapha references to OT passages
[Note: Charlesworth, OTP, in loc., calls this a 'mosaic of eschatological expectations' involving
Num 24.17, Mal 4.2, Ps 45.4 (LXX), Is 53.9, Is 11.2, Is 61.11, Joel 3.1, and all the 'branch'
passages--Is 11.1; Jer 23.5; 33.15; Zech 3.8; 6.12!]
Dead Dea Scrolls references to OT passages
4QFlor (Florilegium, 4Q174) frags 1-3, col I, v10ff: And [2 Sam 7.12-14 cited] 'YHWH declares to you
that he will build you a house. I will raise up your seed after you and establish the throne of this
kingdom for ever. I will be a father to him and he will be a son to me'... This refers to the branch
of David who will arise with the Interpreter of the law who will rise up in Zion in the last days, as
it is written [Amos 9.11 cited here] 'I will raise up the hut of David which has fallen'...This refers
to the 'hut of David which has fallen' who will arise to save Israel..."

4Q252 frag 1, col5): [on Gen 49.10]: "A sovereign shall not be removed from the tribe of Judah.
While Israel has the dominion, there will not lack someone who sits on the throne of David. For
the staff is the covenant of royalty, the thousands of Israel are the feet. Until the messiah of

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justice comes, the branch of David. For to him and to his descendants has been given the
covenant of royalty over his people for all everlasting generations..."
[The LXX read "man" for "scepter" in Num 24.17, and Philo interprets "man" as a warrior]
Targums (List compiled by Alfred Edersheim)
The Targums. [The word 'messiah' occurs in the following places (with the exception of the Ezek
passages)...source: S.H. Levey, The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation, Monograph of the
Hebrew Union College 2: Cincinnati: 1974.--cited with chart at NWNTI:108.]
Gen 3.15 (Pseudo-Jonathan): "They are destined to make peace at the end, in the days of King
Messiah"
Gen 3.15 (Frg.): "They will make peace with one another in the end, in the very end of days, in the
days of King Messiah"
Gen 3.15 (Neof.):
Gen 35.21 (Ps.-J): "And Jacob moved on, and pitched his tent onward to the tower of Eder, the
place whence the King Messiah is destined to reveal himself at the end of days"
Gen 49.1 (Ps.-J): "As soon as the date of the End when the King Messiah would arrive was
revealed to him..."
Gen 49.1 (Frg.): "For he was revealing to them all that was going to occur at the very end, the time
of the Messiah."
Gen 49.10-12 (Onq.): "The transmission of dominion shall not cease from the house of Judah, nor
the scribe from his children's children, forever, until the Messiah comes, to whom the Kingdom
belongs, and whom nations will obey."
Gen 49.10-12 (Ps.-J): "Kings and rulers shall not cease from the house of Judah, nor scribes who
teach the Torah from his seed, until the time when the King Messiah shall come, the youngest of
his sons, and because of him nations shall melt away....How beautiful is the King Messiah who is
destined to arise from the house of Judah...How beautiful are the eyes of King Messiah, as pure
wine!"
Gen 49.10-12 (Frg.): "Kings shall not cease from the house of Judah, nor scribes who teach the
Torah from his children's children, until the time of the coming of King Messiah, to whom belongs
the Kingdom, and to whom all dominions of the earth shall become subservient...How beautiful is
he, King Messiah, who is destined to arise from the house of Judah....How beautiful to behold are
they, the eyes of the King Messiah..."
Gen 49.10-12 (Neof.):
Exod 12.42 (Frg.): "Moses shall go forth from the wilderness and the King Messiah from Rome..."
Exod 12.42 (Neof.):
Exod 17.16 (Ps.-J): "from the generation of this world, and from the generation of the Messiah,
and from the generation of the World-to-Come."
Exos 40.9-11 (Ps.-J): "...and consecrate it for the crown of the kingdom of the house of Judah and
King Messiah, who is destined to redeem Israel at the end of days...and from whom is to descend
the Messiah son of Ephraim, by whose hand the house of Israel is to vanquish God and his
confederates at the end of days."
Num 11.26 (Frg.): "At the end, the very end of days, Gog and Magog and their armies shall go up
against Jerusalem, but they shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah."
Num 11.26 (Neof.):
Num 23.21 (Ps.-J): "The Memra (word) of the Lord their God is their help, and the trumpet-call of
the King Messiah echoes in their midst."
Num 24.7 (Frg.): "Their king shall arise from among them, and their deliverer shall be of them and
with them...Exalted shall be the kingdom of the King Messiah."
Num 24.7 (Neof.):
Num 24.17-24 (Onq.): "I see him, but not now; I behold him, but he is not hear; when a king shall
arise out of Jacob and be anointed the Messiah out of Israel."
Num 24.17-24 (Ps.-J): "...but when a mighty king of the house of Jacob shall reign, and shall be
anointed Messiah, wielding the mighty scepter of Israel....to wage war against Israel, in the days of
the King Messiah...and those shall fall by the hand of the King Messiah..."

