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UNIT B

EVOLUTION AND
MOVEMENT OF FASHION
2.02 Summarize the movement and
acceptance of fashion.

Fashion movement:
Ongoing change in what is
considered fashionable.
Fashion: The styles that
are accepted and used by
a particular group of
people at a given time.

Theories of fashion movement


Trickle-down theory
Trickle-up theory
Trickle-across theory

Trickle-down theory
(Downward flow
theory): The
assumption that
fashion trends start
among the upper class
or fashion leaders
and move down to the
masses or fashion
followers.

Trickle-down theory
Worlds oldest and most accepted fashion
theory
Asserts that fashions are accepted by people
of lower socioeconomic income levels only
after they have been worn by people of
upper socioeconomic income levels
These styles are seen on high-fashion
runways.
Jackie Kennedys pillbox hat, Barbara Bushs
pearls, Nancy Reagans red, Hillary Clintons
pantsuits in the office

Trickle-up theory
(Upward flow
theory): The
assumption that
fashion trends start
among the young or
lower income groups
and move upward to
older or higher
income groups.

Trickle-up theory
Style originates with
the lower class and
gains approval by
upper class or the
fashion elite.
Ripped jeans,
leather jackets

Trickle-across
theory (Horizontal
flow theory): The
assumption that
fashion moves
horizontally
through groups at
similar social levels
from fashion
leaders to
followers.

Trickle-across theory
Members of each social group look at the
leaders of their own group for fashion trends.
A leader within each class influences peers or
a leader of one group affects the other group
members.
Example: Designer fashions are copied quickly
for mass production, providing similar styles at
most price ranges. However, they dont
become popular until the fashion leaders of
each group have accepted them.

The fashion cycle


Fashion cycle: The ongoing introduction,
rise, peak, decline, and obsolescence in
popularity of specific styles or shapes.
All styles that come into fashion rotate
through the fashion cycle.
Fashion acceptance can be illustrated using a
bell-shaped curve.

The fashion cycle

(cont.)

The cycles for some styles are exceptions to


the bell-shaped curve.
Flops: Fashions that are introduced and expected
to sell but that are not accepted by consumers.
Fads: Temporary, passing fashions that have great
appeal to many people for a short period of time;
styles that gain and lose popularity quickly.
Classics: Styles that continue to be popular over an
extended period of time even though fashion
changes; styles that remain in fashion year after
year.

Stages of the fashion cycle


Introduction
Rise
Peak
Decline
Obsolescence

Stages of the fashion cycle

(cont.)

Introduction: The first stage of the fashion


cycle when new styles, colors, textures, and
fabrics are introduced.
The new style may be accepted by a small
number of people called fashion leaders.
Promotional activities include fashion shows
and advertising in high fashion magazines.
Fashions are produced in small quantities at
high prices.
Retail buyers purchase limited numbers to
see if the style will be accepted.

Stages of the fashion cycle

(cont.)

Rise: The second stage of the fashion cycle


when consumer interest grows and the fashion
becomes more readily accepted by consumers.
Mass production brings down the price of the
fashion, which results in more sales.
Styles are manufactured in less expensive
materials and in lower quality construction
than the original style.
Promotional efforts are increased in high
fashion magazines to heighten consumer
awareness.
Retail buyers order items in quantity.

Stages of the fashion cycle

(cont.)

Peak (Culmination stage): The third stage of


the fashion cycle during which a style is at
its height of popularity.
The fashion is demanded by almost everyone
because it is now within the price range of
most consumers and is mass produced in
many variations.
Each retailer tries to persuade customers
that its version of the style is the best.

Stages of the fashion cycle

(cont.)

Peak (Culmination stage)


The style may have a long or short stay at
this stage.
Short-run fashions: Styles that are popular
for a brief period of time.
Fads, usually lasting only one season
Accepted and rejected quickly
Teenagers fashions change the fastest and have
the most trends.
Styles are easy for the manufacturer to produce
and are relatively inexpensive to the consumer.
Styles typically have more details than seen in
classics.

Stages of the fashion cycle


Peak (Culmination stage)

(cont.)

Long-run fashions: Styles that take a long


time to complete the fashion cycle.
Classics, basics, and/or staple fashions
Slow introduction, long peak, slow decline
Styles have simple lines, minimal detail.

Stages of the fashion cycle

(cont.)

Decline: The fourth stage of the fashion


cycle when the market is saturated and
popularity decreases.
The fashion is overused and becomes dull
and boring.
As the fashion decreases in popularity,
retailers mark down their prices.
Promotions center around major clearance or
closeout sales of the fashion.

Stages of the fashion cycle

(cont.)

Obsolescence: The fifth stage of the


fashion cycle when the style is
rejected, is undesirable at any price,
is no longer worn, and is no longer
produced.

Lengths of fashion cycles


Cycles have no specific lengths.
Recurring fashions: Styles which have
been in fashion at one time, gone out of
fashion, and come back in fashion again.
Fashion trends seem to recur about every
generation or every 20 to 30 years.

Fashion cycles are less distinct now than


in the past.

Fashion leaders and followers


Fashion leaders: Trendsetters who
have the credibility and confidence to
wear new fashions and influence the
acceptance of new trends.

The first to purchase new styles


Desire distinctiveness and uniqueness
May be innovators and/or influencers.
Royal families, first families, movie stars,
television personalities, athletes, singers,
musicians

Fashion leaders and followers


(cont.)

Fashion followers: Those who accept


and wear a fashion only after it
becomes acceptable to the majority.

Basic principles of fashion movement


Consumer acceptance or rejection establishes
fashion.
Price does not determine fashion acceptance.
Sales promotion does not determine fashion.
Fashion movement is evolutionary rather than
revolutionary.
Fashion extremes cause reversals or abrupt
changes.

Factors that accelerate fashion


movement

Communications and mass media


Good economic conditions
Increased competition
Technological advances
Social and physical mobility
More leisure time
Higher levels of education
Changing roles of women
Seasonal changes

Factors that decelerate fashion


movement
Bad economic conditions
Cultural and religious
customs
Laws or other
governmental regulations
Disruptive world events