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UNIT V

Z- TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS


PART - A

Problem 1 What is the Z- transform of discrete unit step function?


Solution: Discrete Unit step function is
u n 1, n 0

0, n 0

Z u n 1.z n 1 z 1 z 2 ..
n0

1
if z 1 1
1
1 z
z
if z 1
z 1

1
Problem 2 Find Z n .
2
1
1
1
1 1
Solution: Z n n z n 1 z 1 2 z 2 3 z 3
2
2
2
2 0 2
1
1
1
1
2 3 ...
2 z 4z 8z

Problem 3 Find Z u n 1 .
Solution:

n 0

n 1

Z u n 1 u n 1 z n u n 1 z n

z n
n 1

1 1 1
....
z z 2 z3

1 1 1

1 2 ....

z z z

1 1
1
if z 1
1
z z z 1

Problem 4 Find the Z- transform of unit impulse function?


Solution: Unit impulse function is
n 1, n 0

0, n 0

Z n n z n z 0 1 .
n 0

Problem 5 Find Z n k .


1
Solution: Z n k n k z n z k k .
z
n0

Problem 6 If Z f n U z then Z a n f n ___________


n
Solution: Z a n f n a n f (n) z n f n a / z U z / a .
Problem 7 If Z f n U z , then show that Z f n k z kU z
Solution:

Z f n k f n k z n z k f n k z
0

n k

z k f r z r z kU z
0

f n
1
Problem 8 IF z f n U z , then Z
z U z dz .
n
Solution:

f n f n n
z n
n 1
Z
z f (n) z dz ,
since
z n 1dz

n
0
n 0 n

f n z n 1dz z 1 f n z n dz
0

z 1 U z dz .

Problem 9 If Z f n U z , then Z n f n __________


Solution:
Z nf n nf n z n z nf n z n 1
d
d
d
=- z f n z n z f n z n z U z .
dz
dz
dz
Problem 10 State initial and final value theorem of Z - transform.
Solution: Initial value Theorem
Limit
Limit
If Z f n U z , n 0 then
f n f 0
U z
z
n0
Final value Theorem
Limit
Limit
If Z f n U z , n 0
f n
z 1U z
n
z 1
Problem 11 Define convolution of two sequences f n and g n
n

Solution: f n * g n f m g n m
m0

Problem 12 Find Z a n 3 .
z/a
z
Solution: Z a n 3 a n 3 z n a 3 Z a n = a 3 Z a n. .1 a 3
a3
1
z/a
za
Problem 13 Z yn 2 __________.

Solution: Z yn 2 z 2 y z y0 y1 z 1

z
Z 1

z 1 z 2

z
Solution: Let
U z
z 1 z 2

Problem 14 Find

Then

U z

z
z 1 z 2
z 2, 1 B

A
B

z 1 z 2

z 1, 1 A
U z
1
1

z
z 1 z 2

z
z

z 1 z 2
u n 1 2 n 2 n 1
Problem 15 Write the formula to find the inverse Z- Transform using residue method.
Solution: The inverse Z-Transform of U z is given by the formula
U z

un

1
2 i

U z z

n 1

dz

= Sum of residues of U z z n 1 at the poles of U z which are inside the


contour C drawn according to the region of convergence given.

PART-B
Problem 16 Find Z n p where is p is positive integer and hence find Z n and Z n 2
Solution:

Z n p n p z n
n 0

z n.n p 1 z n 1
n0

z n p 1 nz n 1
n0

z n p 1
n 0

d n
z
dz

d p 1 n
n z
dz n 0
d
z z n p 1
dz
Put p = 1
z 11 z.1
d
d z
Z n z Z 1 z
z
2
dz
dz z 1
z 1
z

z 1 z

z 1

z 1

z 1

Put p = 2
Z n2 z

d
d z
Z n z

dz
dz z 12

z 1 2 1 z 2 z 1
z
z
z 1 z 1 2 z

4
4
z 1

z 1
z
z2 z

3
3
z 1
z 1

Problem 17 Find Z e an cos n .


