1. Definitions
Domain ( D f ) : set of x values for which the function f (x) is defined.
Range ( R f ) : set of y values for which the function f ( x) is defined.
For completeness of description, any function definition must include a
reference domain, eg f : x x 2 + 2 , x 0
2. Vertical line test
A function is properly defined if no two unique distinct values of y are associated
with the same x value. A vertical line test aids in ascertaining thisif any vertical
line drawn cuts through the graphical representation of the candidate definition
at two or more points, then that definition is not a function.
Example: y 2 = x is not a function because a vertical line drawn typically cuts
through its graph at two points.(see below)
y
y2 = x
f 1 ( x)
y=x
f ( x)
Properties: R f 1 = D f , D f 1 = R f
To find an expression for f 1 ( x) :
(i) Let y = f ( x)
(ii) Through manipulation, make x the subject such that x = g ( y )
(iii) Replace the function in y entirely with x , ie f 1 ( x) = g ( x)
Note: (a) If f ( x) is of the form ax 2 + bx + c , completing the square is required
to obtain x in terms of y .
(b) If f ( x) = f 1 ( x) is required to be solved, it is typically more convenient
to simply solve for x through the formulation of f ( x) = x .
(c) Functions that originally do not possess an inverse can have their domains
shrunk such that an inverse function becomes realisable.
Example: y = x 2 , x does not have an inverse, but
y = x 2 , x 0 has an inverse.
5. Composite functions
A composite function of the form fg ( x) is said to exist if the range of g ( x)
is a subset of the domain of f ( x) , ie R g D f . Note that the domain of fg ( x)
is simply the domain of g ( x) , ie D fg = D g .
ax + b
cx + d
x +1
x 1
The asymptotes for this equation are x = 1 and y = 1 ; this is achieved by having
y and x respectively.
Example: y =
x +1
; as y , x 1 0 x = 1 is a vertical asymptote
y
1
1
1+
x + 1 x
x ; as x , y 1 + 0 = 1 y = 1 is a horizontal
y=
=
1 0
x 1 1 1 1
x
x
asymptote
Using this information, coupled with the relevant x and y intercepts, allows the
graph to be realised rather easily:
y
1
0
1
y=
x +1
x 1
ax 2 + bx + c
2. Graphs of the form y =
ex + f
Example: y =
x2 + 2
x 1
x 1 =
y=
x2 + 2
; as y , x 1 0 x = 1 is a vertical asymptote
y
x 2 + 2 x( x 1) + ( x 1) + 3
3
=
= x +1+
; as x ,
x 1
x 1
x 1
y x + 1 + 0 y = x + 1 is an oblique asymptote.
y = x +1
1
1
0
x2 + 2
y=
x 1
x =1
y = a2 x 2
y = a1 x 2
0
a3 < 0 < a1 < a 2
y = a3 x 2
Note that while the graph is symmetrical about the y axis, this symmetry can
be altered via a transformation, eg y = a( x 5) 2 is now symmetrical about
the line x =5.
y
0
y 2 = a1 x
y 2 = a3 x
y 2 = a2 x
( x a ) 2 ( y b) 2
+
= 1 (Ellipses)
A2
B2
y
B
A
( a,b)
Note that if A = B , then the ellipse becomes a circle centered at (a, b) with radius A
units. When an ellipse is presented in a quadratic form, completing the square is
required to fashion the equation into the structure above for extraction of its relevant
characteristics.
Example: 9 x 2 54 x + 4 y 2 + 32 y + 109 = 0
9( x 2 6 x) + 4( y 2 + 8 y ) + 109 = 0
9( x 3) 2 81 + 4( y + 4) 2 64 + 109 = 0
9( x 3) 2 + 4( y + 4) 2 36 = 0
9( x 3) 2 + 4( y + 4) 2 = 36
( x 3) 2 ( y + 4) 2
+
= 1 (Divide both sides by 36)
4
9
( x 3) 2 ( y + 4) 2
+
=1
22
32
5. Graphs of the form ( x a) 2 + ( y b) 2 = r 2 (Circles)
y
r
(a, b)
x2 y2
= 1 (Hyperbolas)
a 2 b2
x2 y2
=1
4
9
=1
=
1
4
9
9
4
y2
x2
3
When x ,
2
0
2
x
y
=1
4
9
y=
3
x
2
3
y= x
2
B. Transformation of graphs
1. Operations on y coordinates:
Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
y = af ( x) Scaling of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the y axis by a factor of a .
y = f ( x) + b Translation of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the y axis by b units.
y
y = f ( x) + b (b > 0)
y = af ( x) (a > 1)
y = f ( x)
x
0
y
y = f ( x)
y = f (ax) (a < 1)
y = f ( x)
y = f ( x b) (b > 0)
Note: for (1) and (2), both a and b can assume the set of real values , although
specific instances of the various graph transformations (eg for y = af ( x) ,
only a > 1 was considered ) were illustrated due to space constraints. A combination
of transformations can exist as well, for example, y = f [a( x b)] implies the graph is
1
scaled parallel to the x axis by a factor of , and subsequently translated horizontally
a
along the x axis by b units.
3. Miscellaneous transformations:
Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
y = f ( x)  Reflection of all graph segments below the x axis about the
x axis, keeping all other segments unchanged.
To obtain y 2 = f ( x) ,
(i) Erase all graph segments below the y axis.
(ii) For the graph segment above the y axis, draw a guiding line y = 1 .
(iii) All points with y coordinates =0 or 1 will remain invariant (unchanged).
(iv) The new graph will exist above the original for y < 1 , and subsequently below
the original for y > 1
(v) Reflect the resulting graph about the x axis.
Example:
y=x
y2 = x
1
graph above the original
1
0
To obtain y =
1
,
f ( x)
Example:
y
0
y = f ( x)
y=
1
f ( x)
x 2 x3
xr
+ + ......... +
+ .....
2! 3!
r!
( 1) x 2r +1 + ..........
x3 x5
+ ........... +
3! 5!
(2r + 1)!
r
sin x = x
(
x2 x4
1) x 2 r
cos x = 1
+
........... +
+ ..........
2! 4!
(2r )!
r
r +1
ln(1 + x) = x
x 2 x3
( 1) x r + .......... ,
+ ........... +
2
3
r
1 x 1
cos x
, up to and including the term
ex
Second part of question (exploring expansion of other
series)
b. Determine the Maclaurins expansion for sec x tan x , up to and including the
term in x 3 .
First part of question
Show that, to this degree of approximation, sec x tan x can be expressed as
a + b ln(1 + x ) where a and b are constants to be determined.
dy
= y.
Proving DE
dx
By repeated differentiation of this result or otherwise, find the Maclaurins
expansion for y up to and including the term in x 3 .
