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Functions Summary

1. Definitions
Domain ( D f ) : set of x values for which the function f (x) is defined.
Range ( R f ) : set of y values for which the function f ( x) is defined.
For completeness of description, any function definition must include a
reference domain, eg f : x x 2 + 2 , x 0
2. Vertical line test
A function is properly defined if no two unique distinct values of y are associated
with the same x value. A vertical line test aids in ascertaining this-if any vertical
line drawn cuts through the graphical representation of the candidate definition
at two or more points, then that definition is not a function.
Example: y 2 = x is not a function because a vertical line drawn typically cuts
through its graph at two points.(see below)
y

y2 = x

3. Horizontal line test


A function is said to be injective (1-1) if every element within its domain maps
directly to a unique, distinct image, ie every x value yields a unique
corresponding y value. This can be verified via the horizontal line test, ie a
horizontal line drawn at any level will only cut the function once(see below).
y

Note: functions that are strictly increasing/decreasing in the specified domain


will always be 1-1.
4. Inverse functions
A function f (x) is said to have an inverse f 1 ( x) if it is 1-1. This inverse function
is obtained graphically by reflecting the original function in the line y = x.
y

f 1 ( x)

y=x

f ( x)

Properties: R f 1 = D f , D f 1 = R f
To find an expression for f 1 ( x) :
(i) Let y = f ( x)
(ii) Through manipulation, make x the subject such that x = g ( y )
(iii) Replace the function in y entirely with x , ie f 1 ( x) = g ( x)
Note: (a) If f ( x) is of the form ax 2 + bx + c , completing the square is required
to obtain x in terms of y .
(b) If f ( x) = f 1 ( x) is required to be solved, it is typically more convenient
to simply solve for x through the formulation of f ( x) = x .
(c) Functions that originally do not possess an inverse can have their domains
shrunk such that an inverse function becomes realisable.
Example: y = x 2 , x does not have an inverse, but
y = x 2 , x 0 has an inverse.

5. Composite functions
A composite function of the form fg ( x) is said to exist if the range of g ( x)
is a subset of the domain of f ( x) , ie R g D f . Note that the domain of fg ( x)
is simply the domain of g ( x) , ie D fg = D g .

To determine the range of the composite function fg ( x) :


Method 1
(i) Find R g D f
(ii) The result from (i) will serve as the input domain to f ( x) .
(iii) Obtain the corresponding range of f ( x) based on the new domain in (ii).
This range is there fore the range of fg ( x) .
Method 2
(i) Recognise that D fg = D g .
(ii) Find an expression for fg ( x) , and subsequently its graphical representation.
(iii)Use D g as the input domain for fg ( x) , and subsequently obtain the
corresponding range graphically. This range is there fore the range of fg ( x) .

Graphing Techniques Summary


A. Fundamental knowledge of the following graphs is highly essential:
1. Graphs of the form y =

ax + b
cx + d

x +1
x 1
The asymptotes for this equation are x = 1 and y = 1 ; this is achieved by having
y and x respectively.

Example: y =

The workings are as follows:


x 1 =

x +1
; as y , x 1 0 x = 1 is a vertical asymptote
y

1
1
1+

x + 1 x
x ; as x , y 1 + 0 = 1 y = 1 is a horizontal
y=
=

1 0
x 1 1 1 1

x
x
asymptote

Using this information, coupled with the relevant x and y intercepts, allows the
graph to be realised rather easily:
y

-1
0

-1

y=

x +1
x 1

ax 2 + bx + c
2. Graphs of the form y =
ex + f
Example: y =

x2 + 2
x 1

To find the asymptotes:

x 1 =

y=

x2 + 2
; as y , x 1 0 x = 1 is a vertical asymptote
y

x 2 + 2 x( x 1) + ( x 1) + 3
3
=
= x +1+
; as x ,
x 1
x 1
x 1

y x + 1 + 0 y = x + 1 is an oblique asymptote.

The graph is presented below:


y

y = x +1

1
-1
0

x2 + 2
y=
x 1

x =1

Note: The turning points (1 + 3, 2 + 2 3 ) and (1 3, 2 2 3 ) can be


dy
obtained by setting
= 0 . This graph has no intersection with the axes.
dx

3. Graphs of the form y = ax 2 or y 2 = ax (Parabolas)


y

y = a2 x 2

y = a1 x 2

0
a3 < 0 < a1 < a 2
y = a3 x 2

Note that while the graph is symmetrical about the y -axis, this symmetry can
be altered via a transformation, eg y = a( x 5) 2 is now symmetrical about
the line x =5.
y

0
y 2 = a1 x
y 2 = a3 x

y 2 = a2 x

a3 < 0 < a1 < a 2

4. Graphs of the form

( x a ) 2 ( y b) 2
+
= 1 (Ellipses)
A2
B2
y

B
A

( a,b)

Note that if A = B , then the ellipse becomes a circle centered at (a, b) with radius A
units. When an ellipse is presented in a quadratic form, completing the square is
required to fashion the equation into the structure above for extraction of its relevant
characteristics.
Example: 9 x 2 54 x + 4 y 2 + 32 y + 109 = 0
9( x 2 6 x) + 4( y 2 + 8 y ) + 109 = 0
9( x 3) 2 81 + 4( y + 4) 2 64 + 109 = 0
9( x 3) 2 + 4( y + 4) 2 36 = 0
9( x 3) 2 + 4( y + 4) 2 = 36
( x 3) 2 ( y + 4) 2
+
= 1 (Divide both sides by 36)
4
9
( x 3) 2 ( y + 4) 2
+
=1
22
32
5. Graphs of the form ( x a) 2 + ( y b) 2 = r 2 (Circles)
y
r

(a, b)

6. Graphs of the form


Example:

x2 y2

= 1 (Hyperbolas)
a 2 b2

x2 y2

=1
4
9

When x = 0, y 2 = 9 there are no y -intercepts.


When y = 0, x 2 = 4 x = 2
Hence, the graph has 2 x -intercepts at (2,0) and (-2,0)
x2 y2
y2 x2

=1
=
1
4
9
9
4
y2
x2
3
When x ,

y = x are oblique asymptotes.


9
4
2
y

-2

0
2

x
y

=1
4
9
y=

3
x
2

3
y= x
2

B. Transformation of graphs
1. Operations on y -coordinates:
Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
y = af ( x) Scaling of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the y -axis by a factor of a .
y = f ( x) + b Translation of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the y -axis by b units.
y

y = f ( x) + b (b > 0)

y = af ( x) (a > 1)
y = f ( x)

x
0

2. Operations on the x -coordinates:


Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
1
.
a
y = f ( x b) Translation of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the x -axis by b units
y = f (ax) Scaling of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the x -axis by a factor of

y
y = f ( x)

y = f (ax) (a < 1)

y = f ( x)

y = f ( x b) (b > 0)

Note: for (1) and (2), both a and b can assume the set of real values , although
specific instances of the various graph transformations (eg for y = af ( x) ,
only a > 1 was considered ) were illustrated due to space constraints. A combination
of transformations can exist as well, for example, y = f [a( x b)] implies the graph is
1
scaled parallel to the x -axis by a factor of , and subsequently translated horizontally
a
along the x -axis by b units.

3. Miscellaneous transformations:
Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
y =| f ( x) | Reflection of all graph segments below the x -axis about the
x -axis, keeping all other segments unchanged.

y = f ( x ) Erasure of graph segment for x < 0 , followed by a reflection of the


graph segment for x > 0 about the y -axis.

To obtain y 2 = f ( x) ,
(i) Erase all graph segments below the y -axis.
(ii) For the graph segment above the y -axis, draw a guiding line y = 1 .
(iii) All points with y -coordinates =0 or 1 will remain invariant (unchanged).
(iv) The new graph will exist above the original for y < 1 , and subsequently below
the original for y > 1
(v) Reflect the resulting graph about the x -axis.

Example:

y=x

y2 = x
1
graph above the original

graph below the original

1
0

To obtain y =

1
,
f ( x)

(i) All x intercepts will become vertical asymptotes, and vice-versa.


(ii) All maximum points will become minimum points, and vice-versa.
(iii) Graph segments which were decreasing with x will now increase
with x , and vice versa.
(iv) All y values shall be inverted, with the exception of x intercepts.
(v) Graph segments that were originally above the y -axis shall remain
in the same region; this applies to graph segments below the y -axis as well.

Example:
y

0
y = f ( x)

y=

1
f ( x)

Maclaurins Series Summary


1. Mathematical Representation
x2
x n ( n)
f ( x) = f (0) + xf ' (0) +
f " (0) + .............. +
f (0) + .......
2!
n!
where f (n ) (0) denotes the value of the nth derivative when x = 0 .
2. Expansions of specific standard series (Available in MF15)
ex = 1+ x +

x 2 x3
xr
+ + ......... +
+ .....
2! 3!
r!

( 1) x 2r +1 + ..........
x3 x5
+ ........... +
3! 5!
(2r + 1)!
r

sin x = x

(
x2 x4
1) x 2 r
cos x = 1
+
........... +
+ ..........
2! 4!
(2r )!
r

r +1

ln(1 + x) = x

x 2 x3
( 1) x r + .......... ,
+ ........... +
2
3
r

1 x 1

Note: (i) There is no Maclaurins series expansion for ln x because f (n ) (0)


is undefined for all n .
(ii) Substitutions can be performed to realise the series expansion for
2
3
r
(
2 x ) (2 x )
(
2x)
2x
certain expressions, eg e = 1 + 2 x +
+
+ ......... +
+ .....
2!
3!
r!
3. Question structures
The typical question is comprised of two parts-namely a function being given and
it is required of the student to produce its Maclaurins series expansion up to
a specified term x n through repeated differentiation; in certain instances, the
proving of specific landmark differential equations are needed as well. The
second part of the question usually employs the expansion found in the first part
to explore the expansions of other related series-this is usually achieved through
differentiation/integration of the original expansion, or a combination of other
well known series expansions. Alternatively, it could also be used for
approximation purposes in evaluating the value of certain numeric entities.
Sample questions:
dy
y 3 = e x sin x.
Proving DE
dx
By further differentiation of this result, or otherwise, find the Maclaurins series for
y, up to and including the term in x 2 .
First part of question

a. Given that y 3 = e x cos x, show that 3 y 2

cos x
, up to and including the term
ex
Second part of question (exploring expansion of other
series)

Hence write down the Maclaurins series for


in x 2 .

b. Determine the Maclaurins expansion for sec x tan x , up to and including the
term in x 3 .
First part of question
Show that, to this degree of approximation, sec x tan x can be expressed as
a + b ln(1 + x ) where a and b are constants to be determined.

