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Interior

What is the Lithosphere?


The

crust and part of the


upper mantle = lithosphere
100

km thick
Less dense than the material
below it so it floats

What is the Asthenoshere?


The

plastic layer below the


lithosphere =
asthenosphere
The plates of the
lithosphere float on the
asthenosphere

CONTINENTAL DRIFT
Alfred Wegner- a
German scientist
hypothesized that
all the continents
had been once
joined together in a
single landmass,
Pangea, and have
since drifted apart.

Evidence
LANDFORMS

FOSSILS
CLIMATE

Pangea- ALL LANDS


The break up
of Pangea

Pangea

Pangea

What is Pangaea?
Pangaea was a supercontinent at one time.
Scientists use the similarity of rock types and
fossil types that date to the same age to support
their theory that the continents were connected
to form a super continent.

Evidence

Continental Drift
This theory was rejected because
Alfred Wegner could not provide a
satisfactory explanation for the force
that pushes or pulls the continents.

Plate Tectonics

What is Plate Tectonics


The

Earths crust and


upper mantle are broken
into sections called plates.
Plates move around on top
of the mantle like rafts.

Plate Types

Oceanic plates:
basalt

Dark (black) and dense


rock type composed of
silicates, iron and
magnesium

Continental
plates granite and
andesite

Light colored (pink,


white and gray) and low
density rock type
composed almost
entirely of silicates.

Plate Boundaries-where two


plates meet

Three Plate Boundaries

1.Divergent Boundaries

Boundary
between two
plates that are
moving apart or
rifting

RIFTING causes
SEAFLOOR
SPREADING

Features of Divergent
Boundaries

Mid-ocean

ridges
rift valleys
fissure
volcanoes

2. Convergent Boundaries
Boundaries

between two
plates that are colliding


There

are 3 types

Convergent Plates

Type 1: oceanic- continental

Ocean plate
colliding with a
less dense
continental plate

Subduction Zone: where


the more dense plate
slides under the less
dense plate
VOLCANOES occur at
subduction zones

Andes Mountains,
South America

Type 2:oceanic-oceanic

Ocean plate colliding


with another ocean
plate

The more dense plate


slides under the less
dense plate creating a
subduction zone called
a TRENCH

Type 3:continental-continental

A continental
plate colliding
with another
continental plate
Have Collision Zones:
a place where folded
and thrust faulted
mountains form.

3. Transform Boundaries
Boundary

between two
plates that
are sliding
past each
other

EARTHQUAKES
occur along faults

San Andreas Fault, CA

What Causes The


Movement of Plate
Tectonics?

Convection Currents

Hot magma in
the Earth
moves toward the
surface, cools, then
sinks again.

Creates convection
currents beneath the
plates that cause
the plates to move.

Which of the following diagrams best illustrates convection


in a liquid?

Plate tectonics cause changes of


landforms on earth. The plates move over
the magma and can cause mountain
formations and even earthquakes. What is
the main force that moves these plates
over the liquid part of the earth?
A. Convection currents
B. Weathering
C. Air Pressure
D. Erosion

Questions...
What

causes plates to move?


How is a convection current
formed?

Changing Earths Surface

Plate Tectonics is the newest and


most accepted theory at this time.

The movement of these plates cause


changes on Earths surface.

Changes to Earths surface

Deformation of the crust


Faults
Mountain building
Land Subsidence
Volcanoes

Volcano locations

Volcanoes

Quiet
lava
flows

Mid-Plate Hotspots

Mid-Plate Hotspots

Earthquakes

Earthquakes

Tsunami

Is a very large sea wave, or series of


waves, produced by underwater earth
quake or volcanic eruption.