First part of
question
x2
cos x 1
,
2
tan x x
Derivative
ax n
nax n 1
ax n + bx m
nax n 1 + bmx m1
(ax + b) n
an(ax + b) n 1
[ f ( x)]n
n[ f ( x)]
n1
[ f ' ( x )]
sin[ f ( x)]
cos[ f ( x)]
tan[ f ( x)]
sec[ f ( x)]
cot[ f ( x)]
[ f ' ( x)]
2
1 [ f ( x )]
sin 1 [ f ( x)]
cos 1 [ f ( x)]
tan 1 [ f ( x)]
[ f ' ( x )]
2
1 [ f ( x )]
[ f ' ( x )]
2
1 + [ f ( x )]
Function
Derivative
a f ( x)
a f ( x ) (ln a) f ' ( x)
e f ( x)
f ' ( x )e f ( x )
ln f ( x)
f ' ( x)
f ( x)
Product Rule:
Quotient Rule:
d u
=
dx v
d
dv
du
(uv) = u + v
dx
dx
dx
du
dv
u
dx
dx
2
v
Implicit Differentiation:
d
d
dy
f ( y) =
f ' ( y)
dx
dy
dx
1. Show that
dy
dy
1
=1
=
dx
dx sec 2 y
dy
1
1
=
=
2
dx 1 + tan y 1 + x 2
(Similar approaches shall be taken for proving the derivatives of sin 1 x and cos 1 x)
d x
(a ) = (ln a )(a x )
dx
x
Let y = a , then ln y = x ln a
2. Show that
1 dy
dy
Differentiating both sides wrt x gives = ln a
= y (ln a)
dx
y dx
dy
= (a x )(ln a ) (shown)
dx
!ote that many other variations can surface within the examinations, where
techniques like implicit differentiation, product rule or quotient rule may have to be
employed.
Manipulation of derivatives to achieve targeted differential equations:
Example: If y = e x ln x, (a) Find
dy
.
dx
d 2 y dy
+
(1 + x) y = 2e x
2
dx
dx
SOLUTIO!S :
dy
1
1
= e x + e x ln x = e x + y
dx
x
x
d2y
1
1 dy
= ex ex 2 +
2
dx
x
x dx
d2y
dy
1
1
= ex ex + x
= e x e x + e x + xy
2
dx
dx
x
x
d2y
1
x 2 + e x xy = 2e x
dx
x
d 2 y dy
+
y xy = 2e x
2
dx
dx
d 2 y dy
+
(1 + x) y = 2e x (shown)
2
dx
dx
g ' (t )
[x f (t )]
f ' (t )
f ' (t )
y g (t ) =
[x f (t )]
g ' (t )
y g (t ) =
Question types:
Example: A curve has parametric equations
x = 1 + 2 sin , y = 4 + cos .
P is a point on the curve where =
SOLUTIOS :
At point P , x = 2, y = 4 +
3
2
dy dy dx sin
dy
1
=
=
= tan At P,
=
dx d d
cos
dx
2 3
Equation of tangent: y (4 +
3
1
)=
( x 2)
2
2 3
3 1
+
2
3
3
) = 2 3 ( x 2)
2
7 3
When it cuts the y axis, x = 0 y = 4
2
y
tangent
Equation of normal: y (4 +
0
normal
2 units
Area of triangle =
1
( 2)
2
3
1
7 3
1
13
4
= 4 3 +
+
=
units
4 +
2
2
3
3
3
(shown)
Equation of tangent is y p 3 =
( p 1)( p 2 + p + 10) = 0
p = 1 and point is ( 12 , 13 ) = ( 1, 1) (shown)
2. Rates of Change:
The chain rule is typically used in such questions; variations of this rule include the
following:
dV dV dh
dV dV dr
dA dA dA
=
,
=
,
=
etc
dt
dh dt
dr
dr dt
dr dr dt
Where V , A, r , h typically denote volume, area, radius and height quantities
respectively. Ensure knowledge of the separate derivatives are thorough and
dV
describes the rate of change of volume.
clear, eg
dt
Popular formulas:
1
4
Volume of Cone (r 2 )h ; Volume of Sphere (r 3 ) ;
3
3
2
Surface area of Sphere 4 r
( )
Question types:
Example: An inverted cone of base radius 4cm and height 8cm is initially filled with
water. Water drips out from the vertex at a rate of 2 cm 3 s 1 . Find the
rate of decrease in the depth of the water in the cone 16 seconds after the
dripping starts.
SOLUTIOS :
r 4 1
1
= = r= h
h 8 2
2
1
1 1
1
At any time t, volume remaining V= r 2 h = ( h) 2 (h) = h 3
3
3 2
12
dV 2
= h
Differentiating V with respect to h,
dh 4
1 3 1
When t =16,
h = (4) 2 (8) 2(16) h 3 = 128
12
3
dV dV dh
dh
=
2 = (3 128 ) 2
By the chain rule,
dt
dh dt
4
dt
dh
= 0.315cms 1 (shown)
dt
3. Maxima/Minima problems:
Maxima/minima problems typically employ the concept of stationary values, and
ascertaining the nature of those values (ie maximum or minimum) via the sign test
or investigating the second derivative if it is reasonably easy to attain.
Question types:
Example:
A length of channel of given depth d is to be made from a rectangular sheet of
metal of width 2a. The metal is to be bent in such a way that the cross section
ABCD is as shown in the figure, with AB+BC+CD= 2a and with AB and CD
inclined to the line BC at an angle .
A
d
Show that BC=2( a d cos ec ) and that the area of the cross section ABCD
is 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) .
Show that the maximum value of 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) , as varies,
is d (2a d 3 ) .
By considering the length of BC, show that the cross sectional area can only be
made equal to this maximum value if 2d a 3.
SOLUTIOS :
d
AB = CD = d cos ec
AB
BC = 2a AB CD = 2a 2d cos ec = 2(a d cos ec ) (shown)
Area of cross section ABCD
1
2
= 2ad + d (cot 2 cos ec ) (shown)
sin =
cos = , =
2
3
1
2
Maximum value = 2ad + d 2
2
= d (2a d 3 ) (shown)
3
3
2
BC = 2 a
d
3
Since BC 0, a
2
3
d 2d 3a (shown)
Example:
The equation of a curve is y = ax 2 2bx + c, where a, b and c are constants, a>0.
Find, in terms of a, b and c, the coordinates of the turning point on the curve, and
state whether it is a maximum or minimum point.
SOLUTIOS :
dy
= 2ax 2b
dx
dy
b
b2
=0 x = , y =c
dx
a
a
2
b
b2
d y
is a minimum point.
=
2
a
>
0
[
Q
a
>
0
]
Hence,
,
c
a
a
dx 2
y = ax 2 2bx + c
dy
= 1 y for y<1.
dx
SOLUTIO :
dy
1 dy
= 1 y
=1
dx
1 y dx
1
dy = dx
1 y
ln  1 y = x + C
Since y < 1, ln(1 y ) = x + C
1 y = e x+ B
y = 1 Ae x
where A = e B , B = c
(shown)
x v + x = 3 x + vx
dx
dv
dv 3
= 3x
=
dx
dx x
3
dv = x dx
v = 3 ln  x  +C
y = 3 x ln  x  +Cx (shown)
x2
Example:
d 2s
= g
dt 2
ds
= gt + A
dt
gt 2
s=
+ At + B (shown)
2
a(2) 2 2b = 0 b = 2a
dx
Example: A rectangular tank has a horizontal base. Water is flowing into the tank at a
constant rate, and flows out at a rate which is proportional to the depth of
water in the tank. At time t seconds the depth of the water in the tank is x
metres. If the depth is 0.5m, it remains at this constant value. Show that
dx
= k (2 x 1), where k is a positive constant.