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Num 24.17-24 (Neof.):


Deut 25.19 (Ps,-J.): "Even unto the days of King Messiah, you shall not forget."
Deut 30.4-9 (Ps.-J.): "and from there he shall bring you near by the hand of the King Messiah..."
I Sam 2.7-10: "He shall give strength to His king, and shall make great the kingdom of His
Messiah"
I Sam 2.35: "I will raise up before Me a trustworthy priest, who shall minister according to My
word and My will, and I will establish for him an enduring reign and he shall serve my Messiah all
the days."
2 Sam 22.28-32: "and the deliverance which Thou shalt perform for Thy Messiah and for the
remnant of Thy people..."
2 Sam 23.1-5: "...Said David, the son of Jesse, said the man who was anointed to the Messianic
Kingship by the Memra of the God of Jacob...God spoke to me...and He decided to appoint for me
a king, he is the Messiah, who is destined to arise and rule in the fear of the Lord..."
1 Kgs 5.13: "who were destined to rule in this world and in the world of the Messiah"
Isa 4.1-6: "At that time the Messiah of the Lord shall be a joy and an honor..."
Isa 9.5-6: "The Prophet announced to the house of David that: 'A boy has been born unto us, a son
has been given unto us, who has taken the Torah upon himself to guard it; and his name has been
called by the One who gives wonderful counsel, the Mighty God, He who lives forever; 'Messiah',
in whose day peace shall abound for us."
Isa 10.24-27: "...and the nations shall be shattered before the Messiah."
Isa 11.1-16: "And a king shall come forth from the sons of Jesse, and the Messiah shall be
anointed from among his children's children. And upon him shall rest the spirit of divine prophecy,
the spirit of wisdom and sagacity, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and fear
of the Lord...In the days of Israel's Messiah, peace shall abound in the land; the wolf shall dwell
with the lamb..."
Isa 14.29-30: "...for the Messiah shall come forth from the descendants of Jesse..."
Isa 16.1-5: "They shall send tribute to the mighty Messiah of Israel...Then the Messiah of Israel
shall establish his throne in goodness, and shall occupy it in truth, in the city of David, judging,
demanding justice and doing righteousness."
Isa 28.5-6: "At that time the Messiah of the Lord of Hosts shall be a wreath of joy..."
Isa 42.1-9: "Behold, My servant, the Messiah, whom I bring near, My chosen one, in whom my
Memra takes delight; I will place My holy spirit upon him, and he shall reveal My law to the
nations..."
Isa 43.10: "'You are My witnesses before Me', says the Lord, 'and My servant is the Messiah,
whom I have chosen..."
Isa 52.13-53.12: "Behold, My servant the Messiah shall prosper; he shall be exalted and great and
very powerful...It is the will of the Lord to purify and to acquit as innocent the remnant of his
people, to cleanse their souls of sin, so that they may see the kingdom of their Messiah..."
Jer 23.1-8: "'Behold, days are coming,' says the Lord, 'when I will raise up for David a righteous
Messiah, and he shall reign as king..."
Jer 30.8-11: "But they shall worship the Lord their God and obey the Messiah, the son of David,
their king, whom I will raise up for them..."
Jer 30.21: "Their king shall be anointed from them, and their Messiah shall be revealed from
among themselves..."
Jer 33.12-26: "...the people shall yet rehearse the words of the Messiah...In those days and at that
time, I will raise up for David a righteous Messiah..."
Ezek 17.22-24: "Thus says the Lord God, 'I Myself will bring near a child from the dynasty of the
house of David, which is likened to the tall cedar, and I will raise him up from this children's
children; I will anoint him and establish him by My Memra like a high and exalted mountain."
Ezek 34.20-31: "I will set up over them one leader who shall provide for them, My servant
David..."
Ezek 37.21-28: "And my servant David shall be king over them; and they shall all have one
leader; and they shall walk in My laws and shall keep my statutes and observe them...and David
my servant shall be their king forever..."