Solution:

z
z 1
n
z
Z e in Z e i

z e i

We know that Z 1

Z e

in

z z ei
z
z ei z ei z ei

z z cos i sin z z cos iz sin


2

z 2 2 z cos 1
z z ei e i 1

z z cos
z sin
i 2
z 2 z cos 1 z 2 z cos 1
equating real and imaginary parts,
z z cos
Z cos n 2
z 2 z cos 1
z cos n i sin n

Z e an cos n Z e a cos n

using the property


Z a nun U az
Z e

an

cos n

ze a ze a cos

ze

a 2

2 ze a cos 1

ze a ze a cos

ze

a 2

2 ze a cos 1

1
1
Problem 18 Find Z and Z
.
n
n 1
Solution:
2
3
1 1 n 1 1 1 1 1
Z z ....
z 2 z 3 z
n n 1 n

1
z 1
z
log 1 log
log

z
z
z 1
1 1 n
Z
z

n 1 n0 n 1
2

11 11
1 ....
2 z 3 z
1 1 1 2 1 1 3
z ..
z 2 z 3 z

1
z 1
z log 1 z log

z
z

z
z log

z 1

Problem 19 Find Z-transform of f n where f n


Solution:
Let

2n 3
.
n 1 n 2

2n 3
A
B

n 1 n 2 n 1 n 2
2n 3 A n 2 B n 1
n 1, 1 A A 1
n 2, 1 B B 1

2n 3
1
1

n 1 n 2 n 1 n 2

2n 3
1
1
Z
Z
Z

n 1
n 2
n 1 n 2
1
z
Now Z
z log
refer problem.3
n 1
z 1
1 1 n
Z
z

n 2 n 0 n 2
2

1 11 11
....
2 3 z 4 z
1 1 1 1 3

z 2 ....
2 z 3 z

1 1
z 2 log 1
z z

z 1
z 2 log
z
z
z 1
z 2 log
z
z

2n 3
z 2
z
Z
z log
z log
z
n

1
n

2
z

1
z

z
z z 1 log
z.
z 1
Problem 20 Find the Z-transform of a n cosh bn .
Solution:
ebn e bn
Z a n cosh bn z a n

1
Z a n ebn Z a n e bn

2
n
n
1
Z eb a n Z e b a n

2
n
n
1
Z aeb Z ae b

2
1 z
z

b
2 z ae
z ae b
z 1
1

b
2 z ae
z ae b
b
b
z z ae z ae

2
2 z a eb e b z a 2

b
b
z 2z a e e

2
2 z a eb e b z a 2

z
2 z 2a cosh b
2

2 z 2a cosh b z a 2

z a cosh b
z 2
2
z 2az cosh b a

3
n 1 2 z z .
,
Show
Z
3

z 13
z 1
Solution: Using shifting theorem,
Z un 1 z U z u0

Problem 21 Using Z n 2

Z n2
Hence,

z2 z

z2 z
U z,
z 3

un n 2
u0 0

z2 z
z3 z 2
2
Z n 1 z

0
.

3
2

z 1
z 1
2 z 2 3 z 12
Problem 22 If U z
, find u2 and u3 .
4
z 1
Solution: we have

lim it
lim it 2 z 2 3 z 12
u0
U z
0
z
z z 1 4
lim it
lim it 2 z 2 3 z 12
z U z u0
0 0

z
z z 14

u1
u2

lim it
z

z 2 U z u0 u1 z 1

lim it 2 2 z 2 3 z 12
z
0 0 2
4
z z 1

u3

lim it
z

z 3 U z u0 u1 z 1 u2 z 2

2 z 2 3 z 12
2
z3
00 2
4
z z 1
z
4
2
4
3
2
lim it 3 2 z 3 z 12 z 2 z 4 z 6 z 4 z 1

z
4
z
z 2 z 1

lim it
z
11z 3 8 z 2 11.