dt
SOLUTIO :
dx
= flowing in rate minus flowing out rate
dt
= k Ax
When x = 0.5,
k
dx
=0
dt
1
A = 0 A = 2k
2
dx
= k 2kx = 2kx + k = k (2 x 1) (shown)
dt
Integrated Result
ax n
ax n + 1
n+ 1
(ax + b) n
(ax + b) n + 1
( a ) (n + 1)
[ f ( x )] n + 1
n+ 1
[ f ' ( x )]
2
+ [ f ( x )]
1
f ( x)
tan 1
a
a
[ f ' ( x )]
[ f ( x )] 2 a 2
1
f ( x) a
ln
2a f ( x ) + a
[ f ' ( x )]
2
[ f ( x )]
1
a + f ( x)
ln
2a a f ( x )
[ f ' ( x)]
2
a [ f ( x)]
f ( x)
sin 1
a
f ' ( x) a f ( x )
1 f ( x)
a
ln a
f ' ( x )e f ( x )
e f ( x)
f ' ( x)
f ( x)
ln  f ( x) 
Function
Integrated Result
f ' ( x) cos[ f ( x )]
sin [ f ( x)]
cos[ f ( x )]
tan[ f ( x)]
cot[ f ( x)]
tan x
ln  cos x 
cot x
ln  sin x 
sec x
ln  sec x + tan x 
cos ecx
If n is odd, separate a single sin x or cos x from the original function, and use the
identity sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1 .
Example:
sin
xdx =
x)(sin x)dx
cos 3 x
+ C (shown)
3
If n is even, use the double angle formula of either cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x 1 or
cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x for conversion.
= sin x cos 2 x sin xdx = cos x +
2
Example: cos xdx =
n
b. tan xdx :
cos 2 x + 1
1
1
dx = sin 2 x + x + C (shown)
2
4
2
Separate tan 2 x from the original function, and use the identity 1 + tan 2 x = sec 2 x .
Example:
tan
xdx =
1
1
4
2
= tan x tan x ln  cos x  + C (shown)
4
2
c. sin(mx) sin( nx)dx or sin( mx) cos(nx)dx or cos(mx) cos(nx )dx :
Use one of the 3 identities below to transform the product to a sum or difference:
1
{ sin[ ( m + n ) x] + sin[ ( m n ) x]}
2
1
(ii) sin( mx) sin( nx) = { cos[ ( m n ) x ] cos[ ( m + n ) x ]}
2
1
(iii) cos(mx) cos(nx) = { cos[ ( m n ) x ] + cos[ ( m + n ) x ]}
2
(i) sin( mx) cos(nx) =
1
1
1
cos 4 x + cos 2 xdx = sin 4 x + sin 2 x + C (shown)
2
8
4
dx
x2 x + 1
dx
x x+ 1
1
2
1
(x )2 + (
2
1
Using the substitution x =
2
dx
3 2
)
2
3
tan , the integral becomes
2
1
3
=
tan .
2
2
3
3
2
tan
4
4
3 sec d
3
sec )d
= (sec )d
2
3
sec
2
2
3
1
2
1
[
+ (x )2 ] +
( x )  +C (shown)
= ln  sec + tan  + C =ln 
2
2
3 4
3
3
1
+ (x )2
4
2
1
2
3
2
4. Integration by parts:
uv' dx =
Example:
x2
x sin ( x )dx = (sin 1 x 2 )
2
1
x2
2
x2
=
2
=
x2
2
x2
1
2 ( 1 x 4 )(2 x)dx
x3
(sin 1 x 2 ) (
)dx
1 x4
2
1
4x3
(sin 1 x 2 ) (
)dx = x (sin 1 x 2 ) 1 (2) 1 x 4 + C
4
2
4
1 x4
1
(sin 1 x 2 )
1 x 4 + C (shown)
2
ax
cx + d
dx
+ bx + c
cx + d
P (2ax + b) + Q
P (2ax + b)
Q
dx as
= 2
+
dx ,
2
2
+ bx + c
ax + bx + c
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c
where 2ax + b is clearly the derivative of ax 2 + bx + c .
(i) Rewrite
(ii)
ax
P (2ax + b)
gives P ln  ax 2 + bx + c 
2
+ bx + c
ax
(iii)
ax
Example:
Q
dx can be easily integrated via completing the square method for
+ bx + c
the denominator.
x 1
1
2x + 1
3
1
dx = 2
dx 2
dx
2 x + x+ 1
2 x + x+ 1
x + x+ 1
2
1
3
1
ln  x 2 + x + 1 
2
2
=2
1
x
+
+
2
1
3 1
2
= 2 ln  x + x + 1  2
3
dx
1
x+
2 + C
tan 1
3
1
2
1 2x + 1
+ C (shown)
= ln  x + x + 1  3 tan
2
3
(i) Rewrite
cx 2 + dx + e
dx
ax 2 + bx + c
cx 2 + dx + e
dx =
ax 2 + bx + c
P ax 2 + bx + c + Q(2ax + b) + R
dx
ax 2 + bx + c
Q(2ax + b)
R
+
dx
2
2
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c
Q(2ax + b)
R
= Px + 2
+
dx
2
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c
where 2ax + b is clearly the derivative of ax 2 + bx + c .
= P +
Q(2ax + b)
gives Q ln  ax 2 + bx + c 
2
+ bx + c
R
dx can be easily integrated via completing the square method for
2
ax + bx + c
the denominator.
(ii)
ax
(iii)
2x 2 + 4x + 1
2 x 2 + x + 1 + (2 x + 1) 2
Example:
dx =
dx
x2 + x + 1
x2 + x + 1
2x + 1
2
= 2x + 2
2
dx
x + x+ 1 x + x+ 1
2 x + ln  x 2 + x + 1  2
1
3
1
x + +
2
2
dx
x+
1
2 + C
tan 1
= 2 x + ln  x 2 + x + 1  2
3
3
2
2
2
= 2 x + ln  x + x + 1 
2x + 1
tan 1
+ C (shown)
3
3
y = f ( x)
y
b
x = g ( y)
a
O
b
x = g ( y)
a
x
O
y = f ( x)
2. Volume:
y = f (x)
y=k
( )
= [ f ( x)] dx k 2 (b a)
2
y
b
x = g ( y)
a
O
y
b
x = g ( y)
a
O
x
x=k
b
( )
= [g ( y )] dy k 2 (b a)
2
z
(vi) arg 1 = arg( z1 ) arg( z 2 )
z2
ote: If a polynomial F ( z ) = 0 has real coefficients throughout its entire
structure, then complex roots (if any) MUST occur in conjugate pairs.
2. Polar representation and laws:
z = r (cos + i sin ) ,
De Moivres Theorem:
If z = r (cos + i sin ) , then z n = r n (cos n + i sin n )
Useful information:
(i) cos( ) = cos ; sin( ) = sin
(ii) If z = r (cos + i sin ) , then z* = r (cos i sin )
(iii) z + z* = 2r cos , z z* = 2r (i sin )
(Note in particular if r = 1 , then z* = cos i sin =
1
)
z
)(
( )
(iii) re i
= re in
Useful information:
(i) If z = re i , then z* = re i
(ii) ( z re i )( z re i ) = z 2 z (re i + re i ) + r 2 = z 2 2 z cos + r 2
z=e
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .. n 1
Note: Ensure that the argument of each single individual complex root is
presented in the standard range required, ie < arg(z ) .