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Hos 3.3-5: "After that the children of Israel shall repent and seek the worship of the Lord their
God, and they shall obey the Messiah, the son of David, their king, and he shall direct them to the
worship of the Lord..."
Hos 14.5-8: "They shall be gathered in from their Dispersion, shall live in the shade of the
Messiah..."
Mic 4.8: "And you, O Messiah of Israel, who have been hidden away from the sins of the
congregation of Zion, the kingdom is destined to come to you..."
Mic 5.1-3: "And you, O Bethlehem Ephrath (sic), you who were too small to be numbered among
the thousands of the house of Judah, from you shall come forth before Me the Messiah, to exercise
dominion over Israel, he whose name was mentioned from before, from the days of creation."
Hab 3.17-18: "...which Thou shalt perform for Thy Messiah and for the remnant of Thy people..."
Zech 3.8: "Behold, I bring My servant, the Messiah, who is to be revealed."
Zech 4.7: "For He shall reveal His Messiah, whose name was called from the beginning, and he
shall have dominion over all the kingdoms."
Zech 6.12-13: "Behold the man whose name is 'The Messiah.' He is destined to be revealed and to
be anointed, and he shall build the Temple of the Lord..."
Zech 10.4: "Out of him comes his king, out of him comes his Messiah..."
Ps 18.28-32 [ET 27-31]: "...Thou shalt perform for Thy Messiah..."
Ps 21.1-8: "O Lord, the King Messiah shall be happy in Thy strength...for the King Messiah trusts
in the Lord..."
Ps 45.7-18: "Your beauty, O King Messiah, surpasses that of ordinary men..."
Ps 61.7-9 [ET 6-8]: "Days in addition to the days of the World-to-Come are the days of the King
Messiah...and on the day that the King Messiah is anointed king."
Ps 72.1-20: "O God, give the King Messiah the laws of Thy justice, and Thy righteousness to the
son of King David....
Ps 80.15-18 [ET 14-17]: "And the stock which Thy right hand planted and upon the King Messiah
who Thou hast made strong for Thyself..."
Ps 89.51-52: "...they have scoffed at the delay of the footsteps of Thy Messiah, O Lord"
Ps 132.10-18: "...there I will make sprout a glorious king for the house of David; I have prepared a
lamp for My Messiah..."
Song 1.8: "...until I send the King Messiah..."
Song 1.17: "...in the days of the King Messiah..."
Song 4.5: "...and the Messiah the son of Ephraim..."
Song 7.4: "Your two deliverers who are destined to deliver you, the Messiah the son of David and
the Messiah the son of Ephraim..." (!)
Song 7.12-14: "...And when it shall be the will of the Lord to deliver His people from the
Dispersion, He shall say to the King Messiah:..."
Song 8.1-4: "And at that time the King Messiah will be revealed to the congregation of Israel...I
will conduct you, O King Messiah...The King Messiah will say: ..."
Ruth 1.1: "...from the day on which the world was created until the coming of the King Messiah,
by which to chastise those who dwell on the earth..."
Ruth 3.15: "...David, Daniel and his companions, and the King Messiah..."
Lam 2.22: "Mayest Thou proclaim liberty to Thy people on the house of Israel by the hand of the
King Messiah..."
Lam 4.22: "...you shall be delivered by the hands of the King Messiah..."
Qoh 1.11: "...that are to follow among the generations that shall be during the days of the King
Messiah."
Qoh 7.24: "...and of the day of death and of the day when the King Messiah will come who can
find it out by his wisdom?"
Esth (II) 1.1: "The ninth is that of the Messiah the son of David" (the targumist explained that
Ahasuerus was the 6th of 10 kings--and he detailed the ten).
1 Chr 3.24: "...and Anani, who is the King Messiah who is destined to be revealed..."

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The Talmuds--Babylonian (with the "b.") and Jerusalem (with the "y")
y.Tan'anit 4.8 [68d 48-51] : "R. Simeon ben Yohai said: R. Akiba my teacher used to explain the
passage, 'a star shall go forth from Jacob' (Num 24.17) thus: Kosiba goes forth from Jacob. Again
when R. Akiba saw Bar Kochba, he cried out, 'This is the king, the Messiah'....Rabbi Yohanan b.
Torta answered him: 'Akiba, grass will grow out of your cheek-bones and the Son of David will
still not have come.'" [Although this passage, in the ref. to Bar Kochba, is obviously post-NT, it is
the messianic expectation that obviously pre-dates this encounter. And the expectation on the part
of Akiba--a major contributor to the Mishnah--seems rather well-developed.]

y. Ketubot 12.3: "the dead will first come to life in the time of the Messiah"

b. Ber. 28b: "Remove all vessels lest they be rendered unclean, and prepare a throne for Hezekiah,
who is to come"

b. Hag. 14a: Rabbi Aquiba explains the thrones of Dan 7 as "one for Him, and one for David"--this was
understood messianically for the next millennium! (He is also rebuked by a competitor rabbi for
this interpretation in b. Sanh. 38b.!)

b. Sanh. 98a: "Rabbi Alexandrai said: Rabbi Jehoshua ben Levi contrasted Dan 7.13...and Zech 9.9...If
the Israelites are deserving, he [messiah] will come with the clouds of heaven; if they are not
deserving, poor and riding on a donkey..."

b. Sanh. 99a: "And this is what a certain Min said to R. Abahu, 'When will the Messiah come?' He said
to him, 'When darkness hath covered these men.'..."

b. Sukkah 52: "the slaying of the Messiah the son of Joseph" (explaining Zech 12.10--"they will
look on him whom they pierced.")

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