Second part of question(utilisation of knowledge of existing expansions)

dy
= y.
Proving DE
dx
By repeated differentiation of this result or otherwise, find the Maclaurins
expansion for y up to and including the term in x 3 .
First part of
question

c. Given that ln y = sin 1 x, show that 1 x 2

Deduce the approximate value of e 6 .

Second part of question ( approximating a value)

4. Small angle approximations


When x is small,
sin x x ,

x2
cos x 1
,
2

tan x x

Differentiation Techniques Summary


Function

Derivative

ax n

nax n 1

ax n + bx m

nax n 1 + bmx m1

(ax + b) n

an(ax + b) n 1

[ f ( x)]n

n[ f ( x)]

n1

[ f ' ( x )]

sin[ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]cos[ f ( x)]

cos[ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]sin[ f ( x)]

tan[ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]sec 2 [ f ( x)]

cos ec[ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]cos ec[ f ( x)]cot[ f ( x)]

sec[ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]sec[ f ( x)] tan[ f ( x)]

cot[ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]cos ec 2 [ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x)]
2
1 [ f ( x )]

sin 1 [ f ( x)]

cos 1 [ f ( x)]

tan 1 [ f ( x)]

[ f ' ( x )]
2
1 [ f ( x )]

[ f ' ( x )]
2
1 + [ f ( x )]

Function

Derivative

a f ( x)

a f ( x ) (ln a) f ' ( x)

e f ( x)

f ' ( x )e f ( x )

ln f ( x)

f ' ( x)
f ( x)

Product Rule:

Quotient Rule:

d u
=
dx v

d
dv
du
(uv) = u + v
dx
dx
dx

du
dv
u
dx
dx
2
v

Implicit Differentiation:
d
d
dy
f ( y) =
f ' ( y)
dx
dy
dx

Knowledge of proving specific differential identities:


d
1
(tan 1 x) =
dx
1+ x2
Let y = tan 1 x , then tan y = x

1. Show that

Differentiating both sides wrt x gives sec 2 y

dy
dy
1
=1
=
dx
dx sec 2 y

dy
1
1
=
=
2
dx 1 + tan y 1 + x 2

(Similar approaches shall be taken for proving the derivatives of sin 1 x and cos 1 x)

d x
(a ) = (ln a )(a x )
dx
x
Let y = a , then ln y = x ln a

2. Show that

1 dy
dy
Differentiating both sides wrt x gives = ln a
= y (ln a)
dx
y dx
dy

= (a x )(ln a ) (shown)
dx
!ote that many other variations can surface within the examinations, where
techniques like implicit differentiation, product rule or quotient rule may have to be
employed.
Manipulation of derivatives to achieve targeted differential equations:
Example: If y = e x ln x, (a) Find

dy
.
dx

(b) Show that x

d 2 y dy
+
(1 + x) y = 2e x
2
dx
dx

SOLUTIO!S :
dy
1
1
= e x + e x ln x = e x + y
dx
x
x

d2y
1
1 dy
= ex ex 2 +
2
dx
x
x dx
d2y
dy
1
1
= ex ex + x
= e x e x + e x + xy
2
dx
dx
x
x
d2y
1
x 2 + e x xy = 2e x
dx
x

d 2 y dy
+
y xy = 2e x
2
dx
dx

d 2 y dy
+
(1 + x) y = 2e x (shown)
2
dx
dx

Applications of Differentiation Summary


1. Parametric Equations/Tangents/ormals:
For a set of parametric descriptions whereby x = f (t ), y = g (t ) ,
dy g ' (t )
=
dx f ' (t )
Equation of tangent:
Equation of normal:

g ' (t )
[x f (t )]
f ' (t )
f ' (t )
y g (t ) =
[x f (t )]
g ' (t )
y g (t ) =

Question types:
Example: A curve has parametric equations
x = 1 + 2 sin , y = 4 + cos .
P is a point on the curve where =

. Find the area of the triangle bounded by


6
the tangent and normal at P, as well as the y-axis.

SOLUTIOS :
At point P , x = 2, y = 4 +

3
2

dy dy dx sin
dy
1
=

=
= tan At P,
=
dx d d
cos
dx
2 3

Equation of tangent: y (4 +

3
1
)=
( x 2)
2
2 3

When it cuts the y axis, x = 0 y = 4 +

3 1
+
2
3

3
) = 2 3 ( x 2)
2
7 3
When it cuts the y axis, x = 0 y = 4
2
y
tangent

Equation of normal: y (4 +

0
normal

2 units

Area of triangle =

1
( 2)
2

3
1
7 3
1
13
4
= 4 3 +
+
=
units
4 +

2
2
3
3
3

(shown)

Example: A curve is defined by the parametric equations x = t 2 , y = t 3 . Show that the


equation of the tangent to the curve at the point P ( p 2 , p 3 ) is
2 y 3 px + p 3 = 0. Show that there is just one point on the curve at which
the tangent passes through the point (-3,-5), and determine the coordinates
of this point.
SOLUTIOS :
dy 3t 2 3t
=
=
dx 2t
2
dy 3
At P,
= p
dx 2
3
p (x p2 )
2
Rearranging gives 2 y 3 px + p 3 = 0 (shown)
Since it passes through (-3,-5),
2(-5)-3 p (-3)+ p 3 =0 10 + 9 p + p 3 = 0

Equation of tangent is y p 3 =

( p 1)( p 2 + p + 10) = 0
p = 1 and point is ( 12 , 13 ) = ( 1, 1) (shown)

(Quadratic polynomial has no real roots since determinant = b 2 4ac = 39 < 0 )

2. Rates of Change:
The chain rule is typically used in such questions; variations of this rule include the
following:
dV dV dh
dV dV dr
dA dA dA
=

,
=
,
=

etc
dt
dh dt
dr
dr dt
dr dr dt
Where V , A, r , h typically denote volume, area, radius and height quantities
respectively. Ensure knowledge of the separate derivatives are thorough and
dV
describes the rate of change of volume.
clear, eg
dt
Popular formulas:
1
4
Volume of Cone (r 2 )h ; Volume of Sphere (r 3 ) ;
3
3
2
Surface area of Sphere 4 r

( )

Question types:
Example: An inverted cone of base radius 4cm and height 8cm is initially filled with

water. Water drips out from the vertex at a rate of 2 cm 3 s 1 . Find the
rate of decrease in the depth of the water in the cone 16 seconds after the
dripping starts.
SOLUTIOS :

r 4 1
1
= = r= h
h 8 2
2
1
1 1
1
At any time t, volume remaining V= r 2 h = ( h) 2 (h) = h 3
3
3 2
12
dV 2
= h
Differentiating V with respect to h,
dh 4
1 3 1
When t =16,
h = (4) 2 (8) 2(16) h 3 = 128
12
3
dV dV dh

dh
=

2 = (3 128 ) 2
By the chain rule,
dt
dh dt
4
dt

dh
= 0.315cms 1 (shown)
dt

3. Maxima/Minima problems:
Maxima/minima problems typically employ the concept of stationary values, and
ascertaining the nature of those values (ie maximum or minimum) via the sign test
or investigating the second derivative if it is reasonably easy to attain.
Question types:
Example:
A length of channel of given depth d is to be made from a rectangular sheet of
metal of width 2a. The metal is to be bent in such a way that the cross section
ABCD is as shown in the figure, with AB+BC+CD= 2a and with AB and CD
inclined to the line BC at an angle .

A
d

Show that BC=2( a d cos ec ) and that the area of the cross section ABCD
is 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) .
Show that the maximum value of 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) , as varies,

is d (2a d 3 ) .
By considering the length of BC, show that the cross sectional area can only be
made equal to this maximum value if 2d a 3.
SOLUTIOS :
d
AB = CD = d cos ec
AB
BC = 2a AB CD = 2a 2d cos ec = 2(a d cos ec ) (shown)
Area of cross section ABCD
1

= 2d (a d cos ec ) + 2 (d )(d cot ) = 2d (a d cos ec ) + d (d cot )


2

2
= 2ad + d (cot 2 cos ec ) (shown)
sin =

Let y = 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec )


dy
= d 2 cos ec 2 + 2 cot cos ec
d
dy
= 0 cos ec 2 = 2 cot cos ec cos ec = 2 cot
d
1

cos = , =
2
3
1
2
Maximum value = 2ad + d 2
2
= d (2a d 3 ) (shown)
3
3

BC = 2(a d cos ec ) , putting in =

2
BC = 2 a
d
3

Since BC 0, a

2
3

d 2d 3a (shown)

Example:
The equation of a curve is y = ax 2 2bx + c, where a, b and c are constants, a>0.
Find, in terms of a, b and c, the coordinates of the turning point on the curve, and
state whether it is a maximum or minimum point.
SOLUTIOS :
dy
= 2ax 2b
dx
dy
b
b2
=0 x = , y =c
dx
a
a
2
b
b2
d y

is a minimum point.
=
2
a
>
0
[
Q
a
>
0
]
Hence,
,
c

a
a
dx 2

y = ax 2 2bx + c

Differential Equations Summary


1. First order differential equations
a. Variables Separable DE:
Arrange through manipulation such that the form below is achieved:
f ( x)dx = g ( y )dy
Integrate subsequently to yield the required solution.
Example: Solve

dy
= 1 y for y<1.
dx

SOLUTIO :

dy
1 dy
= 1 y
=1
dx
1 y dx
1

dy = dx
1 y
ln | 1 y |= x + C
Since y < 1, ln(1 y ) = x + C

1 y = e x+ B
y = 1 Ae x

where A = e B , B = c

(shown)