4
z z 1

lim it

Problem 23 Prove that Z n cos n

z
z

3
2

z cos 2 z 2
2 z cos 1

Solution: We know that


z z cos
Z cos n 2
(refer problem2)
z 2 z cos 1
Also we have the property,

d
U z
dz
d z z cos
Z n cos n z 2

dz z 2 z cos 1
Z nun z

d z 2 z cos
dz z 2 2 z cos 1

(z
z

2 z cos 1) 2 z cos z 2 z cos 2 z 2 cos

2 z cos 1

2 z 3 z 2 cos 4 z 2 cos 2 z cos2 2 z

z
2

z 2 z cos 1 cos 2 z 3 2 z 2 cos 2 z 2 cos 2 z cos2

2 z cos 1

z 2 cos cos 2 z

z 2 z cos 1
z

z 3 cos z cos 2 z 2
2

3
2

z cos 2 z 2
2 z cos 1

Problem 24 State and prove convolution theorem for Z-transform.


Solution: Statement
If Z 1 U z un and z 1 V z vn , theorem
n

Z 1 U z V z um vn m un * vn
m0

Where * denotes the convolution operation.


Proof:

n 0

n 0

We have U z un z n and V ( z ) vn z n

U z v z u0 u1 z 1 u2 z 2 ...un z n ... *

v1 z 1 v2 z 2 ....vn z n ...

u0 v0 u0 v1 z 1 u0 v2 z 2 u0 v3 z 3 ....u0 vn z n ...
u1v0 z 1 u1v1 z 2 u1v2 z 3 u1u3 z 4 ....
u2 v0 z 2 u2 v1 z 3 u2 v2 z 4 u2u3 z 5 ....
un v0 z n un v1 z

n 1

un v2 z n 2 ....

u0 v0 u0 v1 u1v0 z 1 u0v2 u1v1 u2 v0 z 2 ..

u0vn u1vn 1 u2 vn 2 .. un v0 z n
n 0

Z u0vn u1vn 1 u2 vn 2 ... un v0


Z un * vn .
Z 1 U ( z )V ( z ) un vn

z2
Problem 25 Use convolution theorem to evaluate Z 1
.
z 1 z 3
Solution:
z
z n
1
We know that Z 1
z 1 and Z
3
z

z
1
3

Now

z2
z
1 z
Z 1
.
Z
z 1 z 3
z 1 z 3
n

1 3n 1.3n m 3n 3 m
m 0

m 0
n 1

1
1 3n 1 3n 1 / 3n 1
1
n
n 3
3 3

1
1 3 / 3
m 0 3
1
3
n 1
n 1
1 3
3 1
.

2
2
n

z
Problem 26 Use convolution theorem to evaluate Z
.
z

Solution:
3

z z 2
1 z
1
Z
Z


z 1
z 1 z 1
1

10

z
We know that z 1
1
z 1
2

1 z
1 z z
Z
Z
.

z 1 z 1
z 1
n

1*1 1*1 n 1
m 0

z 3
z z 2
1
Z 1


z 1
z 1 z 1
2

1 z
1 z
Z
*
Z


z 1
z 1
1* n 1
n

m 0

m 0

m 0

1 n m 1 n 1 m
n n 1
2
n n 1
n 2 2n 1
2
2
2
2n 4n 2 n n n 2 3n 2

.
2
2

n 1 n 1

Problem 27 Find the inverse Z-transform of f z

4z

z 1

by long division method.

Solution:

4 z 1 8 z 2 12 z 3 16 z 4

z 2 2 z 1)4 z
4 z 8 4 z 1
8 4 z 1
8 16 z 8 z 2
12 z 1 8 z 2
12 z 1 24 z 2 12 z 3
16 z 2 12 z 3
16 z 2 32 z 3 16 z 4

11

4z

z 1

4 z 1 8 z 2 12 z 3 16 z 4 ....

4 z 1 2 z 2 3z 3 ...

n 1

n 1

4 nz n 4n z n
un 4n.

z
Problem 28 Find Z 1
by long division method.
z
z

Solution:

z
z
Z 1
2
z 1 z 2 z 3 z 2
z 1 3 z 2 7 z 3
z 2 3z 2 )

z
z 3 2 z 1
3 2 z 1
3 9 z 1 6 z 2
7 z 1 6 z 2
7 z 1 21z 2 14 z 3
15 z 2 14 z 3

z 1 z 2

z 1 3 z 2 7 z 3 ...

