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Prepared by: Junnel P. Aguio, RCrim.

What is Penalty? :
What is Penalty?

Slide 3:
It is the suffering that is inflicted by the State for the transgression of a law. In its general sense,
signifies pain; especially considered in the juridical sphere, it means suffering undergone,
because of the action of human society, by one who commits a crime. (Pessina, Elementos de
Derecho Penal, pp. 375-376) What are the juridical conditions of penalty?

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Must be productive of suffering, without however affecting the integrity of the human
personality. Must be commensurate with the offense different crimes must be punished with
different penalties. Must be personal no one should be punished for the crime of another. Must
be legal it is the consequence of a judgment according to law. Must be certain no one may
escape its effects. Must be equal for all. Must be correctional. What is the purpose of the State in
punishing crimes?

Slide 5:
To secure justice. The State has an existence of its own to maintain, a conscience of its to assert,
and moral principles to be vindicated. Penal justice must be therefore be exercised by the State in
the service and satisfaction of a duty, and rests primarily on the moral rightfulness of the
punishment inflicted.

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What are the theories justifying penalty? Prevention Self-defense Reformation Exemplarity
Justice Note: Social defense and exemplarity justify the penalty of death.

Slide 7:

Three-fold purpose of the penalty of RPC: 1. Retribution or Expiation the penalty is

commensurate with the gravity of the offense. 2. Correction or Reformation as shown by the
rules which regulate the execution of the penalties consisting in deprivation of liberty. 3. Social
defense shown by its inflexible severity to recidivists and habitual delinquents.

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When penalty may not be imposed? No felony shall be punishable by any penalty not prescribed
by law prior to its commission. (Art 21,RPC)

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When penal laws shall have a retroactive effect? Penal laws shall have a retroactive effect in so
far as they favor the person guilty of a felony, who is not a habitual criminal. (Art. 22, RPC)
Although at the time of the publication of such laws a final sentence has been pronounced and
the convict is serving the same. Note: General rule is to give criminal laws prospective effect.

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The favorable retroactive effects of a new law find the defendant in one of these three situations:
The crime has been committed and prosecution begins; Sentence has been passed but service has
not begun; The sentence is being carried out. (Escalante vs. Santos, supra)

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What is the effect of pardon by the offended party? A pardon by the offended party does not
extinguish criminal action except as provided in Article 344 of RPC. But civil liability with
regard to the interest of the injured party is extinguished by his express waiver. Pardon under Art.
344 of RPC must be made before institution of criminal prosecution. Note: Pardon under Art.
344 of RPC is only a bar to criminal prosecution. Art. 89 of RPC does not mentioned pardon by
the offended party as one of the causes of total extinguish of criminal liability.

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What are the measures of prevention or safety are not considered penalties? (Art. 24, RPC) The
arrest and temporary detention of accused persons The commitment of a minor to any of the
institutions mentioned in RA 9344. Suspension from the employment or public office during the
trial or in order to institute proceedings. Fines and other corrective measures. Deprivation of
rights and the reparations which the civil law may establish in penal form.

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What are the penalties may be imposed? 1. Principal Penalties: 1.1 Capital Punishment: Death
1.2 Afflictive Penalties: Reclusion Perpetua Reclusion Temporal Perpetual or Temporary
Absolute Disqualification Perpetual or Temporary Special Disqualification Prision Mayor

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1.3 Correctional Penalties: Prision Correccional Arresto Mayor Suspension Destierro 1.4 Light
Penalties: Arresto Menor Public Censure 1.5 Penalties common to the three preceding classes:
Fine, and Bond to keep the peace.

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2. Accessory Penalties: Perpetual or Temporary Absolute Disqualification Perpetual or
Temporary Special Disqualification Suspension from public office, the right to vote and be voted
for, the profession or calling Civil interdiction Indemnification Forfeiture or confiscation of
instruments and proceeds of the offense, and Payment of Cost

Slide 16:
What are the classifications of penalties? (Art. 25, RPC) Principal penalties those expressly
imposed by the court in the judgment of conviction. Accessory penalties those that are deemed
included in the imposition of the principal penalties.