This solution is commonly termed the GEERAL SOLUTIO, where A is


unknown. When initial conditions are provided, eg y =0 when x =0, then A
assumes a specific value and the solution is termed the PARTICULAR SOLUTIO.
When we use the GC to plot out a series of graphs for various values of A , the result
is that we produce a family of solution curves.

b. Reduction through substitution:


The introduction of an intermediate variable aids in reducing the original
differential equation to a far simpler version which is readily solvable.
Example: Use the substitution y= vx , where v is a function of x, to solve the
dy
differential equation x
= 3x + y .
dx
SOLUTIO :
dy
dv
y = vx
=v+ x
dx
dx
Substituting into the differential equation gives
dv

x v + x = 3 x + vx
dx

dv
dv 3
= 3x
=
dx
dx x
3
dv = x dx
v = 3 ln | x | +C
y = 3 x ln | x | +Cx (shown)
x2

2. Second order differential equations:


d2y
= f ( x) , whereby running the
dx 2
DE through two iterations of integration will yield the required solution.

Second order DEs are typically of the form

Example:

d 2s
= g
dt 2

Integrating twice wrt t gives:


and

ds
= gt + A
dt
gt 2
s=
+ At + B (shown)
2

3. Modelling a problem through the usage of a differential equation:


Typically the question demands the student to first formulate a DE relating
to the context of the situation, and subsequently solve it. Realise that the
formulation of a DE involves the following considerations:
(i) Constants of proportionality
(ii) Net rate, which is usually composed of an in rate and out rate,
eg birth rate - death rate
Example: The growth of a particular species of insect is studied in an experimental
environment. The rate of death is proportional to the number in
thousands, x , of insects, at any time t days after the start of the
experiment. The rate of birth is proportional to x 2 . When x = 2,
the number of larvae hatched is equal to the number of insects that
dx
died. Show that
= ax( x 2) where a is a constant.
dt
SOLUTIO :
dx
= Birth rate minus death rate
dt
= ax 2 bx
dx
When x = 2,
=0
dt

a(2) 2 2b = 0 b = 2a
dx

= ax 2 2ax = ax( x 2) (shown)


dt

Example: A rectangular tank has a horizontal base. Water is flowing into the tank at a
constant rate, and flows out at a rate which is proportional to the depth of
water in the tank. At time t seconds the depth of the water in the tank is x
metres. If the depth is 0.5m, it remains at this constant value. Show that
dx
= k (2 x 1), where k is a positive constant.
dt
SOLUTIO :
dx
= flowing in rate minus flowing out rate
dt

= k Ax
When x = 0.5,
k

dx
=0
dt

1
A = 0 A = 2k
2

dx
= k 2kx = 2kx + k = k (2 x 1) (shown)
dt

Integration Techniques Summary


1. List of basic formulas:
Function

Integrated Result

ax n

ax n + 1
n+ 1

(ax + b) n

(ax + b) n + 1
( a ) (n + 1)

[ f ' ( x)][ f ( x)] n

[ f ( x )] n + 1
n+ 1

[ f ' ( x )]
2
+ [ f ( x )]

1
f ( x)
tan 1
a
a

[ f ' ( x )]
[ f ( x )] 2 a 2

1
f ( x) a
ln
2a f ( x ) + a

[ f ' ( x )]
2
[ f ( x )]

1
a + f ( x)
ln
2a a f ( x )

[ f ' ( x)]
2
a [ f ( x)]

f ( x)
sin 1
a

f ' ( x) a f ( x )

1 f ( x)
a
ln a

f ' ( x )e f ( x )

e f ( x)

f ' ( x)
f ( x)

ln | f ( x) |

Function

Integrated Result

f ' ( x) cos[ f ( x )]

sin [ f ( x)]

f ' ( x) sin[ f ( x)]

cos[ f ( x )]
tan[ f ( x)]

f ' ( x) sec 2 [ f ( x)]

cot[ f ( x)]

f ' ( x) cos ec 2 [ f ( x)]


f ' ( x) cos ec[ f ( x)] cot[ f ( x )]

cos ec[ f ( x)]

tan x

ln | cos x |

cot x

ln | sin x |

sec x

ln | sec x + tan x |

cos ecx

ln | cos ecx cot x |

2. Miscellaneous trigonometric integrals:


n
n
a. sin xdx and cos xdx :

If n is odd, separate a single sin x or cos x from the original function, and use the
identity sin 2 x + cos 2 x = 1 .
Example:

sin

xdx =

(sin x )( sin x ) dx = (1 cos


2

x)(sin x)dx

cos 3 x
+ C (shown)
3
If n is even, use the double angle formula of either cos 2 x = 2 cos 2 x 1 or
cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x for conversion.
= sin x cos 2 x sin xdx = cos x +

2
Example: cos xdx =
n
b. tan xdx :

cos 2 x + 1
1
1
dx = sin 2 x + x + C (shown)
2
4
2

Separate tan 2 x from the original function, and use the identity 1 + tan 2 x = sec 2 x .

Example:

tan

( tan x )( tan x )dx = (sec x 1)( tan x )dx


= sec x tan x tan xdx
= sec x tan x tan x(tan x)dx
= sec x tan x ( sec x 1)(tan x)dx
= sec x tan x sec x tan x + tan xdx

xdx =

1
1
4
2
= tan x tan x ln | cos x | + C (shown)
4
2
c. sin(mx) sin( nx)dx or sin( mx) cos(nx)dx or cos(mx) cos(nx )dx :
Use one of the 3 identities below to transform the product to a sum or difference:
1
{ sin[ ( m + n ) x] + sin[ ( m n ) x]}
2
1
(ii) sin( mx) sin( nx) = { cos[ ( m n ) x ] cos[ ( m + n ) x ]}
2
1
(iii) cos(mx) cos(nx) = { cos[ ( m n ) x ] + cos[ ( m + n ) x ]}
2
(i) sin( mx) cos(nx) =

Example: cos 3 x cos xdx =

1
1
1
cos 4 x + cos 2 xdx = sin 4 x + sin 2 x + C (shown)

2
8
4

3. Integration via substitution:


Generally, to find an integral by means of a substitution x = f (u ),
dx
= f ' (u ) dx = f ' (u )du
(i) Differentiate x wrt u to arrive at
du
(ii) Subsequently replace all x by f (u ) and dx by f ' (u ) du
(iii) Perform the integration and remember to convert the result back to x
for an indefinite integral ( not needed for definite integrals)
Example: Evaluate

dx
x2 x + 1

dx
x x+ 1
1
2

1
(x )2 + (
2
1
Using the substitution x =
2

by considering the substitution x

dx
3 2
)
2
3
tan , the integral becomes
2

1
3
=
tan .
2
2

3
3
2
tan
4
4

3 sec d

3
sec )d
= (sec )d
2

3
sec
2
2
3
1
2
1
[
+ (x )2 ] +
( x ) | +C (shown)
= ln | sec + tan | + C =ln |
2
2
3 4
3

3
1
+ (x )2
4
2

1
2

3
2
4. Integration by parts:

uv' dx =

uv u ' vdx where u is a function which can be differentiated and v is


a function that can be easily reduced via integration. Note that integration by parts
is only feasible if out of the product of two functions, at least one is directly
integrable.

Example:

x2
x sin ( x )dx = (sin 1 x 2 )
2
1

x2
2

x2
=
2
=

x2
2

x2
1
2 ( 1 x 4 )(2 x)dx
x3
(sin 1 x 2 ) (
)dx
1 x4
2
1
4x3
(sin 1 x 2 ) (
)dx = x (sin 1 x 2 ) 1 (2) 1 x 4 + C
4
2
4
1 x4
1
(sin 1 x 2 )
1 x 4 + C (shown)
2

5. Integrals of the form

ax

cx + d
dx
+ bx + c

cx + d
P (2ax + b) + Q
P (2ax + b)
Q
dx as
= 2
+
dx ,
2
2
+ bx + c
ax + bx + c
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c
where 2ax + b is clearly the derivative of ax 2 + bx + c .

(i) Rewrite

(ii)

ax

P (2ax + b)
gives P ln | ax 2 + bx + c |
2
+ bx + c

ax

(iii)

ax

Example:

Q
dx can be easily integrated via completing the square method for
+ bx + c
the denominator.

x 1
1
2x + 1
3
1
dx = 2
dx 2
dx
2 x + x+ 1
2 x + x+ 1
x + x+ 1
2

1
3
1
ln | x 2 + x + 1 |
2
2
=2
1
x
+

+
2

1
3 1
2
= 2 ln | x + x + 1 | 2
3

dx

1
x+
2 + C
tan 1
3

1
2
1 2x + 1
+ C (shown)
= ln | x + x + 1 | 3 tan
2
3

6. Integrals of the form

(i) Rewrite

cx 2 + dx + e
dx
ax 2 + bx + c

cx 2 + dx + e
dx =
ax 2 + bx + c

P ax 2 + bx + c + Q(2ax + b) + R
dx
ax 2 + bx + c

Q(2ax + b)
R
+
dx
2
2
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c
Q(2ax + b)
R
= Px + 2
+
dx
2
ax + bx + c ax + bx + c
where 2ax + b is clearly the derivative of ax 2 + bx + c .
= P +

Q(2ax + b)
gives Q ln | ax 2 + bx + c |
2
+ bx + c
R
dx can be easily integrated via completing the square method for
2
ax + bx + c
the denominator.