(b) Solving general polynomial equations:
z n = F ( z ) z n = re i ( 2 k + ) , where F (z ) has been transformed into the Eulers
representation and its argument is added to a
mandatory cycling factor 2k
z=e
2 k +
i
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .. n 1
Note: Ensure that the argument of each single individual complex root is
presented in the standard range required, ie < arg(z ) .
5. Physical implications of multiplying one complex number by another:
Consider a complex number z = r1ei1 . If it is multiplied by another complex
number w = r2 ei 2 , then the physical effect is that of changing the length
of the cord joining z and the origin (in the Argand diagram)by a factor of r2 ,
and subsequently rotating this cord by an angle of 2 . The resultant complex
number is therefore r1 r2 e i (1 + 2 ) .
Im
zw
2
1
r1r2
Re
r1
Re
Note: If  z a  b , then the locus shall be the entire interior of the circle
coupled with the boundary of the circle itself. Similar logic must be
applied to varying inequalities for this circular loci construct as well.
(ii)  z a = z b 
Interpretation: Set of variable points denoted by z which are equidistant
from two unique, fixed complex numbers a and b .
Locus: A line that bisects the cord joining complex numbers a and b
in a perpendicular fashion
Im
Re
a
(iii) arg( z a ) =
Interpretation: Set of variable points denoted by z which will form
an argument of around a fixed complex number a .
Locus: A line that is pivoted at a and possesses a standard argument .
Im
a
Re
Vectors Summary
1. Scalar product (dot product):
a b = a  b  cos
Length of projection L=  AB AD 
B
Projection vector AC = ( AB AD ) AD
Foot of perpendicular = OC =OA+AC
[OR =  AB AD  ]
L

m

m

2
1
the two lines.
(iii) Acute angle between two planes:
n n
= cos 1 1 2 where n1 and n2 are the individual normals to the two
 n1  n 2 
planes respectively.
(iv) Acute angle between a line and a plane:
mn
2

m

n

a b = [ a  b  sin ] n
Laws of cross product:
(i) a b = (b a )
~
(iii) a a = 0
Applications:
(i)
Area of triangle=
1
 ab 
2
b
(ii) If four points A, B, C and D are coplanar, then  AB AC  AD = 0
3. Equation of lines:
Representations:
a
d
(i) r = b + e (parametric form) OR r = a + m (condensed form)
c
f
(ii)
xa y b z c
=
=
(cartesian form)
d
e
f
4. Equations of planes:
Representations:
(i) r = a + m1 + m2 (parametric form)
(ii) r n = a n (scalar product form)
(where n = m1 m2 , a is the position vector of a point lying on the plane. )
(iii) ax + by + cz = k (Cartesian form)
(where a, b and c are the components of the normal vector to the plane)
5. Skew lines:
Two lines with equations r = a + m1 and r = b + m2 are said to be skew lines
if they DO +OT intersect at a common point and m1 is +OT PARALLEL to m2 .
6. Determining if line resides in plane:
A line with equation r = a + m is said to reside in the plane r n = k if
(i) m n = 0 (ii) a n = k
k1
k
+ 2 if k1 and k 2 are of different signs
n n
(ii)
k2
k
1 if k1 and k 2 are of the same signs
n n
1 + 3 + 1
3 + 3 = 6
1 + 1
1 + 3 + + 9 + 3 + 1 + = 6
12 + 4 = 4
3 + = 1 = 1 3
2
0
= 1 + 0 (shown)
1
1
B. If both planes are presented in Cartesian form:
Example: x + y + z = 9 (1)
x y + z = 1 (2)
(1)+(2): 2 z = 10 z = 5
Let y = t and substituting this together with z = 5 into (1),
We have x = 4 t
Equation of line of intersection is
x 4 t 4 1
r = y = t = 0 + t 1 (shown)
z 5 5 0
a1
r b1 = d1 ,
c
1
a1
a2
a
3
a2
r b2 = d 2
c
2
b1
c1
b2
b3
c2
c3
a3
r b3 = d 3
c
3
d1
d2
d 3
After reducing the augmented matrix to its row reduced equivalent using the
RREF function of the graphic calculator, 3 possible scenarios arise:
A. The planes intersect at one point, ie there is a unique solution to the matrix.
Example:
4
2 1 1
2 2 3
1
4 2
1
4
1 0 0 1
0 1 0 2
0 0 1 4
2 2 2
1
1 2 1 5
1 6 4
2
1 0 0.5 0
0 1 0.75 0
0 0
0
1
For the third row in the reduced form matrix, 0=1, giving rise to a contradiction,
hence there is no common point to the 3 planes, ie they DO +OT intersect.
2 2 2
1
1 2 1 5
1 6 4 8
1 0 0.5 3.5
0 1 0.75 0.75
0 0
0
0
3
3
3 3
z= y= + z
4
4
4 4
7 1 7
x 2 2 2
2
3 3 3 1
Let z = , then r = y =
+
=
+ 3
4
4
4
4
z
0 1 0
4
7
2 2
3
Therefore, the three planes intersect at the line r=
+ t 3 , where t =
4
4
0 4
Poisson
Characteristics:
(i) n independent trials, whereby each trial
yields two possible outcomes a fixed
constant probability of success p or
failure q = 1 p
(ii) Purely discrete
Definition: X ~ B ( n, p)
Formula:
Definition: X ~ P0 ( )
P ( X = r ) = n C r ( p ) (q )
Mean: = np
Characteristics:
(i) Events occur randomly and singly
(ii) A single parameter (average number of
occurences) defines the distribution and
is proportional to the frame of
measurement ( eg = 1 for 1 week and
therefore = 2 for 2 weeks)
(iii) Purely discrete
nr
Variance: 2 = npq
Formula:
e ( )
r!
Variance: 2 =
P( X = r ) =
Mean: =
(Note that pdf stands for probability density function, while cdf stands for cumulative
density function.)
Binomial to Poisson Approximation:
For a binomial distribution whereby X ~ B ( n, p) , IF np < 5 and p < 0.1 , then
X ~ P0 (np, npq ) approximately. (Note that there is NO poisson to binomial approximation)
NO continuity correction is required since this is a discrete to discrete approximation.
(b) It is very usual for questions to embed a binomial/poisson distribution within another
binomial/poisson distributionstudents must be sufficiently discerning to relate one part
of the context to another. Put it simply, such questions are multilayered.
Example:
Eggs are packed in boxes of 500. On average, 0.8% of the eggs are found to be broken
when the eggs are unpacked.
(i) Find the probability that in a box of 500 eggs, exactly 3 will be broken.
Let the random variable X denote the number of broken eggs
within a box of 500. Then X ~ B (500, 0.008)
(ii) A supermart unpacks 100 boxes of eggs. What is the probability that there will be
exactly 4 boxes containing no broken eggs?
(c) While less common, finding the mode of a distribution via non GC methods can be
examineda detailed worked example will illustrate this better:
Statistics Overview
1. Binomial Distributionfixed sample size, independent trials, fixed probability of
success p
X ~ B (n, p ) P ( X = r )= n C r (q )
nr
( p) r
P ( X < ) = P Z <
aX bY ~ (a1 b 2 , a 2 1 + b 2 2 )
(Care must be exercised when interpreting the question:
2
) approximately
n
[ Keywords in question: sample mean, average]
20(0.3)(0.7)
)
60
6. Sampling:
True population mean and variance is unknown, hence a sample is extracted
to estimate these population parameters.