Slide 17:
Classifications of Principal penalty: Indivisible penalties are those which have no fixed
duration, are: Death Reclusion Perpetua Perpetual absolute or special disqualification Public
censure 2. Divisible penalties are those that have fixed duration and are divisible into three

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When a fine is afflictive penalty? (Art. 26, RPC) A fine shall be considered an afflictive penalty,
if it exceeds 6,000 pesos. When a fine is correctional penalty? A fine shall be considered a
correctional penalty, if it does not exceed 6,000 pesos but is not less than 200 pesos. When a fine
is light penalty? A fine is light penalty, if it be less than 200 pesos.

Slide 19:
What is the duration of each penalty? (Art. 27, RPC): Reclusion Perpetua shall be from twenty
years and one day to forty years. Reclusion Temporal 12 years and 1 day to 20 years. Prision
Mayor 6 years and 1 day to 12 years. Prision Correccional 6 months and 1 day to six years.
Arresto Mayor 1 month and 1 day to 6 months. Arresto Menor 1 day to 30 days. Bond to
keep the peace shall be required to cover such period of time as the court may determine.

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In what cases destierro imposed? Serious physical injuries or death under exceptional
circumstances. (Art. 247) In case of failure to give bond for good behavior. (Art. 248) As a
penalty for the concubine in concubinage. (Art. 334) In cases where after reducing the penalty by
one or more degrees destierro is the proper penalty.

Slide 21:
When there is preventive imprisonment? The accused undergoes preventive imprisonment when
the offense charged is nonbailable, he cannot furnish the required bail. What is civil interdiction?
It is the deprivation of the offender during the time of his sentence of the rights of parental
authority, or guardianship, either as to the person or property of any ward, of marital authority, of
the right to manage his property, and of the right to dispose of such property by any act or any
conveyance inter vivos. (Art. 34, RPC)

Slide 22:
What is the effect of bond to keep the peace? Should the person sentenced fail to give the bond
as required he shall be detained for a period which shall in no case exceed six months, if he shall
have been prosecuted for a grave or less grave felony, and shall not exceed thirty days, if for a
light felony. (Par. 3, Art. 35, RPC) Note: Bond to keep the peace is different from bail bond
which is posted for the provisional release of a person arrested for or accused of a crime.

Slide 23:
What are the effects of pardon by the President? A pardon shall not restore the right to hold
public office or the right of suffrage. It shall not exempt the culprit from the payment of the civil
indemnity. Exception: When any or both such rights is or are expressly restored by the terms of
the pardon.(Art. 36, RPC) When pardon may be granted? Pardon may be granted only after
conviction by final judgment.

Slide 24:

What is Cost? Cost shall include fees and indemnities in the course of the judicial proceedings,
whether they are fixed or unalterable amounts previously determined by law or regulations in
force, or amounts not subject to schedule.

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What are the pecuniary liabilities of persons criminally liable? The reparation of the damage
caused. Indemnification of the consequential damages. Fine. Costs of Proceedings. (Art. 38,

Slide 26:
What is subsidiary penalty? It is a subsidiary personal liability to be suffered by the convict who
has no property with which to meet the fine, at the rate of one day for each eight pesos, subject to
the rules provided for in Article 39.

Slide 27:
When Subsidiary penalty is not imposable? When the penalty imposed is higher than prision
correccional. (Par. 3, Art. 39, RPC) For failure to pay the reparation of the damage caused,
indemnification of the consequential damages, and the costs of the proceedings. When the
penalty imposed is fine and a penalty not to be executed by confinement in a penal institution
and which has no fixed duration.

Slide 28:
When there is a complex crime? When a single act constitutes two or more grave or less grave
felonies. (compound crime) When an offense is a necessary means for committing the other.
(complex crime proper) Note: No complex crime where one of the offense is penalized by a
special law.

Slide 29:
What is special complex crime? Cases which seem to be complex crimes but cannot be
considered as such, as the RPC specially provides penalty therefore. Example: Robbery with
Homicide (Art. 294, par. 1), Robbery with Rape (Art. 294, par. 2), Kidnapping with Serious
Physical Injuries (Art. 267, par. 3), Kidnapping with Murder or Homicide (Art. 267, last par.), or
Rape with Homicide (Art. 335).