(ii)

ax

(iii)

2x 2 + 4x + 1
2 x 2 + x + 1 + (2 x + 1) 2
Example:
dx =
dx
x2 + x + 1
x2 + x + 1
2x + 1
2
= 2x + 2
2
dx
x + x+ 1 x + x+ 1

2 x + ln | x 2 + x + 1 | 2

1
3
1

x + +

2
2

dx

x+
1
2 + C
tan 1
= 2 x + ln | x 2 + x + 1 | 2

3
3

2
2
2
= 2 x + ln | x + x + 1 |

2x + 1
tan 1
+ C (shown)
3
3

Applications of Integration Summary


1. Area under curve:
y = f (x)

Area of shaded region= f ( x)dx


a

y = f ( x)

Area of shaded region=| f ( x)dx |


a

y
b
x = g ( y)

a
O

Area of shaded region= g ( y )dy


a

b
x = g ( y)

a
x
O

Area of shaded region=| g ( y )dy |


a

y = f ( x)

2. Volume:

Volume of shaded region revolved 2 about the x axis = [ f ( x)] dx


2

y = f (x)

y=k

Volume of shaded region revolved 2 about the y = k line = [ f ( x) k ] dx


2

Volume of shaded region revolved 2 about the x axis


b

( )

= [ f ( x)] dx k 2 (b a)
2

y
b
x = g ( y)

a
O

Volume of shaded region revolved 2 about the y axis = [g ( y )] dy


2

y
b
x = g ( y)

a
O

x
x=k
b

Volume of shaded region revolved 2 about the x = k line = [g ( y ) k ] dx


2

Volume of shaded region revolved 2 about the y axis


b

( )

= [g ( y )] dy k 2 (b a)
2

Complex umbers Summary


1. Cartesian representation and laws:
z = x + iy Re( z ) = x , Im( z ) = y , | z |= x 2 + y 2 , z* = x iy
(i) z + z* = 2 Re( z )
(ii) z z* = 2i Im( z )
(iii) zz* =| z | 2
(iv) ( z w) = z * w * ,
(v) arg( z1 z 2 ) = arg( z1 ) + arg( z 2 )
*

where w is also a complex number


where < arg( z1 ) , arg( z2 )

z
(vi) arg 1 = arg( z1 ) arg( z 2 )
z2
ote: If a polynomial F ( z ) = 0 has real coefficients throughout its entire
structure, then complex roots (if any) MUST occur in conjugate pairs.
2. Polar representation and laws:
z = r (cos + i sin ) ,

where r =| z |> 0 , arg(z ) = and <

De Moivres Theorem:
If z = r (cos + i sin ) , then z n = r n (cos n + i sin n )
Useful information:
(i) cos( ) = cos ; sin( ) = sin
(ii) If z = r (cos + i sin ) , then z* = r (cos i sin )
(iii) z + z* = 2r cos , z z* = 2r (i sin )
(Note in particular if r = 1 , then z* = cos i sin =

1
)
z

3. Eulers(exponential) representation and laws:


z = re i ,

where r =| z |> 0 , arg(z ) = and <

)(

(i) r1ei1 r2ei 2 = r1 r2 e i (1 + 2 )


r1e i1
r
(ii) i 2 = 1 e i (1 2 )
r2
r2 e

( )

(iii) re i

= re in

Useful information:
(i) If z = re i , then z* = re i
(ii) ( z re i )( z re i ) = z 2 z (re i + re i ) + r 2 = z 2 2 z cos + r 2

4. Solving higher order polynomial equations:


(a) Roots of unity:
z n = 1 z n = e i ( 2 k )
2 k
i

z=e

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .. n 1

Note: Ensure that the argument of each single individual complex root is
presented in the standard range required, ie < arg(z ) .
(b) Solving general polynomial equations:
z n = F ( z ) z n = re i ( 2 k + ) , where F (z ) has been transformed into the Eulers
representation and its argument is added to a
mandatory cycling factor 2k
z=e

2 k +
i

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, .. n 1

Note: Ensure that the argument of each single individual complex root is
presented in the standard range required, ie < arg(z ) .
5. Physical implications of multiplying one complex number by another:
Consider a complex number z = r1ei1 . If it is multiplied by another complex
number w = r2 ei 2 , then the physical effect is that of changing the length
of the cord joining z and the origin (in the Argand diagram)by a factor of r2 ,
and subsequently rotating this cord by an angle of 2 . The resultant complex
number is therefore r1 r2 e i (1 + 2 ) .
Im

zw

2
1
r1r2

Re

r1

6. Loci of various complex number constructs


(i) | z a |= b

Interpretation: Set of variable points denoted by z which are always b


units away from a fixed complex number a .
Locus: A circle centered at complex number a with radius b
Im

Re

Note: If | z a | b , then the locus shall be the entire interior of the circle
coupled with the boundary of the circle itself. Similar logic must be
applied to varying inequalities for this circular loci construct as well.
(ii) | z a |=| z b |
Interpretation: Set of variable points denoted by z which are equidistant
from two unique, fixed complex numbers a and b .
Locus: A line that bisects the cord joining complex numbers a and b
in a perpendicular fashion
Im

Re

a
(iii) arg( z a ) =
Interpretation: Set of variable points denoted by z which will form
an argument of around a fixed complex number a .
Locus: A line that is pivoted at a and possesses a standard argument .
Im

a
Re

Vectors Summary
1. Scalar product (dot product):
a b =| a || b | cos

Laws of dot product:


(i) a b = b a
(ii) a (b + c) = a b + a c = b a + c a
(iii) a a =| a | 2 (angle between two identical vectors is 0 degrees)
(iv) a b = 0 a and b are perpendicular
Applications:
(i) Projection vector:

Length of projection L= | AB AD |
B

Projection vector AC = ( AB AD ) AD
Foot of perpendicular = OC =OA+AC

Shortest distance from B to line


D
= | BC | 2 = | AB | 2 L2

[OR = | AB AD | ]
L

(ii) Acute angle between two lines:


m m2
where m1 and m2 are the direction vectors of the
= cos 1 1

|
m
||
m
|
2
1
the two lines.
(iii) Acute angle between two planes:
n n
= cos 1 1 2 where n1 and n2 are the individual normals to the two
| n1 || n 2 |
planes respectively.
(iv) Acute angle between a line and a plane:
mn

where m and n are the direction vector of the line


= cos 1

2
|
m
||
n
|

and normal to the plane respectively, and is


the angle between the line and plane in question.

2. Cross product (vector product):

a b = [| a || b | sin ] n
Laws of cross product:
(i) a b = (b a )
~
(iii) a a = 0

where n is a vector that is perpendicular to both a and b .


(ii) a (b + c) = a b + a c = (b a ) (c a )

Applications:

(i)

Area of triangle=

1
| ab |
2

b
(ii) If four points A, B, C and D are coplanar, then | AB AC | AD = 0
3. Equation of lines:
Representations:
a
d


(i) r = b + e (parametric form) OR r = a + m (condensed form)
c
f


(ii)

xa y b z c
=
=
(cartesian form)
d
e
f

4. Equations of planes:
Representations:
(i) r = a + m1 + m2 (parametric form)
(ii) r n = a n (scalar product form)
(where n = m1 m2 , a is the position vector of a point lying on the plane. )
(iii) ax + by + cz = k (Cartesian form)
(where a, b and c are the components of the normal vector to the plane)
5. Skew lines:
Two lines with equations r = a + m1 and r = b + m2 are said to be skew lines
if they DO +OT intersect at a common point and m1 is +OT PARALLEL to m2 .
6. Determining if line resides in plane:
A line with equation r = a + m is said to reside in the plane r n = k if
(i) m n = 0 (ii) a n = k

7. Shortest distance from plane to origin:


For a plane with equation r n = k , the shortest distance from the plane to the
k
origin is given by
.
|n|
8. Distance between 2 planes:
For 2 planes with equations r n = k1 and r n = k 2 , where k1 < k 2 , the shortest
distance between them is given by:
(i)

k1
k
+ 2 if k1 and k 2 are of different signs
|n| |n|

(ii)

k2
k
1 if k1 and k 2 are of the same signs
|n| |n|

9. Finding intersection between various constructs:


(i) Intersection between 2 lines:
For 2 lines with equations r = a + m1 and r = b + m2 , equate them to each other
in column vector form such that a + m1 = b + m2 . Solve for the values of and
before substituting back into either of the two line equations to derive the common
point of intersection.

(ii) Intersection between line and plane:


For a line with equation r = a + m and a plane with equation r n = k , substitute
the line equation within that of the plane equation such that (a + m ) n = k . Solve
for the value of and subsequently derive the common point of intersection
through substitution of into the line equation.
(iii) intersection between 2 planes:
A. If one plane is presented in scalar product form and the other in parametric
form,
1

Example: r 3 = 6 ------------------------(1)
1

1
3
1



r = 0 + 3 + 1 -----------(2)
1
1
0


1 + 3 + 1


3 + 3 = 6
1 + 1

1 + 3 + + 9 + 3 + 1 + = 6
12 + 4 = 4
3 + = 1 = 1 3

Substituting this back into (2),


Equation of line of intersection is
1
3
1



r = 0 + 3 + (1 3 ) 1
1
1
0


2
0


= 1 + 0 (shown)
1
1


B. If both planes are presented in Cartesian form:
Example: x + y + z = 9 ----------(1)
x y + z = 1 ----------(2)
(1)+(2): 2 z = 10 z = 5
Let y = t and substituting this together with z = 5 into (1),
We have x = 4 t
Equation of line of intersection is
x 4 t 4 1


r = y = t = 0 + t 1 (shown)
z 5 5 0

C. If both planes are presented in scalar product forms or in parametric


forms or one is presented in scalar product form and the other in parametric
form, convert the plane equations such that their configurations matches that of
either case A or B, and solve accordingly.