Unbiased estimate of population mean =
x = ( x a) + a
n
1
Unbiased estimate of population variance =
n 1
( ( x x))
( x ) 2
1
2
n 1
n
( ( x a)) 2
1
2
=
( x a)
n 1
n
n
(sample variance)
n 1
(Note that sampling will be largely utilised in hypothesis testing when certain
population parameters are not given in the question.)
7. Hypothesis testing:
Formulation of hypothesis: H 0 : = 0
(null hypothesis)
H 1 : 0 OR < 0 OR > 0
(Note: the alternate hypothesis must be interpreted accuratelykeywords such as
underestimating, overestimating, difference in mean values aid in laying
out H 1 correctly)
Test to be conducted: Z test (original distribution is normal, variance known)
Z test (original distribution is normal, variance unknownmust be estimated through sampling, sample size
large)
t test (original distribution is normal, variance unknownmust be estimated through sampling, sample size
small)
p value generated must be compared against level of significance
xy
x
x y
n
( x )2
( x a)( y a)
n
( ( x a))2
( x a)
n
y ) lies on the regression line, once b
y=
2
x ,
( x a ) ( y a )
is found
n
n
from the above formula, a can be realised very easily through substitution.
Regression line of x on y :
x = c + dy
d=
xy
y
x y
n
( y )2
n
( x a)( y a)
x ,
( x a ) ( y a )
n
( ( y a))2
( y a)
n
y
) lies on the regression line, once d
y=
2
is found
n
n
from the above formula, c can be realised very easily through substitution.
r=
xy
2
x 2 ( ( x )
1
2
x y
n
2
y 2 ( ( y )
( x a)( y a)
2
( x a ) 2 ( ( x a ) )
1
2
( x a ) ( y a )
n
2
( y a ) 2 ( ( y a ) )
Also note that r 2 = bd , and r will follow the sign (ie positive or negative) depending
on the signs of b and d (either both positive or both negative).
r= 1
r ,
r2
r= 1
r= 1
.
(ii) Show that
= +
4 2( n + 2) 2( n + 3)
r = 1 ( r + 1)( r + 2 )( r + 3)
c. .(i) Express
r
r = 1 ( r + 1)( r + 2 )( r + 3).
2n
d. Evaluate
r 2 + 3k + r
r = n+ 1
( r 2 + r + 1)r! = ( n + 1) 2 n! 4.
r= 2
*f. At the end of a month, a customer owes a bank $1500. In the middle of the
month, the customer pays $x to the bank where x<1000, and at the end of the
month the bank adds interest at a rate of 4% of the remaining amount still owed.
This process continues every month until the money owed is repaid in full.
(i) Find the value of x for which the customer still owes $1500 at the start of every
month.
(ii) Find the value of x for which the whole amount owed is paid off exactly after
the second payment.
(iii) Show that the value of x for which the whole amount owed is paid off exactly
after the (n+1)th payment is given by
x=
1500 r n ( r 1)
, where r=1.04
r n+ 1 1
*g The sum of the first twenty terms of an arithmetic series is 610. The first,
third and eleventh terms of this series are also the third, second and first term
of a geometric series. Find the first term of the geometric series. Find the sum
of the first n terms of the geometric series and find the sum to infinity of
the series.
SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
b. Let the three numbers be ar 1 , a, ar
(ar 1 )(a)(ar ) = 216 ie
Also, ar 3 a = a ar 1
a 3=216 a=6
Since a = 6,
6r 15 = 6r 1 2r 5 + 2r 1 = 0 2r 2 5r + 2 = 0
Solving gives r =
1
or r = 2
2
(shown)
1
)
2
(shown)
where r=1.04
r n+ 1 1
1500r n (r 1)
(shown)
) = 1500r n x =
r1
r n+ 1 1
g.
20
[2a + (20 1)d ] = 610 20a + 190d = 610 (1)
2
Since the first, third and eleventh term of the AP forms a GP,
a
a + 2d
=
a 2 + 10ad = a 2 + 4ad + 4d 2
then
a + 2d a + 10d
Simplifying gives 3a = 2d (2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives a = 2, d = 3
first term of GP=eleventh term of AP=2+10(3)=32 (shown)
a
2
1
=
=
common ration r =
(shown)
a + 2d 2 + 6 4
1 n
32 1
n
4 128 1
(shown)
Sn =
=
1
1
3 4
1
4
S =
a
=
1 r
32
128
=
1
3
1
4
(shown)
1x
*c. Expand
in ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x 2 .
1x
State the set of values of x for which the expansion is valid. Hence find an
19
p
approximation to the fourth root of
in the form
, where p and q are
21
q
positive integers.
SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
( b)( b 2)
b
( ax ) 2 + .........
a. (1 ax ) = 1 + (ab) x +
2!
b2 + b
ab
=
6
By comparison,
and
( a) 2 = 24
2
2
b + b 36
Hence,
( 2 ) = 24
2
b
18(b + b 2 ) = 24b 2
3b 2 + 3b = 4b 2 b 2 3b = 0
Coefficient of x n is =
b = 3, a = 2 (shown)
( 1) n (3)(4)(5)...........(n + 2)
( 1) n a n
n!
(n + 2)! n
a = ( n + 1)(n + 2)2 n 1 (shown)
2n!
b=3
a=2
c.
( n ) (n 1) ( x ) 2 + ........... 1 nx + ( n ) ( n 1) ( x ) 2 + ...........
1 x
n
n
= (1 x) (1 + x) = 1 nx +
2
2
1+ x
n2 n 2
n + n2 2
x
+
..........
.
1
nx
+
x
+
..........
.
= 1 nx +
2
2
n + n2 2
n2 n 2
x nx + n 2 x 2 +
x +.
= 1 nx +
2
2
1 2nx + 2n 2 x 2 (shown)
Expansion is valid for  x < 1 .
Let x =
1
1
, n= ,
20
4
n
1
then 1 x =
1+
1+ x
1 4
1
20 = 19 4 = 1
1
21
20
1 1
3121 (shown)
1 1
2
+ 2
=
3200
4 20
4 20
3. Graphing
ability to obtain equations of asymptotes and turning points of graphs via calculation
ability to do transformation of graphs the forms af(x)+b and/or f(ax+b)
ability to discern qualitatively the physical meaning of transformations,
eg scaling of graph parallel to y axis, translation of graph along x axis etc
ability to appropriately produce graphs of parabolas, hyperbolas, ellipses
and circles.
1
ability to obtain the graphs of f ( x ),  f ( x ) , y 2 = f ( x), y =
, y= f ' x
f ( x)
ability to deduce original graph based on presentation of series of modified
graphs
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
a. The diagram shows the graph of y=f(x). On separate diagrams, sketch the graph of
(i) y =  f ( x) 
(ii) y = f ( x )
(iii) y 2 = f ( x)
1
(iv) y =
f ( x)
1
y =  f ( x) 
(ii) x+y+sin(xy)= 2
b. . If y = e x ln x, (i) Find
dy
.
dx
d 2 y dy
+
(1 + x ) y = 2e x
2
dx
dx
*c. An inverted cone of base radius 4cm and height 8cm is initially filled with water.
Water drips out from the vertex at a rate of 2 cm 3 s 1 . Find the rate of decrease in
the depth of the water in the cone 16 seconds after the dripping starts.
dy
in terms of x and y.
dx
Find the coordinates of each point on the curve x 2 2 xy + 2 y 2 = 4 at which the
tangent is parallel to the x axis.