2 n 1 z n
n 1

u n or un 2 n 1.

8z 2
by partial fraction method.
Problem 29 Find Z 1 2
8 z 6 z 1
Solution:

8z 2
Let U z 2

8z 6 z 1

12

U z
8z
8z
A
B
2

z
8 z 6 z 1 2 z 1 4 z 1 2 z 1 4 z 1
8 z A 4 z 1 B 2 z 1
1
1
z , 2 B B 4
4
2
1
z , 4 A 1 A 4.
2
U z
1
1

4
4
z
2z 1
4z 1
1
1
4
4
1
1

2 z
4 z
2
4

1 1
Un 2 .
2 4
n

1 1 1 1
/
2 2 4 2
21 n 4 n.

n 1

1

4

z
Problem 30 Find Z 1
using the method partial fraction.
2
z 1 z 1
z
U z
2
z 1 z 1
U z
A
B
C
1

2
2
z
z 1 z 1 z 1 z 1 z 1
1 A z 1 B z 1 z 1 C z 1
2

1
2
1
z 1, 1 4 A A
4
z 1,

1 2C C

z2,

1
0 A B B .
4

13

U z 1 1
1 1
1 1

z
4 z 1 4 z 1 2 z 1
1 z
1 z
1
z

U z
4 z 1 4 z 1 2 z 12

1
1 n 1
n
n
1 1 n 1
4
4
2
1
1 1
n
1 n.
4
4 2

z 2
.
Problem 31 Find Z 1
1
1
1
1 z 1 2 z 1 3z
Un

1
z 2
z2
Solution:
U z

1
1
1
3
1 z 1 2 z 1 3z 1 1 1 2
1
z z z
z

z 1 z 2 z 3
U ( z) / z

A
B
C
1

( z 1)( z 2)( z 3) z 1 z 2 z 3

1 A z 2 z 3 B z 1 z 3 C z 1 z 2
z 2,

1 B B 1
1
z 1,
1 2A A
2
1
z 3,
1 2C C
2
U z 1 1
1
1 1

z
2 z 1 z 2 2 z 3
1 z
z
1 z
U z

2 z 1 z 2 2 z 3
1 n
1 n
n
U n 1 2 3 .
2
2
1
1
2n 3n.
2
2

z 2
1
.
Problem 32 Find Z
1 z 1 2 1 z 1

Solution:

14

U z

U z

1 z 1 z
1 2

1
z2

2
1 1
1

1
z z

z 1 z 1
2

A
B
C

z 1 z 1 z 1 2

z 1 z 1
2
1 A z 1 B z 1 z 1 C z 1
z

z 1, 1 4 A A

1
4

z 1, 1 2c c

z2 , 0 A B
1
2

1
4

z
z n 1
lim it
zn

Re s
z 5

z 5 z 2
z 5 z 2 at z 5 z 5

z
lim it
zn

Re s
z 2

z 5 z 2
z 5 z 2 at z 2 z 2
n 1

U z 1 1
1 1
1 1

4 z 1 4 z 1 2 z 1 2
z
U z

z
1 z
1 z
1

4 z 1 4 z 1 2 z 1 2

1 n 1
1
n
n
1 1 n 1 .
4
4
2
1 1
1
n
n
un 1 n 1 .
4 4
2

un

Problem 33 Find the inverse Z-transform of the function

z
by the method of
z 7 z 10
2

residues.
Solution:

15

z
z

, z 5 and z 2 are two single poles


z 7 z 10 z 5 z 2

U z

z
n 1
Z 1
sum of residues of z U z at the poles of U z which are
z
z

inside the contour C drawn according to the region of convergence given.


un

.
3
3
1
n
n
u n 2 5 .

z2 4z
Problem 34 Find the Z 1
by the method of residues.
2
z 2
Solution:
z2 4z
Let U z
2
z 2
Z = 2 is a double pole
z n z 2 4
n 1
z U z
2
z 2
Re s z U z
n 1

lim it
z2
lim it

z2

at z 2

2
lim it d z n z 4 z 2

2
z 2 dz
z 2

d
z n 1 4 z n

dz
n 1 z n 4n z n 1

n 1 2 n 4n 2n 1
2n
2
n
n
n
n 2 2 2n 2
n.2n 2n 4n

2n n2n
1 n 2n.