D. If a common point A with position vector a is known to reside on both planes,


and the two planes have normal vectors n1 and n2 , then the common line of
intersection is simply given by r = a + (n1 n2 ) .

(iv) Intersection between 3 planes:


Extract the components of the separate plane equations to form the augmented
matrix:

a1

r b1 = d1 ,
c
1

a1

a2
a
3

a2

r b2 = d 2
c
2

b1

c1

b2
b3

c2
c3

a3

r b3 = d 3
c
3

d1

d2
d 3

After reducing the augmented matrix to its row reduced equivalent using the
RREF function of the graphic calculator, 3 possible scenarios arise:
A. The planes intersect at one point, ie there is a unique solution to the matrix.
Example:

4
2 1 1

2 2 3
1
4 2
1
4

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 2
0 0 1 4

1( x ) +0( y ) + 0( z )=1, therefore x =1,


0( x ) +1( y ) +0( z )=2, therefore y =2,
0( x ) +0( y ) +1( z )=4, therefore z =4
Hence, the 3 planes intersect at the point (1,2,4).

B. The three planes do not intersect at all.


Example:

2 2 2
1

1 2 1 5
1 6 4
2

1 0 0.5 0

0 1 0.75 0
0 0
0
1

For the third row in the reduced form matrix, 0=1, giving rise to a contradiction,
hence there is no common point to the 3 planes, ie they DO +OT intersect.

C. The three planes intersect at a line.


Example:

2 2 2
1

1 2 1 5
1 6 4 8

1 0 0.5 3.5

0 1 0.75 0.75
0 0
0
0

From the reduced row matrix, we have


1
7
7 1
x z = x = + z,
2
2
2 2
y

3
3
3 3
z= y= + z
4
4
4 4

7 1 7

x 2 2 2
2
3 3 3 1
Let z = , then r = y =
+
=
+ 3

4
4
4
4
z
0 1 0

4

7

2 2

3
Therefore, the three planes intersect at the line r=
+ t 3 , where t =
4
4
0 4

Binomial/Poisson Distributions Summary


Binomial

Poisson

Characteristics:
(i) n independent trials, whereby each trial
yields two possible outcomes- a fixed
constant probability of success p or
failure q = 1 p
(ii) Purely discrete

Definition: X ~ B ( n, p)
Formula:

Definition: X ~ P0 ( )

P ( X = r ) = n C r ( p ) (q )

Mean: = np

Characteristics:
(i) Events occur randomly and singly
(ii) A single parameter (average number of
occurences) defines the distribution and
is proportional to the frame of
measurement ( eg = 1 for 1 week and
therefore = 2 for 2 weeks)
(iii) Purely discrete

nr

Variance: 2 = npq

Formula:

e ( )
r!
Variance: 2 =

P( X = r ) =

Mean: =

Separate binomial distributions typically


cannot be pooled together

For two independent poisson distributions


defined under the same frame of
measurement, eg X ~ P0 ( ) and
Y ~ P0 ( ) , they can be pooled together
to form a consolidated poisson model
whereby X + Y ~ P0 ( + )

Example Scenario: number of sixes


obtained during ten throws of an unbiased
dice.

Example Scenario: number of defects along a


10m long piece of cloth manufactured in a
factory.

Graphic calculator commands :


P ( X = r ) binompdf
P ( X r ) binomcdf

Graphic calculator commands :


P ( X = r ) poissonpdf
P ( X r ) poissoncdf

(Note that pdf stands for probability density function, while cdf stands for cumulative
density function.)
Binomial to Poisson Approximation:
For a binomial distribution whereby X ~ B ( n, p) , IF np < 5 and p < 0.1 , then
X ~ P0 (np, npq ) approximately. (Note that there is NO poisson to binomial approximation)
NO continuity correction is required since this is a discrete to discrete approximation.

Some important miscellaneous concepts:


(a) It is advisable, amongst all things, to appreciate and convert to memory that
P( x = 0) = q n for a binomial distribution and P ( X = 0) = e for a poisson distribution.
Example of its relevance:
For X ~ B ( n, 0.05), find the least value of n such that P ( X 1) > 0.99 without employing
any explicit GC statistical commands.
Workings: P ( X 1) > 0.99 1 P ( X = 0) > 0.99
1 (1 0.05) n > 0.99
(continue the solving process)

(b) It is very usual for questions to embed a binomial/poisson distribution within another
binomial/poisson distribution-students must be sufficiently discerning to relate one part
of the context to another. Put it simply, such questions are multi-layered.
Example:
Eggs are packed in boxes of 500. On average, 0.8% of the eggs are found to be broken
when the eggs are unpacked.
(i) Find the probability that in a box of 500 eggs, exactly 3 will be broken.
Let the random variable X denote the number of broken eggs
within a box of 500. Then X ~ B (500, 0.008)
(ii) A supermart unpacks 100 boxes of eggs. What is the probability that there will be
exactly 4 boxes containing no broken eggs?

Now we are zooming out and focusing on a more general picture


of boxes of eggs. Let the random variable Y denote the number
of boxes containing no broken eggs. Then Y ~ B (100, p) where
p = P ( X = 0) based on the random variable X defined in (i).

(c) While less common, finding the mode of a distribution via non GC methods can be
examined-a detailed worked example will illustrate this better:

Statistics Overview
1. Binomial Distribution-fixed sample size, independent trials, fixed probability of
success p
X ~ B (n, p ) P ( X = r )= n C r (q )

nr

( p) r

2. Poisson Distribution-rare occurrences, parameter of occurrence is proportional to


frame of measurement; eg number of defects in certain length
of cloth, number of cars rented in a week etc
e ( ) r
X ~ Po ( ) P( X = r ) =
r!
3. Normal Distribution-bell shaped curve with defined mean and variance
X ~ ( , 2 )
Standardisation to standard normal Z variable with mean 0 and variance 1:

P ( X < ) = P Z <

Standard normal variable operations:


2
2
X ~ ( 1 , 1 ) and Y ~ ( 2 , 2 )

aX bY ~ (a1 b 2 , a 2 1 + b 2 2 )
(Care must be exercised when interpreting the question:
2

twice the weight of a durian has distribution 2 X ~ (2 , 4 2 )


and two durians selected has distribution X 1 + X 2 ~ ( 2 , 2 2 ) )
4. Approximations:
Binomial to Poisson: np < 5 X ~ Po (np) approximately
Binomial to ormal: np > 5, nq > 5, n > 30 X ~ (np, npq )
(Note: Continuity correction is required)
Poisson to ormal: > 10 X ~ ( , )
(Note: Continuity correction is required)
5. Central Limit Theorem (CLT):
Any non normal distribution with a large sample size can be approximated using
CLT under the following 2 axioms:
(1) X ~ ( ,

) approximately
n
[ Keywords in question: sample mean, average]

eg X ~ B (20, 0.3) originally; if 60 samples of X were taken and the mean of


which is to be investigated, then since 60>50, then by CLT, the distribution of
the sample mean X can be modelled as being a normal

distribution approximately where X ~ (20 (0.3),

20(0.3)(0.7)
)
60

(2) X 1 + X 2 + X 3 + ................ + X n ~ (n , n 2 ) approximately


[Keywords in question: sum, total]
(Note that CLT MUST OT be used if original distribution is normal since
the standard operations on normal distributions can be used directly-see (3))

6. Sampling:
True population mean and variance is unknown, hence a sample is extracted
to estimate these population parameters.
Unbiased estimate of population mean =

x = ( x a) + a
n

1
Unbiased estimate of population variance =
n 1

( ( x x))

( x ) 2
1
2

n 1
n

( ( x a)) 2
1
2

=
( x a)

n 1
n

n
(sample variance)
n 1

(Note that sampling will be largely utilised in hypothesis testing when certain
population parameters are not given in the question.)
7. Hypothesis testing:
Formulation of hypothesis: H 0 : = 0

(null hypothesis)

H 1 : 0 OR < 0 OR > 0
(Note: the alternate hypothesis must be interpreted accurately-keywords such as
underestimating, overestimating, difference in mean values aid in laying
out H 1 correctly)
Test to be conducted: Z test (original distribution is normal, variance known)
Z test (original distribution is normal, variance unknownmust be estimated through sampling, sample size
large)
t test (original distribution is normal, variance unknownmust be estimated through sampling, sample size
small)
p value generated must be compared against level of significance

p > H 0 is NOT rejected


p < H 0 is rejected and H 1 accepted

Based on rejection/acceptance of the null hypothesis, provide conclusion accordingly


employing the following sentence template-insufficient/sufficient evidence at the
% level of significance that
8. Regression:
-ability to provide a qualitative explanation of what is meant be least squares
regression line
-ability to formulate equations of required regression lines accordingly
-appreciate the utilisation of regression lines for prediction purposes and being able
to employ the relevant line equation (either y on x OR x on y ) for such a
purpose.
- understand the significance of the product moment correlation coefficient in
assessing strength of linear associations amongst 2 variables, and its limitations
since it is not capable of deducing other possible forms of associations between the
variables (eg weak r value when there is clear indication based on graphical
evidence that a quadratic association between 2 variables exist)
Regression line of y on x :
y = a + bx
b=

xy
x

x y
n
( x )2

Since the point ( x =

( x a)( y a)

n
( ( x a))2

( x a)
n
y ) lies on the regression line, once b
y=
2

x ,

( x a ) ( y a )

is found
n
n
from the above formula, a can be realised very easily through substitution.

Regression line of x on y :
x = c + dy
d=

xy
y

x y

n
( y )2
n

Since the point ( x =

( x a)( y a)

x ,

( x a ) ( y a )
n
( ( y a))2

( y a)
n
y
) lies on the regression line, once d
y=
2

is found
n
n
from the above formula, c can be realised very easily through substitution.