Show that BC=2( a d cos ec ) and that the area of the cross section ABCD
is 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) .
Show that the maximum value of 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) , as varies,
is d (2a d 3 ) .
By considering the length of BC, show that the cross sectional area can only be
made equal to this maximum value if 2d a 3.
*f . Show that
d
1
(tan 1 x ) =
dx
1+ x2
=
1 + x 2 sec 2 y
dx
2
c.
)(
2
1
1 1 + x tan x + x
x
=
2
1+ x2
1+ x
x 1 + x 2 tan 1 x + x
1 + x 2 tan 1 x + x
=
=
2
1 + x 2 1 + tan 2 y
1 + x 2 1 + x tan 1 x
(
(
)
)(
) (
)[ (
r 4 1
1
= = r= h
h 8 2
2
1 2
1 1 2
1 3
h
At any time t, volume remaining V= r h = ( h) (h) =
3
3 2
12
dV 2
= h
Differentiating V with respect to h,
dh 4
1 3 1
h = (4) 2 (8) 2(16) h 3 = 128
When t =16,
12
3
dV dV dh
dh
=
2 = (3 128 ) 2
By the chain rule,
dt
dh dt
4
dt
dh
= 0.315cms 1 (shown)
dt
dy 3t 2 3t
=
=
dx 2t
2
dy 3
= p
At P,
dx 2
d(ii)
3
p (x p2 )
2
Rearranging gives 2 y 3 px + p 3 = 0 (shown)
Since it passes through (3,5),
2(5)3 p (3)+ p 3 =0 10 + 9 p + p 3 = 0
( p 1)( p 2 + p + 10) = 0
p = 1 and point is ( 12 , 13 ) = ( 1, 1) (shown)
(Quadratic polynomial has no real roots since determinant = b 2 4ac = 39 < 0 )
(shown)
d
AB = CD = d cos ec
e. sin =
AB
BC = 2a AB CD = 2a 2d cos ec = 2(a d cos ec ) (shown)
Area of cross section ABCD
1
2
= 2ad + d (cot 2 cos ec ) (shown)
Let y = 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec )
3
Equation of tangent is y p =
dy
= d 2 cos ec 2 + 2 cot
d
dy
= 0 cos ec 2 = 2 cot
d
1
cos = , =
2
3
2
Maximum value = 2ad + d
cos ec
2
2
= d (2a d 3 ) (shown)
3
3
2
BC = 2 a
d
3
2
d 2d 3a (shown)
Since BC 0, a
3
1
dy
= y. By repeated differentiation of
dx
this result or otherwise, find the Maclaurins expansion for y up to and including
2
b. Given that ln y = sin 1 x, show that 1 x
(iii) Hence show that the first 3 nonzero terms in the expansion of
are 12x8x2 .
sec 2 2x
1tan 2x
dy 1 + x + y
=
,
dx 1 x y
use the substitution u= x+y to solve the differential equation. Deduce that
( x + y ) 2 + 2( x y ) = A , where A is a constant.
SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
c. (
dy 2
dy
) 2 y (sin x ) + y 2 = ( y cos x) 2
dx
dx
(
dy 2
dy
) 2 y (sin x )
= y 2 (cos 2 x 1)
dx
dx
dy 2
dy
) 2 y (sin x )
= y 2 (sin 2 x)
dx
dx
dy
y sin x ) 2 = 0
dx
dy
1 dy
= y sin x
= sin x
dx
y dx
1
dy = sin xdx
y
ln y = cos x + c y = e cos x + C = Ae cos x (shown)
x2 x3
x 2 x3
= 1 [x
+
] = 1 ln(1 + x)
2
3
2
3
By comparison, a=1, b= 1 (shown)
f ( x) = 1 x +
e. (i) y=tanx
Differentiating both sides wrt x gives
dy
=sec 2 x=1tan 2 x=1 y 2
dx
Differentiating both sides again wrt x gives
d2 y
dy
=2y (shown)
2
dx
dx
Differentiating both sides a third time wrt x gives
d3 y
dy 2
d2 y
=2
2y
dx
dx 3
dx 2
f 0=0, f ' 0=1, f ' ' 0=0, f '' ' 0=2
x2
x n (n)
f " (0) + .............. +
f (0) + .......
2!
n!
3
2x
x
= x
=x (shown)
3!
3
x2 x3
(ii) Series expansion for ln 1x =x ........
2 3
x3
Hence, ln 1tanxln [1 x ]
3
3
3 2
3 3
x
1
x
1
x
= x x x
3
2
3
3
3
Collecting all terms up to and including x 3 gives
x3 x2 1
x2 2 x3
(shown)
ln 1tanx x x 3= x
3 2
3
2
3
(iii) ln 1tan2x=2x
2x2 2 2x3
16 x3
=2x2x 2
2
3
3
d
d
16 x 3
[ln 1tan2x]= [2x2x2
]
dx
dx
3
2
2 sec 2x
=24x16 x 2
1tan 2x
2
Therefore,
sec 2x
=12x8x 2 (shown)
1tan 2x
du
dy
= 1+
dx
dx
dy 1 + x + y
=
Substituting into
,
dx 1 x y
du
1+ u
2
= 1+
=
dx
1 u 1 u
(1 u ) du = 2 dx
f. u = x + y
u2
= 2x + C
2
( x + y) 2
( x + y)
= 2x + C
2
2( x + y ) ( x + y ) 2 = 4 x + B
2( y x) ( x + y ) 2 = B
( x + y ) 2 + 2( x y ) = A (shown)
u
6. Functions
ability to prove existence/ non existence of inverse function via
(i) horizontal line test
(ii) proof by contradiction (eg for f x =x 2 , x R , f 1= f 1=1 2
values of x map to the same image y ie no inverse
function exists.)
(Sidenote: a popular feature of questions is to demand students to
show that a certain function is strictly increasing/decreasing for a certain
set of x values this can be done by finding f ' x and proving that
f ' x0 when strictly increasing and f ' x0 when strictly
decreasing )
ability to derive expressions for inverse functions and recognise that
f 1 x can be obtained graphically via reflecting f x in the line
y=x ; also recognise that R f 1 = D f , D f 1 = R f
ability to solve for f x = f 1 x (Note that this is achieved easily
by simply solving f x =x )
ability to discern if composite function eg gf x exists, and to find
the rule and range of the resultant composite function
ability to resize domains of certain single standing functions such that
the inverse or composite versions exist.( eg f x =x 2 , x R ,
having its domain resized to x0 allows for its inverse to exist).
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
*a. The functions f and g are defined as follows.
f : x x 2 4,
g:x
x 5
x 5,
(ii) State the value of A such that {x : x A} for the inverse function to exist.
(iii) Give a reason why the composite function gf does not exist. Write down the
largest domain of f so that the composite function gf exists. With this
restricted domain of f , write down the rule and domain of gf .
*b. The functions f and g are defined by
f : x cos x,
x ,
g : x 2 x 2 + x,
x 1.
f (x) =
2 x 1 for 2 < x 4
(iii) Find
f ( x )dx .