2z
by the method of residues.
Problem 35 Find Z 1
2
z 2 z 1
Solution:

16

Let U z

2z
z 1 z 2 1

z n 1U z

2zn
2zn

z 1 z 2 1 z 1 z i z i

z 1, z i and z i are simple poles.

Z 1 U z sum of residues of z n 1U ( z ) at the poles of U(z) inside the desired

contour.

2zn
Z U z sum of residues of
( z 1)( z i )( z i )
1

lim it z 1 2 z n 2

2
z

1
2
z
z

z 1

lim it
2zn
( z i )2 z n
Re s of

z 1 z i z i z i z i z 1 z i z i
2zn
Re s of
z 1 z i z i

2 i
2 i
i

i 1 i i1 i 1 2i i i 1
n

i i i i 1 i
i i 1 i 2 i 1 i 1 i 1 i
n
i 1 i 1 i cos n i sin n

11

similarly
lim it
2zn
2z n
residue of
z i
z 1 z i z i z i z i
z 1 z i z i
2 i
i i i 1 i

2
i 1 2i i i 1 i 1 i 1 i
n

i 1 i n i 1

cos n i sin n

i cos 2 i sin 2

i n cos i sin

2
2

1 i
2z
n
n i 1
n
n

Z 1
cos
i
sin

cos

sin

1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
z 1 z 1
1
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
cos
i sin
i cos
sin
i cos
sin
cos
i sin
1

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

17

1
n
n
2 cos
2sin
1

2
2
2
n
n

.
1 cos
sin
2
2

Problem 36 Find the inverse Z-transform of


3
z
i) log
and ii) z 5 for z 5 by power series method.
z 1
Solution:
z
z 1
1
(i) log
log
log 1
z 1
z
z
1 1 1 1 1


. 3 ...
2
z 2 z 3 z

1 1 1 1 1

. ...
z 2 z 2 3 z 3
un 0 for n 0

otherwise

(ii ) z 5 ; z 5
3

z 5

5
1
z

5
z 1
z

2
3

5 3.4 5 3.4.5 5
z 1 3

...
z 1.2 z 1.2.3 z

1 3.4 2 1 3.4.5 3 1

5 3 ...
z 3 1 3 5
5 2

z 1.2
z 1.2.3
z

3.4 2 5 3.4.5 3 6
z 3 3 5 z 4
5 z 1.2.3 5 z
1.2
3.4.5.... n 1 n 3 n
.......
5 z ..
1.2.3... n 3
un

3.4.5.... n 1 n 3
5
1.2.3... n 3

1
n 2 n 1 5n 3 for n 3
2
0
if n 0.
Problem 37 Form the difference equation corresponding to the family of
curves yx ax b 2 x .
Solution:

18

yx ax b 2 x

(1)

yx 1 a x 1 b 2

x 1

y a b 2 x 1 2 x a b 2 x

(2)

2 y a b 2 x 1 a b 2 x
b2 x
from (3), b

(3)
2 y
2x

sub in (2)
2 y x
2
2x
a y 2 y
y a

sub in (1)
2 y x
2.
2x
1 x 2 y xy or
y x y 2 y
x

1 x yx 2 2 yx 1 yx x yx 1 yx yx 0
. ie x 1 y x 2 3 x 2 yx 1 2 xy x 0
Problem 38 From yn A.3n B.5n , derive a difference equation by eliminating
arbitrary constants.
Solution:
yn A.3n B.5n 1
yn 1 A.3n 1 B.5n 1
yn 1 3 A3n 5.B.5n 2
yn 2 9 A3n 25 B5n 3
Eliminating arbitrary A and B from (1) , (2) and (3).