Slide 30:

What is Plurality of crimes? It consists in the successive execution by the same individual of
different criminal acts upon any of which no conviction has yet been declared. What is continued
crime? It is a single crime consisting of a series of acts but all arising from one criminal

Slide 31:
What are the penalty to be imposed upon principals, accomplices, and accessories of a
consummated, frustrated and attempted crime?

The diagram or table below is applicableNote: 0 represents the penalty

prescribed by law in defining a crime. :
The diagram or table below is applicableNote: 0 represents the penalty prescribed by law in
defining a crime.

Slide 33:
What is the penalty for impossible crime? The penalty for impossible crime is arresto mayor or a
fine ranging from 200 to 500 pesos. What are the basis for imposition of penalty for impossible
of crime? Social danger, and Degree of criminality shown by the offender.

Slide 34:
When maximum penalty shall be imposed? When in the commission of the crime, advantage was
taken by the offender of his public position; If the offense was committed by any person who
belongs to an organized/syndicated crime group. What is an organized/syndicated crime group?
A group of two or more persons collaborating confederating or mutually helping one another for
purposes of gain in the commission of any crime.

Slide 35:
What is the effect of the attendance of aggravating circumstances? Increasing the penalty,
without, however, exceeding the maximum penalty. What is the effect of the attendance of
mitigating circumstances? Diminishing the penalty. What is the effect of habitual delinquency?
Habitual delinquency has the effect, not only of increasing the penalty because of recidivism
which is generally implied in habitual delinquency, but also of imposing an additional penalty.

Slide 36:

Who is habitual delinquent? A person is habitual delinquent if within a period of ten years from
the date of his (last) release or last conviction of the crimes of: serious or less serious physical
injuries, robo (robbery), hurto (theft), estafa, or falsification, he is found guilty of any of said
crimes a third time or oftener.

Slide 37:
What are the requisites of habitual delinquency? That the offender had been convicted of any of
the crimes of serious or less serious physical injuries, robbery, theft, estafa, or falsification. That
after conviction or after serving his sentence, he again committed, and within 10 years from his
release or first conviction, he was again convicted of any of the said crimes for the second time.
That after conviction of, or after serving sentence for, the second offense, he again committed,
and, within 10 years from his last release or last conviction, he was again convicted of any of
said offenses, the third time oftener.

Slide 38:
What is the distinction of habitual delinquency from recidivism? As the crime committed: In
recidivism, it is sufficient that the accused on the date of his trial, shall been previously convicted
by final judgment of another crime embraced in the same title of the Code; in habitual
delinquency, the crimes are specified. As to the period of time the crimes are committed: In
recidivism, no period of time between the former conviction and the last conviction is fixed by
law; in habitual delinquency, the offender is found guilty of any of the crimes specified within
ten years from his last release or last conviction. As to the number of crimes committed: In
recidivism, the second conviction for an offense embraced in the same title of the Code is
sufficient; in habitual delinquency, the accused must be found guilty the third time or oftener of
any of the crimes specified. (People vs. Bernal, 63 Phil. 750, 755) As to their effects: Recidivism,
if not offset by a mitigating circumstance, serves to increase the penalty only to the maximum;
whereas, if there is habitual delinquency, an additional penalty is also imposed.

Slide 39:
What is three-fold rule? According to the three-fold rule, the ,maximum duration of the convicts
sentence shall not be more three times the length of time corresponding to the most severe of the
penalties imposed upon him. (Art. 70, RPC) When three-fold rule is applicable? The three-fold
rule applies only when the convict has to serve at least four sentences. What is Act No. 4103? An
act to provide for an indeterminate sentence and parole for all persons convicted of certain
crimes by the Courts of the Philippine Islands. It is an act to create a Board of Indeterminate
Sentence and to provide funds therefor and for other purposes.

Slide 40:

What are the penalties to be determined by the court as referred to Indeterminate Sentence Act?
The two penalties are Maximum and Minimum terms. The law should be applied in imposing a
prison sentence for a crime punishable either by Special Law or by Revised Penal Code.