Product moment correlation coefficient:

r=

xy
2

x 2 ( ( x )

1
2

x y
n
2

y 2 ( ( y )

( x a)( y a)
2

( x a ) 2 ( ( x a ) )

1
2

( x a ) ( y a )
n
2

( y a ) 2 ( ( y a ) )

Also note that r 2 = bd , and r will follow the sign (ie positive or negative) depending
on the signs of b and d (either both positive or both negative).

1. AP,GP, series (summation), MOD, MI, partial fractions


n

- be aware of formulas for

r= 1

r ,

r2

r= 1

r 3 and correction measures to be taken

r= 1

when lower limit r is not equals to 1.


- be aware of formulas for nth term and sum to n terms of an AP as well as a GP.
-ability to appreciate the concept of sum to infinity for a GP with criteria that
|r|<1
- recognise common usage of GP in compound interest/banking problems
-ability to make relation between terms of an AP and GP (eg
1st, 6th and 11th terms of an AP are also the 3rd, 2nd and 1st terms of a GP)
-ability to identify a need for method of difference when required in question.
(Note that MOD is usually integrated within a question which tests the concept of
summation of series)
-ability to generate full answer layout for mathematical induction (opening header,
P1 , Pk , Pk + 1 and concluding statement)
-ability to break down improper polynomial representations via long division
(synthetic division) and subsequently generating its constituent polynomial factors
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
a. A descending geometric series has first term 1 and the common ratio r is
positive. The sum of the first 5 terms is twice the sum of terms from the 6th to
1
5
15th inclusive. Prove that r = ( 3 1).
2
*b. The product of 3 numbers, which form a geometric progression, is 216. If the
third number is decreased by 3, the three numbers now form an arithmetic
progression. Find the original numbers.
r
in partial fractions.
( r + 1)( r + 2 )( r + 3)
n
1
1
3
r

.
(ii) Show that
= +
4 2( n + 2) 2( n + 3)
r = 1 ( r + 1)( r + 2 )( r + 3)

c. .(i) Express

r
r = 1 ( r + 1)( r + 2 )( r + 3).

(iii) Hence find the value of nlim

2n

d. Evaluate

r 2 + 3k + r

r = n+ 1

e. Use induction to prove that

( r 2 + r + 1)r! = ( n + 1) 2 n! 4.

r= 2

*f. At the end of a month, a customer owes a bank $1500. In the middle of the
month, the customer pays $x to the bank where x<1000, and at the end of the
month the bank adds interest at a rate of 4% of the remaining amount still owed.
This process continues every month until the money owed is repaid in full.
(i) Find the value of x for which the customer still owes $1500 at the start of every
month.
(ii) Find the value of x for which the whole amount owed is paid off exactly after
the second payment.
(iii) Show that the value of x for which the whole amount owed is paid off exactly
after the (n+1)th payment is given by
x=

1500 r n ( r 1)
, where r=1.04
r n+ 1 1

*g The sum of the first twenty terms of an arithmetic series is 610. The first,
third and eleventh terms of this series are also the third, second and first term
of a geometric series. Find the first term of the geometric series. Find the sum
of the first n terms of the geometric series and find the sum to infinity of
the series.
SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
b. Let the three numbers be ar 1 , a, ar
(ar 1 )(a)(ar ) = 216 ie
Also, ar 3 a = a ar 1

a 3=216 a=6

Since a = 6,

6r 15 = 6r 1 2r 5 + 2r 1 = 0 2r 2 5r + 2 = 0
Solving gives r =

1
or r = 2
2

Hence, the 3 numbers are 3, 6, 12 (for r = 2 ) or 12, 6, 3 (for r =


f. (i) 1500=(1500-x)(1.04) x = $57.69

(shown)

(ii) After 1st payment of $x, the amount owed= (1500-x)(1.04)

1
)
2

(shown)

Therefore, (1500-x)(1.04)=x x = $764.71 (shown)


(iii) After the second payment of $x, amount owed at beginning of 3rd month is
[(1500-x)1.04 x] (1.04)= 1500(1.04) 2 1.04 2 x 1.04 x
After the second payment of $x, amount owed at beginning of 4th month is
[ 1500(1.04) 2 1.04 2 x 1.04 x - x] (1.04)
= 1500(1.04) 3 1.04 3 x 1.04 2 x 1.04 x
After nth payment of $x, the amount still owed at the beginning of the (n+1)th month
= 1500(1.04) n 1.04 n x 1.04 n 1 x ........... 1.04 2 x 1.04 x
= 1500r n x( r + r 2 + ........ + r n )

where r=1.04

At the (n+1)th payment,


x = 1500r n x( r + r 2 + ........ + r n )
x(1 + r + r 2 + ..... + r n ) = 1500r n
x(

r n+ 1 1
1500r n (r 1)
(shown)
) = 1500r n x =
r1
r n+ 1 1

g.

20
[2a + (20 1)d ] = 610 20a + 190d = 610 -------------(1)
2
Since the first, third and eleventh term of the AP forms a GP,
a
a + 2d
=
a 2 + 10ad = a 2 + 4ad + 4d 2
then
a + 2d a + 10d
Simplifying gives 3a = 2d --------------------------------------(2)
Solving (1) and (2) gives a = 2, d = 3
first term of GP=eleventh term of AP=2+10(3)=32 (shown)
a
2
1
=
=
common ration r =
(shown)
a + 2d 2 + 6 4
1 n
32 1
n
4 128 1
(shown)
Sn =
=
1


1
3 4
1
4

S =

a
=
1 r

32
128
=
1
3
1
4

(shown)

2. Binomial series expansion


-be aware of basic structural expansion of a binomial series
(Note that the term independent of x in the original compressed
structure (k + ax) n must be maintained at a value of 1, ie k=1)
-ability to compute the coefficient of the rth term within the series
-ability to consolidate coefficients of various individual terms through
multiplication with other series based on question requirements
eg finding series up to and including term in x 5 based on (1 x ) 3 (3 + x 2 + 4 x 4 )
-ability to use binomial series to make suitable approximations
-ability to obtain range of values of x for which the expansion is valid.
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
*a. Given the first three terms in the expansion of (1 ax ) b in ascending powers of x
are 1 + 6 x + 24 x 2 + ..... , where a and b are positive constants, find the values of a
and b. Show that the coefficient of x n is ( n + 1)( n + 2 )2 n 1 for n=0,1,2.
b. Find the coefficient of x r in the series (1 x) 3 .
n

1x
*c. Expand
in ascending powers of x up to and including the term in x 2 .
1x
State the set of values of x for which the expansion is valid. Hence find an
19
p
approximation to the fourth root of
in the form
, where p and q are
21
q
positive integers.
SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
( b)( b 2)
b
( ax ) 2 + .........
a. (1 ax ) = 1 + (ab) x +
2!
b2 + b
ab
=
6
By comparison,
and
( a) 2 = 24
2
2
b + b 36
Hence,
( 2 ) = 24
2
b
18(b + b 2 ) = 24b 2

3b 2 + 3b = 4b 2 b 2 3b = 0
Coefficient of x n is =

b = 3, a = 2 (shown)

( b)( b 1)( b 2)................( b n + 1)


( a) n
n!

( 3)( 4)( 5)...........( n + 2)


( a) n
n!

( 1) n (3)(4)(5)...........(n + 2)
( 1) n a n
n!

(n + 2)! n
a = ( n + 1)(n + 2)2 n 1 (shown)
2n!

b=3

a=2

c.

( n ) (n 1) ( x ) 2 + ........... 1 nx + ( n ) ( n 1) ( x ) 2 + ...........
1 x

n
n

= (1 x) (1 + x) = 1 nx +

2
2
1+ x

n2 n 2
n + n2 2

x
+
..........
.
1

nx
+
x
+
..........
.
= 1 nx +

2
2

n + n2 2
n2 n 2
x nx + n 2 x 2 +
x +.
= 1 nx +
2
2
1 2nx + 2n 2 x 2 (shown)
Expansion is valid for | x |< 1 .
Let x =

1
1
, n= ,
20
4

n
1
then 1 x =
1+
1+ x

1 4
1

20 = 19 4 = 1

1
21

20

1 1
3121 (shown)
1 1
2
+ 2
=
3200
4 20
4 20

3. Graphing
-ability to obtain equations of asymptotes and turning points of graphs via calculation
-ability to do transformation of graphs the forms af(x)+b and/or f(ax+b)
-ability to discern qualitatively the physical meaning of transformations,
eg scaling of graph parallel to y axis, translation of graph along x axis etc
-ability to appropriately produce graphs of parabolas, hyperbolas, ellipses
and circles.
1
-ability to obtain the graphs of f (| x |), | f ( x ) |, y 2 = f ( x), y =
, y= f ' x
f ( x)
-ability to deduce original graph based on presentation of series of modified
graphs
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
a. The diagram shows the graph of y=f(x). On separate diagrams, sketch the graph of
(i) y = | f ( x) |
(ii) y = f (| x |)
(iii) y 2 = f ( x)
1
(iv) y =
f ( x)

-1

b. The sketches below show the graphs of y 2 = f ( x) and y = | f ( x) | for a certain


function f. Deduce the graph of y=f(x). Draw a sketch of the curves y = f (| x |)
and y = f (| x + 1 |) .
y 2 = f ( x)

y = | f ( x) |

4. Differentiation (applications of differentiation)


-ability to differentiate directly wrt to the variable contained, functions to be
differentiated include algebraic, trigonometric, exponential (possibly with a
combination of various function types) and techniques such a product/quotient
rules, implicit differentiation will be employed.
-ability to generate a stipulated nth order differential equation based on question
requirements (see predicted question structures b)
-ability to produce steps to find derivatives of basic functions, eg prove that
d
1
1
tan x =
dx
1x 2
-ability to solve for equations of tangents/normals to a given curve in any fashion
stipulated by the question including parametric representations of curves
-appreciate the utilisation of differentiation in the context of geometrical
minimisation/maximisation problems, eg maximum volume of expanding cylinder
within sphere as well as rates of changes of parameters in geometrical structures,
eg rate of change of radius
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
dy
a. Find
if
dx
* (i) tan y = x tan 1 x