19

yn 1 1
y

n 1 3 5 0
yn 2 9 25
yn 75 45 1 25 yn 1 5 yn 2 19 yn 1 3 yn 2 0
30 yn 25 yn 1 5 yn 2 9 yn 1 3 yn 2 0
30 yn 16 yn 1 2 yn 2 0
or 2 yn 2 16 yn 1 30 yn 0
or yn 2 8 yn 1 15 yn 0.
Problem 39 Derive a difference equation from the following yn A Bn 3n .
Solution:
yn A Bn 3n
yn A3n Bn3n

(1)

yn 1 3 A3n 3B n 1 3n 2
yn 2 9 A3n 9 B n 2 3n 3
Eliminating arbitrary A and B from (1) , (2) and (3).
n
yn 1

yn 1 3 3 n 1 0
yn 2 9 9 n 2

yn 27 n 2 27 n 1 9 yn 1 n 2 3 n 1 yn 2 n 9 yn 1 3 yn 2 0

yn 27n 54 27 n 27 9nyn 1 18 yn 1 3nyn 2 3 yn 2


9nyn 1 3nyn 2 0
or 3 yn 2 18 yn 1 27 yn 0
or yn 2 6 yn 1 9 yn 0.

Problem 40 Solve the difference equation using Z-transform


yn 2 4 yn 0, y0 0, y1 2.
Solution:
yn 2 4 yn 0
Taking Z transform on both sides

20

Z yn 2 4 z yn 0
z 2 Y z y0 y1 z 1 4Y z 0
z 2 Y z 0 2 z 1 4Y z 0

4Y z 2z

2z
z 4
Y z
1
A
B
2

2z
z 4 z2 z2
1 A z 2 B z 2
Y z

z 2,1 4 B B

1
4

1
4
Y z
1 1
1 1

2z
4 z2 4 z 2
Y z
1 1
1 1

2 z2 2 z2
z
1 z
1 z
Y z

2 z2 2 z2
Taking inverse Z-transform, we get
1
1
1
1
n
n
y n 2 2 n
2 2 n
2
2
2
2
z 2,1 4 A A

n 1

2 n 1.

Problem 41 Solve yn 2 2 yn 1 n with , y0 y1 0 using Z-transform.


Solution:
yn 2 2 yn 1 n
taking z-transform on both sides

21

Z yn 2 2Z yn 1 Z n
z 2 Y z y0 y1 z 1 2 z Y z y0
z 2 Y z 0 0 2 z Y z 0

2z Y z

z 1

z 1

z 1

Y z
1
1
2

2
z
z 2 z z 1 z z 2 z 12

A
B
C
D

z z 2 z 1 z 1 2

1 A z 2 z 1 Bz z 1 Cz z 1 z 2 Dz z 2
2

1
3

z 1,

1 3D D

z 2,

1 18B B

z 0,

1 2A A

z3 ,

0 A B C C A B

1
18

1
2
1 1 9 1

2 18
18

8
4

18
9
Y z 1 1 1 1
4 1
1 1

z
2 z 18 z 2 9 z 1 3 z 12

Y z

1 1 z
4 z
1
z

2 18 z 2 9 z 1 3 z 1 2

1
1
4 n 1
n
n
yn n 2 1 n 1 .
2
18
9
3
Problem 42 Solve y n 3 3 y n 1 2 y n 0, given that

y 0 4, y 1 0, y 2 8 Using Z-transform
Solution:
y n 3 3 y n 1 2 y n 0 . Taking z-transform on both sides

22

Z yn 3 3Z yn 1 2Z yn
z 3 y z y0 y1 z 1 y2 z 2 3 z y z y0

2Y z 0

z 3 Y z 4 0 8 z 2 3 z Y z 4

2Y z 0
Y z z 3 3z 2 8 z 4 z 3 12 z
4z3 4z
Y z
4z2 4
4z2 4
3

z
z 3z 2 z 1 2 z 2
(The other factor of z 3 3 z 2 is z 2 z 2 z 2 z 1
z 3 3z 2 z 1 z 2 )
2