Slide 41:
When Indeterminate Sentence Law is not applicable? Indeterminate Sentence shall not
applicable to the following: Persons convicted of offenses punished with death penalty or life
imprisonment. Those convicted of treason, conspiracy or proposal to commit treason. Those
convicted of misprision of treason, rebellion, sedition or espionage. Those convicted of piracy.
Those who are habitual delinquents. Those who shall have escaped from confinement or evaded
sentence. Those who violated the terms of conditional pardon Those whose maximum term of
imprisonment does not exceed one year. Those who, upon the approval of the law (Dec. 5, 1933),
had been sentenced by final judgment. (Sec. 2, Act. 4103) Those sentenced to the penalty of
destierro or suspension.

Slide 42:
What are the reasons for fixing the Minimum and Maximum penalties in the indeterminate
sentence? Whenever any prisoner shall have served the minimum penalty imposed on him, and it
shall appear to the Board of Indeterminate Sentence that such prisoner is fitted for release, said
Board may authorize the release of such prisoner on parole, upon such terms and conditions as
may be prescribed by the Board.

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2. Whenever such prisoner released on parole shall, during the period of surveillance, violate any
of the conditions of his parole, the Board may issue an order for his arrest. In such case, the
prisoner so rearrested shall serve the remaining unexpired portion of the maximum sentence.
(Sec. 5 and 8, Act No. 4103) 3. Even if a prisoner has already served the minimum, but he is not
fitted for release on parole, he shall continue to serve imprisonment until the end of the
maximum. - It is mandatory in the cases specified therein, for it employs the phrases convicts
shall be sentenced and the court shall sentence the accused to an indeterminate sentence.
(People vs. Yu Lian, CA., O.G. 4205)

PROBATION A term coined by John Augustus, from Latin verb probare to prove, to test.
John Augustus A shoe cobbler, is credited as the Father of Probation.

History :

History The origins of probation can be traced to English criminal law of the Middle Ages. Harsh
punishment were imposed on adults and children alike for offenses that were not always if a
serious nature. During the time of King Henry VIII, for instance, no less than 200 crimes were
punishable by death, many of which were minor offenses. This harshness eventually led to
discontent in certain progressive segments of English society concerned with the evolution of the
justice system. Slowly, yet resolutely, in an effort to mitigate these inhumane punishments, such
as; Royal pardons, could be purchased by the accused; benefit of clergy, judicial reprieve,
sanctuary, and abjuration offered offenders a degree of protection from the enactment of harsh

Slide 46:
Eventually, the courts began the practice of binding over for good behavior, a form of
temporary release during which offenders could take measures to secure pardons or lesser
sentences. In the United States, particularly in Massachusetts, different practices were being
developed. Security for good behavior, also known as good aberrance, was much like modern
bail: the accused paid a fee as collateral for good behavior. Using this procedure, indictments
were laid on file or held in abeyance. To mitigate unreasonable mandatory penalties, judges
often granted a motion to quash based upon minor technicalities or errors in the proceedings.
Although, these American practices were genuine precursors to probation, it is the early use of
recognizance and suspended sentence that are directly related to modern probation.

Two names are most closely associated with the founding of probation: :
Two names are most closely associated with the founding of probation: 1. Matthew Davenport
Hill In 18th century, English barrister and judge. As a young professional in England, had
witnessed the sentencing of youthful offenders to one-day terms on the condition that they be
returned to a parent or guardian who would closely supervise them. When he eventually became
the Recorder of Birmingham, a judicial post, he used a similar practice for individuals who did
not seem hopelessly corrupt. If offenders demonstrated a promise for rehabilitation, they were
placed in the hands of generous guardians who willingly took charge of them. He had police
officers pay periodic visits to these guardians in an effort to tack the offenders progress and to
keep a running account.

Slide 48:
2. John Augustus He was born in Woburn, Massachusetts, in 1785. by 1829, he was a permanent
resident of Boston and the owner of a successful boot-making business. In 1841, he attended
police court to bail out a common drunkard, the first probationer. In 1858, he had provided bail
for 1,946 men and women, young and old. Reportedly, only ten of this number forfeited their
bond, a remarkable accomplishment when measured against any standard. In 1859, after his
death, the first probation statute enacted in Massachusetts.