(ii) x+y+sin(xy)= 2

(iii) x cos y + x 3 = tan 1 y

b. . If y = e x ln x, (i) Find

dy
.
dx

(ii) Show that x

d 2 y dy
+
(1 + x ) y = 2e x
2
dx
dx

*c. An inverted cone of base radius 4cm and height 8cm is initially filled with water.
Water drips out from the vertex at a rate of 2 cm 3 s 1 . Find the rate of decrease in
the depth of the water in the cone 16 seconds after the dripping starts.
dy
in terms of x and y.
dx
Find the coordinates of each point on the curve x 2 2 xy + 2 y 2 = 4 at which the
tangent is parallel to the x axis.

d. (i) Given that x 2 2 xy + 2 y 2 = 4 , find an expression for

*(ii) A curve is defined by the parametric equations x = t 2 , y = t 3 . Show that the


equation of the tangent to the curve at the point P ( p 2 , p 3 ) is
2 y 3 px + p 3 = 0. Show that there is just one point on the curve at which the
tangent passes through the point (-3,-5), and determine the coordinates of this
point.
*e. A length of channel of given depth d is to be made from a rectangular sheet of
metal of width 2a. The metal is to be bent in such a way that the cross section
ABCD is as shown in the figure, with AB+BC+CD=2a and with AB and CD
inclined to the line BC at an angle .
A
d

Show that BC=2( a d cos ec ) and that the area of the cross section ABCD
is 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) .
Show that the maximum value of 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec ) , as varies,
is d (2a d 3 ) .
By considering the length of BC, show that the cross sectional area can only be
made equal to this maximum value if 2d a 3.
*f . Show that

d
1
(tan 1 x ) =
dx
1+ x2

SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:

a (i) tan y = x tan 1 x Differentiating both sides wrt x ,


dy
sec y
= tan 1 x +
dx
2
1
dy 1 + x tan x +

=
1 + x 2 sec 2 y
dx
2

c.

)(

2
1
1 1 + x tan x + x
x
=
2
1+ x2
1+ x
x 1 + x 2 tan 1 x + x
1 + x 2 tan 1 x + x
=
=
2
1 + x 2 1 + tan 2 y
1 + x 2 1 + x tan 1 x

(
(

)
)(

) (

)[ (

r 4 1
1
= = r= h
h 8 2
2

1 2
1 1 2
1 3
h
At any time t, volume remaining V= r h = ( h) (h) =
3
3 2
12
dV 2
= h
Differentiating V with respect to h,
dh 4
1 3 1
h = (4) 2 (8) 2(16) h 3 = 128
When t =16,
12
3
dV dV dh

dh
=

2 = (3 128 ) 2
By the chain rule,
dt
dh dt
4
dt

dh
= 0.315cms 1 (shown)
dt

dy 3t 2 3t
=
=
dx 2t
2
dy 3
= p
At P,
dx 2

d(ii)

3
p (x p2 )
2
Rearranging gives 2 y 3 px + p 3 = 0 (shown)
Since it passes through (-3,-5),
2(-5)-3 p (-3)+ p 3 =0 10 + 9 p + p 3 = 0
( p 1)( p 2 + p + 10) = 0
p = 1 and point is ( 12 , 13 ) = ( 1, 1) (shown)
(Quadratic polynomial has no real roots since determinant = b 2 4ac = 39 < 0 )
(shown)
d
AB = CD = d cos ec
e. sin =
AB
BC = 2a AB CD = 2a 2d cos ec = 2(a d cos ec ) (shown)
Area of cross section ABCD
1

= 2d (a d cos ec ) + 2 ( d ) (d cot ) = 2d (a d cos ec ) + d (d cot )


2

2
= 2ad + d (cot 2 cos ec ) (shown)
Let y = 2ad + d 2 (cot 2 cos ec )
3
Equation of tangent is y p =

dy
= d 2 cos ec 2 + 2 cot
d
dy
= 0 cos ec 2 = 2 cot
d
1

cos = , =
2
3
2
Maximum value = 2ad + d

cos ec

cos ec cos ec = 2 cot

2
2
= d (2a d 3 ) (shown)
3
3

BC = 2(a d cos ec ) , putting in = ,


3

2
BC = 2 a
d
3

2
d 2d 3a (shown)
Since BC 0, a
3
1

f. Let y = tan 1 x , then tan y = x


Differentiating both sides wrt x gives
dy
dy
1
1
1
= 1
=
=
=
(shown)
2
2
dx
dx sec y
1tan y 1 x 2
(Similar approaches shall be taken for proving the derivatives of sin 1 x and cos 1 x)
sec 2 y

5. Differential equations/Maclaurins Series


-ability to solve first and second order variables separable differential equations
-ability to transform a differential equation into a viable form for resolution by means
of a substitution given in the question
- ability to construct a particular solution for a given differential equation
based on certain given conditional inputs (eg when t=0, v=5m/s)
-ability to sketch a family of solution curves for the differential equation solved
-ability to generate a Maclaurins series of a given function through repeated
processes of differentiation to obtain the coefficients of the series itself
-ability to utilise the Maclaurin's series obtained (typically derived in first part of
question) for various interpretations, including
(i) deducing the series expansion for other functions/expressions (note that such
methods could involve integration/differentiation) ,
(ii) to produce suitable approximations (eg use the series expansion to deduce the

value of sin via substituting a suitable value of x within the series)


12

PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :


d2y
dy
+ (2 x 1)
= 0.
2
dx
dx
Find the first three terms of the Maclaurins series for y.
Write down the equation of the normal at the point (0,e) on the curve
ln y = 1 + tan 1 x.

a. It is given that ln y = 1 + tan 1 x. Show that (1 + x 2 )

dy
= y. By repeated differentiation of
dx
this result or otherwise, find the Maclaurins expansion for y up to and including

2
b. Given that ln y = sin 1 x, show that 1 x

the term in x 3 . Deduce the approximate value of e 6 .


*c. Find the general solution to the differential equation:
dy
dy
( ) 2 2 y (sin x ) + y 2 = ( y cos x ) 2
dx
dx
*d. . Determine the Maclaurins expansion for sec x tan x , up to and including the
term in x 3 . Show that, to this degree of approximation, sec x tan x can be
expressed as a + b ln(1 + x ) where a and b are constants to be determined.
d2 y
dy
=2y . Hence, find the
2
dx
dx
Maclaurin's series expansion for y , up to and including the term in x 3 .
(ii) Using the standard series expansion for ln (1+x) and the Maclaurin's series for
y , find the series expansion for ln (1+tanx) in ascending powers of x
up to and including the term in x 3 .

*e. (i) Given that y=tan x , show that

(iii) Hence show that the first 3 non-zero terms in the expansion of
are 12x8x2 .

sec 2 2x
1tan 2x

dy 1 + x + y
=
,
dx 1 x y
use the substitution u= x+y to solve the differential equation. Deduce that

*f. Two variables x and y are connected by the differential equation

( x + y ) 2 + 2( x y ) = A , where A is a constant.
SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
c. (

dy 2
dy
) 2 y (sin x ) + y 2 = ( y cos x) 2
dx
dx
(

dy 2
dy
) 2 y (sin x )
= y 2 (cos 2 x 1)
dx
dx

dy 2
dy
) 2 y (sin x )
= y 2 (sin 2 x)
dx
dx

dy
y sin x ) 2 = 0
dx

dy
1 dy
= y sin x
= sin x
dx
y dx
1
dy = sin xdx
y
ln y = cos x + c y = e cos x + C = Ae cos x (shown)

d. . Let f ( x ) = y = sec x tan x , then


dy
f ' ( x) =
= sec x tan x sec 2 x = sec x (tan x sec x) = y sec x
dx
d2y
dy
dy
f ' ' ( x) =
= ( sec x + y sec x tan x ) = ( sec x)( + y tan x )
2
dx
dx
dx
3
2
d y
d y dy
dy
f ' ' ' ( x) =
= ( sec x)( 2 +
tan x + y sec 2 x) + ( sec x tan x )( + y tan x )
3
dx
dx
dx
dx
f (0) = 1, f " (0) = 1, f ' ' (0) = 1, f ' ' ' (0) = 2

x2 x3
x 2 x3

= 1 [x
+
] = 1 ln(1 + x)
2
3
2
3
By comparison, a=1, b= -1 (shown)

f ( x) = 1 x +

e. (i) y=tanx
Differentiating both sides wrt x gives
dy
=sec 2 x=1tan 2 x=1 y 2
dx
Differentiating both sides again wrt x gives
d2 y
dy
=2y (shown)
2
dx
dx
Differentiating both sides a third time wrt x gives
d3 y
dy 2
d2 y
=2

2y

dx
dx 3
dx 2
f 0=0, f ' 0=1, f ' ' 0=0, f '' ' 0=2

Hence, f ( x) = f (0) + xf ' (0) +


3

x2
x n (n)
f " (0) + .............. +
f (0) + .......
2!
n!
3

2x
x
= x
=x (shown)
3!
3
x2 x3
(ii) Series expansion for ln 1x =x ........
2 3
x3
Hence, ln 1tanxln [1 x ]
3
3
3 2
3 3
x
1
x
1
x
= x x x
3
2
3
3
3
Collecting all terms up to and including x 3 gives
x3 x2 1
x2 2 x3
(shown)
ln 1tanx x x 3= x
3 2
3
2
3
(iii) ln 1tan2x=2x