(shown)
(ii) A=0 (shown)
(iii) r f : [4, )
rg : [0, )
x 2 9 (shown)
y
b (i)
1
f ( x) = cos x
1
y
3
g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x
1
1
x
1 1
min pt ( , )
4 8
1
, )
8
Since r f d g , gf exists. (shown)
r f : [ 1 1]
rg : [
(ii)
7
7 6
4
2
10
2
4
1
2
(iii) f ( x )dx = 2 7 x dx + (2)(3 + 7) 2 x 1dx
2
4
0
3
2
x3
4
2
7
x
+
10
=
x2 x 3
3 0
2
2
= 42 6 = 36 (shown)
3
3
(i)
dx
x x+ 1
2
1
3
=
tan )
2
2
1
2
(ii) x sin ( x )dx
x=1
x 2
2
The figure above shows the ellipse ( ) + y = 1 and the line x=1.
2
(i) By using the substitution x = 2 sin , find the area of the shaded region, giving
your answer in an exact form.
(ii) Calculate the volume generated by rotating the shaded region about the yaxis
through 2 radians.
*d. An arc or the curve called the cycloid is given by the parametric equations
x = a (t sin t ) , y = a(1 cos t ) for 0 t 2 . Show that the gradient of
t
the tangent at the point P, with parameter t , is cot and sketch the curve
2
for 0 t 2 . Show that the area enclosed by the x axis is 3 ( a ) 2 .
1
*e. With the aid of the GC, sketch the graph of y =
for x 0 . The region
4 + x2
1
1
y=
bounded by the curve y =
is denoted by
2 and the lines x = 2 and
4+ x
4
R. Show that the volume of the solid obtained when R is rotated completely about
the line x = 2 can be expressed in the form
ln 2 4
1
4
1
8
1 4y
dy
y
(i)
dx
x2 x + 1
dx
1 2
3
) + ( )2
2
2
1
3
Using the substitution x =
tan , the integral becomes
2
2
1
3
1
3
sec d
( sec )d
2
=
= (sec )d
3
3
2
3
tan 2
sec
4
4
2
(x
3
1
+ (x )2
4
2
2
3
3
1
2
1
+ (x )2 ] +
( x )  +C (shown)
4
2
2
3
3
2
1
2
1
2
(ii) x sin ( x )dx =
x2
(sin 1 x 2 )
2
x2
(sin 1 x 2 )
2
x2
1
(
)( 2 x )dx
2 1 x4
x3
(
)dx
1 x4
2
x2
1
4x3
1 2
(sin
x
)
(
)dx = x (sin 1 x 2 ) 1 (2) 1 x 4 + C
=
2
4
2
4
1 x4
2
x
1
= (sin 1 x 2 )
1 x 4 + C (shown)
2
2
1
= x ln(sin x) [ x cos(ln x ) ( x)( ) sin(ln x )dx]
x
= x ln(sin x) x cos(ln x) sin(ln x)dx + B
sin(ln x)dx =
x
[ln(sin x) cos(ln x)] + A (shown)
2
x
Area= 2 ydx = 2 1 dx = 2
2
1
1
2
=2 (2 cos )d = 2
=2 [ +
x
1
2
1 sin 2 (2 cos )d
(1 + cos 2 )d
1
2
3
sin 2 ] 2 =
sq units (shown)
2
3
2
6
3 2
2 2
(1) =2
(ii) Volume= 2 x dy
2
0
d. x = a (t sin t ) = at a sin t
3
2
4(1 y 2 )dy
t
t
a 2 sin cos
dy dy dx
a sin t
a sin t
2
2
=
=
=
t
dx dt dt a a cos t a(1 cos t )
a 1 (1 2 sin 2
2
t
t
t
2 sin cos
cos
2
2 =
2 cot t
=
=
(shown)
t
2
2 t
2 sin
sin
2
2
(Note: the double angle formulas sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x and cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x
were used in the above formulation)
y
a
2 a
Area =
ydx =
2 a
2a
dx
dt =
dt
2
=a
(1 cos t )
dt
2
=a
(1 2 cos t + cos t ) dt
2
cos 2t +
2
= a 1 2 cos t +
2
0
1
dt
1
1
= a t 2 sin t + sin 2t + t
4
2 0
= a 2 [ ( 2 + ) (0)] = 3 ( a ) 2 (shown)
e.
1
4
1
8
1
4
2
Volume generated V = ( 2 x) dy (1)
1
8
y=
1
1
4 + x2 =
2
y
4+ x
x2 =
1
1 4y
4=
y
y
x=
1 4y
y
1
4
1
4
1
8
1
8
2
2
Put this into (1), we have V = ( 2 x) dy = 4 4 x + x dy
1
4
= 4 4
1
8
1
4
= 4 4
1
8
1
4
1
8
1 4y 1 4y
+
dy
y
y
1 4y 1
+ 4dy
y
y
1
1 4y
4
dy
y
y
1 1
= ln 4
4 8
= ln 2 4
1
4
1
8
1
4
1
8
1 4y
dy
y
1 4y
dy (shown)
y
8. Complex numbers
ability to relate to the core formulas of complex numbers, ie z+z*=2Re(z), zz*=z 2 ,
arg(z 1 z 2 )=arg(z 1 )+arg(z 2 ), (a+b)*=a*+b* etc ; these are highly relevant
especially in the context of abstract complex number questions.
possess a firm grasp of the various complex number representations, namely
cartesian, polar and exponential(or Eulers) forms.
appreciate the geometrical implications of multiplying (or dividing) one complex
i
Sketch the following loci in a single Argand diagram, labeling each locus clearly.
(i) z+1+i=1i
(ii) arg (iz1+i)=
3
4
Find the complex number that represents the point of intersection of the two loci.
*d. By using a graphical method, or otherwise, find the complex numbers z such that
z2= 11 and z3=4.
z = cos + i sin = e i , show that z n + z n = 2 cos n and
1 4
z n z n = 2i sin n . By considering the expansion of ( z + ) , show that
z
4
8 cos = cos 4 + 4 cos 2 + 3. Find a similar expression for sin 4 by
1 4
considering ( z ) .
z
*e. . By letting
*f. (i) Show that, for all complex numbers z and all real numbers ,
( z e i )( z e i ) = z 2 2(cos ) z + 1 .
(ii) Find the seven complex numbers which satisfy the equation z 7 1 = 0.
(iii) Hence, show that, for all complex numbers z,
2
4
6
z 7 1 = ( z 1)[ z 2 2 cos( ) z + 1][ z 2 2 cos( ) z + 1][ z 2 2 cos( ) z + 1] .
7
7
7
FULL SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
2
2
) + i sin(
)]
3
3
2n
2n
w n = 4 n [cos(
) + i sin(
)] (shown)
3
3
2n
2n
2n
2n
) + i sin(
)] + 4 n [cos(
) i sin(
)]
w n + ( w n ) * = 4 n [cos(
3
3
3
3
2n
n
)
= 2(4 ) cos(
3
a. w = 2 2 3i = 4[cos(
2 n
[ cos 3 =0.5 ].
c.
arg (iz1+i)=
3
4
2
3
4
1
Re
i
z+1+i=1i
(i) z+1+i=1i z+1+i= 2 (circle with centre 1i and radius of
1
(ii) iz1+i= (i)(z + 1) =(i) (z+i+1)
i
arg(iz1+i)=arg[(i)(z+i+1)]=arg(i)+arg(z+i+1)=
2 units)
+arg(z+i+1)
2
+arg(z+i+1)=
,
4
2
4
5 3
ie arg(z+i+1)=
=
( line pivoted at 1i and inclined at an angle of
4
4
3
to the horizontal)
4
From the argand diagram, point of intersection is z= 2. (shown)
Hence, arg(iz1+i)=
d. .