Historical Background of Probation in the Philippines :

Historical Background of Probation in the Philippines Probation was first introduced in the
Philippines during the American colonial period (1898-1945) with the enactment of Act No.
4221 of the Philippines Legislature on August 7, 1935. This law created a Probation Office under
the Department of Justice. On November 16, 1937, after barely two years of existence, the
Supreme Court of the Philippines declared the Probation Law Unconstitutional because of some
defects in the laws procedural framework. In 1972, House Bill No. 393 was filed in Congress,
which would establish a probation system in the Philippines. However, it was pending in the
senate when Martial Law was declared and Congress was abolished.

Slide 50:
Teodolu C. Natividad initiated the drafting of Probation System. In 1975, the National Police
Commission Interdisciplinary drafted a Probation Law. After 18 technical hearings over a period
of six months, the draft decree was presented to a selected group of 369 jurists, penologists, civic
leaders and social and behavioral scientists and practitioners. The group overwhelmingly
indorsed the establishment of an Adult Probation System in the country. On July 24, 1976,
Presidential Decree No. 968, also known as Adult Probation Law of 1976, was signed into Law
by the President of the Philippines. On January 3, 1978, the probation system started to operate.
There are at present 204 filed offices spread all over the country, supervised by 15 regional

Slide 51:
What is PD No. 968, as amended by PD 1257, BP 76, and PD 1990? A decree establishing a
Probation System. What is Probation? It is a disposition under which a defendant, after
conviction and sentence, is released subject to conditions imposed by the court and to the
supervision of a probation officer. What is Probation Officer? It is one who investigates for the
court referral for probation or supervises a probationer or both.

Slide 52:
What is Probationer? It is a person placed on probation. Who may grant the Probation? The trial
court has convicted and sentenced a defendant. When probation may be granted? Probation may
be granted whether the sentence imposes a term of imprisonment or a fine with subsidiary
imprisonment in case of insolvency. Upon application by said defendant within the period for
perfecting an appeal, suspend the execution of the sentence and place the defendant on probation
for such period and upon such terms and conditions as it may deem best. Provided, that no
application for probation shall be entertained or granted if the defendant has perfected the appeal
from the judgment of conviction.

Slide 53:
What is Post-Sentence Investigation? It is an investigation conducted by the probation officer
before the probation-applicant may be placed in probation for the determination by the court that
the ends of justice and the best interest of the public as well as that of the defendant will be
served thereby. What is the period for submission of Investigation Report? The Probation Officer
shall submit to the court the investigation report on a defendant not later than 60 days from
receipt of the order of said court to conduct investigation.

Slide 54:
What are the criteria for placing an offender on probation? 1. The court shall consider (1) all
information relative to the following: character, antecedents, environment, mental, and physical
2. condition of the offender, and (2) available institutional and community resources.

Slide 55:
When probation shall be denied? - Probation shall be denied if the court finds that: the offender
is in need of correctional treatment that can be provided most effectively by his commitment to
an institution; or there is an undue risk that during the period of probation, the offender will
commit another crime; or probation will depreciate the seriousness of the offense committed.
The grant or denial of an application for probation does not rest solely on the offenders
potentiality to reform but also on the observance of demands of justice and public interest.
(Tolentino vs. Alconcel, 121 SCRA 92)

Slide 56:
Who are the offenders disqualified from being placed on probation? Those sentenced to serve a
maximum term of imprisonment of more than six years; Those convicted of subversion or any
crime against the national security or public order; Those convicted who were previously
convicted by final judgment of an offense punished by imprisonment of not less than one month
and one day and / or a fine not more than two hundred pesos; Those who have been once on
probation under the provisions of the Decree; and Those who are already serving sentence at the
time the substantive provisions of the Decree became applicable pursuant to Section 33 thereof.

Slide 57:
What are the conditions of probation? - Every probation order issued by the court shall contain
conditions requiring the probationer to: present himself to the probation officer designated to
undertake his supervision at such place as may be specified in the order within 72 hours from
receipt of the order; report to the probation officer at least once a month at such time and place as
specified by said officer. Even if a convicted person falls within the classes of those qualified for

probation, the grant of probation is not automatic or ministerial. Probation is a privilege and its
grant rests upon the discretion of the court. The discretion is exercised primarily for the benefit
of society as a whole and only secondarily for the personal advantage of the accused. (Amandy
vs, People, 161 SCRA 436, 443)

Slide 58:
What is the effect of probation on accessory penalties? Accessory penalties are deemed
suspended once probation is granted. (Baclayon vs. Mutia) What is the effect of violation of
probation order? Upon the failure of the probationer to comply with any of the conditions
prescribed in the order, or upon his commission of another offense, he shall serve the penalty
imposed for the offense under which he was placed on probation.