Y z
4z2 4
A
B
C

2
2
z
z 1 z 2 z 1 z 1 z 2

4 z 2 4 A z 1 z 2 B z 2 C z 1
z 1,

0 3B B 0

z 2 12 9c c 12 / 9 4 / 3
z2,

4 AC A 4 4/3 8/3

Y z 8 1
4
1

0
z
3 z 1
3 z2
8 1
4
1
Y z

3 z 1 3 z 2
8 4
n
y n 2 .
3 3

Problem 43 Solve y n 2 4 y n 1 4 y n 0, y 0 1, y 1 0 using


Z- transform.
Solution:
y n 2 4 y n 1 4 y n 0 . Taking z-transform on both sides
Z yn 2 4Z yn 1 4Z yn 0

z 2 Y z y0 y1 z 1 4 z Y z y0 4Y z 0

z 2 Y z 1 4 z Y z 1 4Y z 0

23

z 2 4 z 4 Y z z 2 4 z
z2 4
Y z 3
z 4z 4
Y z
z4
z4
A
B
2

2
z
z 4 z 4 z 1
z 2 z 2 2
z 4 A z 2 B
z 2, 2 B B 2
1 A A 1
z,

Y z
1
2

z
z 2 z 2 2

Y z

2
z

z 2 z 2 2

yn 2n n2 n 2n 1 n .
Problem 44 Solve yn 2 5 yn 1 6 yn 5n , y 0 0, y 1 0 using Z-transform.
Solution:
yn 2 5 yn 1 6 yn 5n .Taking Z-transform on both sides
Z yn 2 5Z yn 1 6 Z yn Z 5n

z
z 5
z
z 2 Y z 0 z 1 0 5 z Y z 0 6Y z
z 5
z
z 2 5 z 6 Y z
z 5
Y z
1
1

2
z
z 5 z 5 z 6 z 5 z 2 z 3
z 2 Y z y0 y1 z 1 5 z Y z y0 6Y z

A
B
C

z 5 z 2 z 3
1 A z 2 z 3 B z 5 z 3 C z 5 z 2

z 3,

1
6
1 2C C 1/ 2

z 2,

1 3B B 1/ 3

z 5,

1 6 A

24

Y z 1 1
1 1
1 1

6 z 5 3 z 2 2 z 3
z
1 z
1 z
1 z
Y z

6 z 5 3 z 2 2 z 3
1
1
1
yn 5n 2n 3n.
6
3
2

Problem 45 Solve un 2 5un 1 6un 2n using Z-transform.


Solution:
yn 2 5un 1 6un 2n .Taking z-transform on both sides
Z un 2 5Z un 1 6Z un Z 2n

z 2 U z u0 u1 z 1 5 z U z u0 6U z

z
z2

z
z
u0 z 2 u1 z 5 zu0
z 2 5 z u0 zu1
z2
z2
2
z
z 5z
z
U z

u0
u
z 2 z 1 z 6 z 2 z 6
z 1 z 6 1
2

5 z 6 U z

U z
z
Now

1
z 5
1

u0
u 1
z 2 z 1 z 6 z 1 z 6
z 1 z 6 1

1
A
B
C

z 2 z 1 z 6 z 2 z 1 z 6

1 A z 1 z 6 B z 2 z 6 C z 2 z 1
z 1,
z 6,

1
21
1 28C C 1/ 28
1 21B B

z 2,

1 12 A A 1/12
1
1 1
1 1
1 1

z 2 z 1 z 6 12 z 2 21 z 1 28 z 6

Now

z 5
A
B

z 1 z 6 z 1 z 6

z 5 A z 6 B z 1
z 6,
z 1,

1
7
6 7 A A 6 / 7

1 7B B

25

z 5
6 1
1 1

and
z 1 z 6 7 z 1 7 z 6
1

A
B

z 1 z 6

z 1 z 6
1 A z 6 B z 1

z 6, 1 7 B B 1/ 7
z 1, 1 7 B B 1/ 7
1
1 1
1 1

z 1 z 6 7 z 1 7 z 6
From (1)
1
1
1
n
un 2n 1 6n
12
21
28
1
n
6
1 6n u0
7
7
1
n
1
1 6n u1
7
7
1
n
n
C1 1 C2 6 2n where
12
6
1
1
C1 u0 u1
7
7
21
1
1
1
C2 u0 u1 .
7
7
28
*******

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