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I.

Livingmoresustainably
A.whatisEnvironmentalScience?
Environmentalscienceisthestudyofhowearthworks,howweinteractwiththe
earth,andhowtodealwithenvironmentalproblems.
Ecologyisabiologicalsciencethatstudiestherelationshipsbetweenliving
organismsandtheirenvironment.
B.Sustainability:Theintegrativethemeofthisbook(ScienceandPolitics)
sustainabilityistheabilityofearthsvarioussystems,includinghumancultural
systemsandeconomies,tosurviveandadapttochangingenvironmental
conditionsindefinitely.
Thenaturalresourcesandnaturalservicesthatkeepusandotherspeciesaliveand
supportoureconomiesisreferredtoasnaturalcapital
Naturalcapitalisnotfixedandhaschangedovermillionsofyearsin
responsetoenvironmentalchangessuchasglobalwarming.
wemustbeawareoftherateatwhichhumanactivitiesdegradenatural
capitalbyusingnormallynonrenewableresources.
thesearchforsolutionstoenvironmentalproblemsoftengiverisetoconflicts,
resolvingtheseconflictsrequireustomaketradeoffs.

C.Environmentallysustainablesocieties:Protectingnaturalcapitalandlivingoffits
income
Anenvironmentallysustainablesocietymeetsthebasicresourceneedsofitspeopleina
justandequitablemannerwithoutdegradingordepletingthenaturalcapitalthatsupplies
theseresources.
Ifwedeplete,waste,andsquanderourcapitalwewillbelivingunsustainable
lifestyles.
III.Populationgrowth,economicgrowth,andeconomicdevelopment.
A.Humanpopulationgrowth:slowingbutstillrapid.
Therateatwhichtheworldspopulationisgrowinghasslowed,butthepopulation
isstillincreasingrapidly,anditsunequallydistributedbetweenrichandpoor
countries.
B.Economicgrowthandeconomicdevelopment
Economicgrowthprovidespeoplewithmoregoodsandservices,andeconomic
growthtoimprovelivingstandards.
Economicgrowthismeasuredbythepercentagechangeinacountrysgross
domesticproduct(GDP)
C.Doublingtimeandexponentialgrowth:Theruleof70
howtocalculatehowlongitwouldtaketodoubletheworldspopulationor
economicgrowth:70/percentagegrowthrate=doublingtimeinyears.

III.Resources
A.Whatisaresource?
weobtainresourcesfromtheenvironmenttomeetourneedsandwants.
Someresourcessuchassolarenergy,freshair,wind,etcaredirectlyavailablefor
use,whileotherssuchaspetroleum,iron,andmoderncropsarenotdirectly
available.
B.Thetragedyofcommons.
thedegradationofrenewablefreeaccessresourcesisknownasthetragedyof
commons.
C.Ourecologicalfootprint
Theamountofbiologicallyproductivelandandwaterneededtosupplyanarea
withresourcesandtoabsorbthewastesandpollutionproducedbysuchresource
use.
IV.Pollution
A.Sourcesandharmfuleffectsofpollutants.
Pollutantsarechemicalsfoundathighenoughlevelsintheenvironmenttocause
harmtopeopleorotherorganisms.
Pointsourcesofpollutantsaresingle,identifiablesources.
V.Environmentalproblems:Causesandconnections
A.KeyEnvironmentalproblemsandtheirbasiccauses

Themajorcausesofenvironmentalproblemsarepopulationgrowth,wasteful
resourceuse,poverty,poorenvironmentalaccounting,andenvironmental
ignorance.
C.Povertyandenvironmentalproblems
Povertyisamajorthreattohumanhealthandtheenvironmentandtheworlds
poorestpeoplesufferthemostfrompollutionandtheenvironmentaldegradation.
VI.Culturalchangesandtheenvironment
A.Humanculturalchanges
sinceourhuntergathererdays,3majorculturalchangeshaveincreasedthe
humanimpactontheenvironment
1. Theagriculturalrevolution
2. Theindustrialmedicalrevolution
3. Theinformationglobalizationrevolution
VII.Sustainabilityandenvironmentalworldviews.
A.Environmentalworldviewsandethics.
Thewayweviewtheseriousnessofenvironmentalproblemsandhowtosolve
themdependsonourenvironmentalworldviewandourenvironmentalethics.
B.Fourscientificprinciplesofsustainability:Copynature.
1. Relianceonsolarenergy
2. Biodiversity
3. Populationcontrol
4. NutrientRecycling.


Summary:ThischapterexplainstouswhatEnvironmentalscienceisandhowithelpsusbe
moreinformedabouttheworldwelivein.Itinformsusonhowtobemoresustainableby
protectingournaturalcapitalinsteadofdepletingourresources.thechapteralsorevealshow
populationgrowthisaffectingtheearthweliveinbyfurtherdepletingourresourcesand
expandingourecologicalfootprint.Mostimportantly,thischaptertellsusofthemaincausesof
environmentalproblemswhicharepopulationgrowth,wastefulresourceuse,poverty,poor
environmentalaccounting,andenvironmentalignorance.
Majorfiguresinthischapter:

Figure110(17)Humanandnaturalcapitalproduceanamazingarrayofgoodsandservicesfor
mostoftheworldspollution,buttheflowofresourcesthroughtheworldseconomicsystem
depletesnonrenewableresources.