Im
7i
11 units
2
4 units
 7i
Re
7i . (shown)
e. z n = e in = cos n + i sin n
z n = e in = cos n i sin n
z n + z n = 2 cos n z n z n = 2i sin n
1
1
1
1
1
( z + ) 4 = z 4 + 4 z 2 + 6 + 4( 2 ) + 4 = ( z 4 + 4 ) + 6 + 4( z 2 + 2 )
z
z
z
z
z
( 2 cos ) 4 = 2 cos 4 + 6 + 8 cos 2
16 cos 4 = 2 cos 4 + 6 + 8 cos 2
8 cos 4 = cos 4 + 3 + 4 cos 2 (shown)
(z
1 4
1
1
1
1
) = z 4 4 z 2 + 6 4( 2 ) + 4 = ( z 4 + 4 ) + 6 4( z 2 + 2 )
z
z
z
z
z
1
(cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3) (shown)
8
)(
f. (i) z e i z e i = z 2 z e i + e i + 1
= z 2 2 z cos + 1 (shown)
(ii) z 7 1 = 0 z 7 = 1 = e i 2 k
z= e
2 k
( i )
k = 0 7
( i ) 2
7
(iii) z 1 = ( z 1) z e
( i)
z e 7
( i ) 6
z e 7
( i)
z e 7
( i ) 4
z e 7
( i)
z e 7
2
4
6
2
+ 1 z 2 2 z cos
+ 1 z 2 2 z cos
+ 1 (shown)
= ( z 1) z 2 z cos
7
7
7
9. Vectors
ability to understand the core vector concepts namely: ratio theorem,
projection vectors (including foot of perpendicular from point to plane/line,
shortest distance from point to plane/line), cartesian, parametric and scalar
product representation of planes and lines, acute angles between lines, a plane and
a line as well as between 2 planes, intersection of 2 lines and intersection of 2 or
3 planes( note that one popular feature of questions is to disguise the solving of
intesection of planes under the pretext of asking the student to intepret set of
conditions for a system of linear equations), skew lines.
appreciate the notion of scalar and vector(cross) products, and
their application in solving abstract vector questions (Note that the cross
product is also commonly employed in finding area of parallelograms as
and triangles)
ability to reconcile the various concepts coherently when solving questions
and competently understand the unique configuration of the question context
to enhance efficiency.
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
^
the coordinates of C,
The area of the triangle ABC,
The distance from C to AB.
x
+ 1 = y = ( z 6) meets the plane with
2
Cartesian equation 2x+3y+z=6 at the point P. The point Q with position vector
4i+3j3k lies on the line L.
(i) Write down a vector equation of the line L and the vector equation of the plane
in scalar product form.
(ii) Find the position vector of P.
1
). Hence, or
21
otherwise, find the length of the projection of PQ onto the plane .
1
(iii) Show that the acute angle between line L and plane is sin (
*c. Find, in the form r n = d , the equation of the plane containing three points
whose position vectors are i+j+k, i+2j+2k and 2i+2j+4k.
Find, in the form r=p+tq, the equation of the image of the line r=i+j+k+ (i5k)
reflected in this plane.
*d. Relative to an origin O, the position vectors of points A and B are a and b
respectively, and c is the position vector of the point C on AB which divides AB
in the ratio 3: 1. Given that angle AOB is acute, show that the length d of the
projection of OC on OB is given by
3
a b
d=  b  +
.
4
4b
*e. Given that the system of linear equations
x y 3 z=
3 x y4 z=9
x y =3
, R
x+ 2
z 6
equation of line L is r = 0 + 1
= y=
b. (i)
2
1
6
1
2 + 2
3 = 6
1
2
Solving gives = 2 . Hence, position vector of P= 2 . (shown)
4
(iii)
3
1
2
1 =
1
Hence, sin =
c.
14 6 cos(
2
84
1 1
n = [ 2 1 ]
2 1
1
21
)=
2
14 6 sin
1
= sin 1 (
2 1
[ 2 2 ] =
4 2
21
(shown)
3
1
2 1
Therefore, equation of plane is r 3 = 1
1 1
r 3 = 6 (shown)
1
3
1
3 = 6
1
0 0
5
line to be reflected is not parallel to the plane and cuts the plane at an angle.
0
C
0 2
Equation of line AB is r = 1 + t 3
4 1
2t 2
1
When this line intersects the plane, 1 + 3t 3 = 6 t =
2
4+ t 1
0
2
OB = 1 + 3
4 2 1
0
2
and AB = OB OA = [ 1 + 3 ]
4 2 1
0
2
1 = 3
4 2 1
AC = 2AB = 3
1
0 2 2
OC = OA + AC = 1 + 3 = 4
4 1 3
2 1 1
DC = OC OD = 4 1 = 3 parallel to
3 1 4
3
4
r = 1 + 3 (shown)
1
4
d.
B
C
O
OC =
OA + 3OB 1
3
= a+ b
4
4
4
C
B
d
1
a b 3b b 1
a 3b
a 3b
d = OC b = +
+
b= +
b
=
b
b
4
4
4 4
4 4
a b 3  b 2
a b
+
+
=
4b 4b
4b
3b
+
=
4
3  b 2
[ a b 0 since angle AOB is acute]
4b
a b
(shown)
4b
e. The question can be interpreted in the context of 3 planes having a common line
of intersection.
Considering the 2 planes with equations 3x y 4 z=9 and x y =9 , their
common line of intersection can be found as follows :
3x y 4z=9 (1)
x y =3 (2)
From (2), we have y =3 x ; substituting this into (1) gives
3 x
3 x3 x4 z=9 2 x4 z=6 z =
2 2
x
0
1
x
3x
3
1
=
x
Hence, line of intersection L is given by r = y =
3 x
3
1
z
2 2
2
2
0
3 2
2
3
1
2
2
1
1
2 =0 = ( L is perpendicular to the normal of the third plane
2
1
3
and
0
1
9
1 9
3
= =3 =3 =3 (shown)
3
2
2
2
3
2
b. Using the method of completing the square, show that 4x 24x3 is always positive.
32x243
4 .
Hence, without the use of a graphic calculator, solve the inequality 2
x 7x60
*c. A , B and C denote angles which constitute a triangle. It is further known that:
1
sin AB = and sin BC =cos B C . Find the values of A , B and
2
C in degrees.
FULL SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
a.
1
x
<
x 3 x+ 1
1
x
< 0
x 3 x+ 1
x + 1 x( x 3)
< 0
( x 3)( x + 1)
+ve
x + 4x + 1
< 0
( x 3)( x + 1)
ve
+ve
ve
+ve
1
2+
x 2 4x 1
> 0
( x 3)( x + 1)
( x 2) 2 5
( x 3)( x + 1)
> 0
x < 1, 2
5 < x < 3,
x > 2+
5 (shown)
1
1
<
e 3 1+ ex
x
1
1
<
e 3 1+ 1
e x
x
1
e x
<
e x 3 e x + 1
and e x > 2 +
5 x < ln(2 +
5 ) (shown)
c. A BC =180 (1)
1
1 1
Since sin AB = 2 , then A B=sin 2 =30 (2)