Slide 59:
For how long may a convict be placed on probation? If the convict is sentenced to a term of
imprisonment of not more than one year, the period of probation shall not exceed two years. In
all other cases, if he is sentenced to more than one year, said period shall not exceed six years.
When the sentence imposes a fine only and the offender is made to serve subsidiary
imprisonment, the period of probation shall be twice the total number of days of subsidiary

Slide 60:
When may a probationer be arrested, and what is the disposition once he is arrested? The
violation of the conditions of probation must be serious to justify the issuance of a warrant of
arrest. The defendant may be admitted to bail pending hearing. The hearing is summary in
nature, but the probationer shall have the right to be informed of the violation charged and to
adduce evidence in his favor. Court is not bound by the technical rules of evidence. If the
violation is established, the court may revoke or continue his probation and modify the
conditions thereof. If revoked, the court shall order the probationer to serve the sentence
originally imposed. The order revoking the grant of probation or modifying the term and
conditions thereof is not appealable. (Circumlocutory Order)

Slide 61:
The three-fold purposes of PD 968: Promote the correction and rehabilitation of an offender by
providing him with individualized treatment; Provide an opportunity for the reformation of a
penitent offender, which might be less probable if he were to serve a prison sentence; and
Prevent the commission of offenses. Probation affects only the criminal aspect of the case but not
included the civil. Hence, civil case should be heard. (Budlong vs. Apalisok, 122 SCRA 935)

Slide 62:
When and how penalty is to be executed? No penalty shall be executed except by virtue of a final
judgment. A penalty shall not be executed in any other form than that prescribed by law, nor with
any other circumstances or incident than those expressly authorized thereby. (Art. 78, RPC)

Slide 63:
What is PD 603 as amended by RA 9344? The Child and Youth Welfare Code. What is RA 9344?
An act establishing a comprehensive Juvenile Justice and Welfare System.

Slide 64:
When death sentence shall be suspended? - Death sentence shall be suspended when the accused
is: Woman, while pregnant; Woman, within one year after delivery; Person over 70 years of age.
The suspension of the execution of the sentence as regards a person over 70 years old is
necessary to give the President time to act, because only the President can communicate the

Slide 65:
Who may witness death execution? priest assisting the offender, offenders lawyers, offenders
relatives, not exceeding six, if so requested, physician, and necessary personnel of penal

Slide 66:
What is Executive Clemency? It refers to Commutation of Sentence, Absolute and Conditional
Pardon, with or without parole conditions, as may be granted by the President of the Philippines
upon the recommendation of the Board of Pardon and Parole.

Slide 67:
When criminal liability is totally extinguished? By the death of the convict; By service of the
sentence; By amnesty, which completely extinguishes the penalty and all its effects; By absolute
pardon By prescription of the crime; By prescription of the penalty; By the marriage of the
offended woman, as provided in Art. 344 of this Code. Extinction of criminal liability does not
automatically extinguish the civil liability. (Petralba vs. Sandiganbayan, 200 SCRA 644)

Slide 68:
What is amnesty? It is an act of the sovereign power granting oblivion or a general pardon for a
past offense, and is rarely, if ever, exercised in favor of a single individual, and is usually exerted
in behalf of certain classes of persons, who are subject to trial but have not yet been convicted.
(Brown vs. Walker, 161 US 602) What is pardon? It is an act of grace proceeding from the power
entrusted with the execution of the laws which exempts the individual on whom it is bestowed
from the punishment the law inflicts for the crime he has committed. Two kinds of pardon; (a)
Absolute (b) Conditional

Slide 69:
Prescription of Crimes the loss or forfeiture of the power of the State to prosecute offenses
after the lapse of the period prescribed by law. Prescription of Penalty the loss or forfeiture of
the power of the State to impose punishment after the lapse of the period prescribed by law.

Slide 70:
When crime is prescribed? Crimes punishable by death, reclusion perpetua or temporal shall
prescribe in 20 years. Crimes punishable by other afflictive penalties shall prescribe in 15 years.
Those punishable by a correctional penalty shall prescribe in 10 years; with exception of those
punishable by arresto mayor, which shall prescribe in 5 years. The Crime of libel or other similar
offenses shall prescribe in 1 year. The offenses of oral defamation and slander by deed shall
prescribe in 6 moths. Light offenses prescribe in 2 months.

Slide 71:
When and how penalties prescribe? - the penalties imposed by final sentence prescribe as
follows: Death and reclusion perpetua, in 20 years; Other afflictive penalties, in 15 years;
Correctional penalties, in 10 years, with the exception of the penalty of arresto mayor, which
prescribes in 5 years. Light penalties, in 1 year.

Slide 72:
When criminal liability is partially extinguished? By conditional pardon; By commutation of the
sentence; and For good conduct allowances which the culprit may earn while he is serving

Slide 73:

What is commutation of sentence? It is a change of the decision of the court made by the Chief
Executive by reducing the degree of the penalty inflicted upon the convict, or by decreasing the
length of the imprisonment or the amount of the fine. What is parole? It is the suspension of the
sentence of a convict after serving the minimum term of the indeterminate penalty, without
granting a pardon, prescribing the terms upon which the sentence shall be suspended.

Slide 74:
What are the benefits of a prisoner for good conduct? - The good conduct of any prisoner in any
penal institution shall entitle him to the following deductions from the period of his sentence:
During the first 2 years of imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of five days for each
month of good behavior; During the third to the fifth year, inclusive, of his imprisonment, he
shall be allowed a deduction of eight days for each month of good behavior; During the
following years until the tenth year, inclusive, of his imprisonment, he shall be allowed a
deduction of ten days for each month of good behavior; and During the eleventh and successive
years of his imprisonment, he shall be allowed a deduction of 15 days for each month of good
behavior. - Note: No allowance for good conduct while prisoner is released under conditional

Slide 75:
What is special time allowance for loyalty of prisoner? It is a deduction of 1/5 of the period of
the sentence of a prisoner of whom, having evaded the service of his sentence during the
calamity or catastrophe mentioned in Art. 158, gives himself up to the authorities within 48 hours
following the issuance of the proclamation by the President announcing the passing away of the
calamity or catastrophe. The deduction of 1/5 is based on the original sentence.

Slide 76:
Who grants time allowance? Whenever lawfully justified, the Director of Prisons shall grant
allowances for good conduct. Such allowances once granted shall not be revoked. (Art. 99, RPC)
Every person criminally liable for a felony is also civilly liable. (Art. 100, RPC)

Slide 77:
Two classifications of injuries causes of an offense: Social injury, produced by the disturbance
and alarm which are the outcome of the offense. Personal injury, caused to the victim of the
crime who may have suffered damage, either to his person, to his property, to his honor, or to her

Slide 78:

Prejudicial question is an exception to the rule that the criminal action shall be decided first and
that the civil action should be suspended. What is prejudicial question? It is a question is one
which arises in a case, the resolution of which is a logical antecedent of the issue involved in said
case, and the cognizance of which pertains to another tribunal.

Slide 79:
What are the elements of Prejudicial Question? The civil action involves an issue similar or
intimately related to the issue raised in the criminal action; and The resolution of such issue
determines whether or not the criminal action may proceed. Sec. 5, Rule 111, Rules of Court)

Slide 80:
What is included in civil liability? Restitution in theft, the culprit is duty-bound to return the
property stolen; Reparation of damage caused in case of inability to return the property stolen,
the culprit must pay the value of the property stolen; Indemnification for consequential damages
the loss of his salary or earning.

Slide 81:
When civil liability is extinguished? By payment or performance; By the loss of the thing due;
By the condonation or remission of the debt; By the confusion or merger of the rights of creditor
and debtor; By compensation; By novation.

Slide 82:
When civil liability may arise? Crime, Breach of Contract (culpa contractual), or Tortious act
(culpa aquiliana).