2x2 2 2x3
16 x3

=2x2x 2
2
3
3

d
d
16 x 3
[ln 1tan2x]= [2x2x2
]
dx
dx
3
2

2 sec 2x
=24x16 x 2
1tan 2x
2

Therefore,

sec 2x
=12x8x 2 (shown)
1tan 2x

du
dy
= 1+
dx
dx
dy 1 + x + y
=
Substituting into
,
dx 1 x y
du
1+ u
2
= 1+
=
dx
1 u 1 u
(1 u ) du = 2 dx

f. u = x + y

u2
= 2x + C
2
( x + y) 2
( x + y)
= 2x + C
2
2( x + y ) ( x + y ) 2 = 4 x + B
2( y x) ( x + y ) 2 = B
( x + y ) 2 + 2( x y ) = A (shown)
u

6. Functions
-ability to prove existence/ non existence of inverse function via
(i) horizontal line test
(ii) proof by contradiction (eg for f x =x 2 , x R , f 1= f 1=1 2
values of x map to the same image y ie no inverse
function exists.)
(Sidenote: a popular feature of questions is to demand students to
show that a certain function is strictly increasing/decreasing for a certain
set of x values- this can be done by finding f ' x and proving that
f ' x0 when strictly increasing and f ' x0 when strictly
decreasing )
-ability to derive expressions for inverse functions and recognise that
f 1 x can be obtained graphically via reflecting f x in the line
y=x ; also recognise that R f 1 = D f , D f 1 = R f
-ability to solve for f x = f 1 x (Note that this is achieved easily
by simply solving f x =x )
-ability to discern if composite function eg gf x exists, and to find
the rule and range of the resultant composite function
-ability to resize domains of certain single standing functions such that
the inverse or composite versions exist.( eg f x =x 2 , x R ,
having its domain resized to x0 allows for its inverse to exist).
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
*a. The functions f and g are defined as follows.
f : x x 2 4,

g:x

x 5

x 5,

(i) Explain briefly why the inverse function f

does not exist.

(ii) State the value of A such that {x : x A} for the inverse function to exist.
(iii) Give a reason why the composite function gf does not exist. Write down the
largest domain of f so that the composite function gf exists. With this
restricted domain of f , write down the rule and domain of gf .
*b. The functions f and g are defined by
f : x cos x,

x ,

g : x 2 x 2 + x,

x 1.

(i) Show that the function gf exists.


(ii) Find the function gf in using the expressions above ands state its range.
(iii) Explain why fg does not exist. Find the largest domain of g such that fg
exists.
*c. It is given that
7 x 2 for 0 < x 2

f (x) =

2 x 1 for 2 < x 4

and that f ( x) = f ( x + 4) for all real values of x .


(i) Evaluate f ( 27) + f (45) .
(ii) Sketch the graph of f (x) for 7 x 10 .
3

(iii) Find

f ( x )dx .

SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX :


a. (i) f ( 2) = f ( 2) = 0 , hence f (x) is not 1-1 and f

( x) does not exist.

(shown)
(ii) A=0 (shown)
(iii) r f : [-4, )

rg : [0, )

Since r f d g , hence gf (x ) does not exist. (shown)


r f d g = x 5 largest domain of f is x 3 or x 3 (shown)
gf : x

x 2 9 (shown)
y

b (i)

1
f ( x) = cos x

-1
y
3
g ( x) = 2 x 2 + x
1
-1

x
1 1
min pt ( , )
4 8

1
, )
8
Since r f d g , gf exists. (shown)
r f : [ 1 1]

rg : [

(ii) gf ( x ) = 2 cos 2 x + cos x (shown)


r f d g = [ 1 ,1 ] Using this as the new input domain for g (x) ,
1
new corresponding range = range of gf (x ) = [ , 3] (shown)
8
(iii) rg d f , hence fg does not exist. (shown)
1
, ].
8
Therefore, the largest possible domain of g (x) based on the above stipulated
domain is [-1, 1.03] (shown)
Largest possible range of g (x) allowed based on domain of f ( x) = [

c. (i) f ( 27) = f (23) = f (19) = .......... = f (3) = 2(3) 1 = 5

f ( 45) = f (41) = f (37) = ......... f (1) = 7 12 = 6


f ( 27) + f ( 45) = 5 + 6 = 11 (shown)

(ii)
7

-7 -6

-4

-2

10

2
4
1
2
(iii) f ( x )dx = 2 7 x dx + (2)(3 + 7) 2 x 1dx
2
4
0
3
2

x3
4
2
7
x

+
10
=
x2 x 3

3 0

2
2
= 42 6 = 36 (shown)
3
3

7. Integration and applications


-ability to adequately handle basic integration of algebraic polynomial structures,
trigonometric functions(including inverse trigonometric functions), exponential
functions and hybrid of two or more family of functions.
-ability to perform integration utilising techniques including integration by parts,
substitution as well as evaluating definite integrals.
-ability to construct integrals to compute area of a specific region-this applies
to both direct x-y functions as well as parametric equations.
-appreciate the concept of integration in the context of finding volumes of
revolution; care must be taken to ensure that the integral is properly formulated for
volume of revolution of shaded regions about a certain axis, especially when
it is other than the x or y axis.
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
*a.

(i)

dx
x x+ 1
2

(Hint: Make use of the substitution x

1
3
=
tan )
2
2

1
2
(ii) x sin ( x )dx

(iii) sin(ln x)dx


b. The region R is bounded by the curve y = 25 x 2 and the line y =x 5
(i) Calculate the area of R.
(ii) The vertical line x=4 divides the region R into two regions where S is the larger
region. Find the volume of the solid of revolution obtained when S is rotated 360
degrees about the y-axis.
y
*c.

x=1

x 2
2
The figure above shows the ellipse ( ) + y = 1 and the line x=1.
2

(i) By using the substitution x = 2 sin , find the area of the shaded region, giving
your answer in an exact form.
(ii) Calculate the volume generated by rotating the shaded region about the y-axis
through 2 radians.
*d. An arc or the curve called the cycloid is given by the parametric equations
x = a (t sin t ) , y = a(1 cos t ) for 0 t 2 . Show that the gradient of
t
the tangent at the point P, with parameter t , is cot and sketch the curve
2
for 0 t 2 . Show that the area enclosed by the x axis is 3 ( a ) 2 .
1
*e. With the aid of the GC, sketch the graph of y =
for x 0 . The region
4 + x2
1
1
y=
bounded by the curve y =
is denoted by
2 and the lines x = 2 and
4+ x
4
R. Show that the volume of the solid obtained when R is rotated completely about
the line x = 2 can be expressed in the form

ln 2 4

1
4

1
8

1 4y
dy
y

FULL SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:

(i)

dx
x2 x + 1

dx

1 2
3
) + ( )2
2
2
1
3
Using the substitution x =
tan , the integral becomes
2
2
1
3
1
3
sec d
( sec )d

2
=
= (sec )d
3
3
2
3
tan 2
sec

4
4
2
(x

= ln | sec + tan | + C =ln |

3
1
+ (x )2
4
2

2
3

3
1
2
1
+ (x )2 ] +
( x ) | +C (shown)
4
2
2
3

3
2

1
2

1
2
(ii) x sin ( x )dx =

x2
(sin 1 x 2 )
2

x2
(sin 1 x 2 )
2

x2
1
(
)( 2 x )dx
2 1 x4
x3
(
)dx
1 x4

2
x2
1
4x3
1 2
(sin
x
)

(
)dx = x (sin 1 x 2 ) 1 (2) 1 x 4 + C
=

2
4
2
4
1 x4
2
x
1
= (sin 1 x 2 )
1 x 4 + C (shown)
2
2

(iii) sin(ln x)dx = x sin(ln x)

x( x ) cos(ln x)dx = x ln(sin x) cos(ln x)dx

1
= x ln(sin x) [ x cos(ln x ) ( x)( ) sin(ln x )dx]
x
= x ln(sin x) x cos(ln x) sin(ln x)dx + B

Therefore, 2 sin(ln x)dx = x ln(sin x) x cos(ln x)

sin(ln x)dx =

x
[ln(sin x) cos(ln x)] + A (shown)
2

c.(i) Equation for upper part of ellipse is : y =


2

x
Area= 2 ydx = 2 1 dx = 2
2
1
1

2
=2 (2 cos )d = 2

=2 [ +

x
1
2

1 sin 2 (2 cos )d

(1 + cos 2 )d

1
2
3
sin 2 ] 2 =

sq units (shown)
2
3
2
6

3 2
2 2

(1) =2
(ii) Volume= 2 x dy

2
0

=10.88 cubic units (shown)


dx
= a a cos t
dt
dy
y = a (1 cos t ) = a a cos t
= a sin t
dt

d. x = a (t sin t ) = at a sin t

3
2

4(1 y 2 )dy

t
t

a 2 sin cos
dy dy dx
a sin t
a sin t
2
2

=
=
=
t
dx dt dt a a cos t a(1 cos t )

a 1 (1 2 sin 2
2

t
t
t
2 sin cos
cos
2
2 =
2 cot t
=
=
(shown)
t
2
2 t
2 sin
sin
2
2
(Note: the double angle formulas sin 2 x = 2 sin x cos x and cos 2 x = 1 2 sin 2 x
were used in the above formulation)
y
a

2 a

Area =

ydx =

2 a

2a

dx
dt =
dt

a(1 cos t )(a a cos t )dt


0

= a (1 cos t )a (1 cos t )dt


0

2
=a

(1 cos t )

dt

2
=a

(1 2 cos t + cos t ) dt
2

cos 2t +
2
= a 1 2 cos t +
2
0

1
dt

1
1

= a t 2 sin t + sin 2t + t
4
2 0

= a 2 [ ( 2 + ) (0)] = 3 ( a ) 2 (shown)

e.
1
4

1
8

1
4

2
Volume generated V = ( 2 x) dy -----------------(1)
1
8

y=

1
1
4 + x2 =
2
y
4+ x
x2 =

1
1 4y
4=
y
y

x=

1 4y
y
1
4

1
4

1
8

1
8

2
2
Put this into (1), we have V = ( 2 x) dy = 4 4 x + x dy

1
4

= 4 4
1
8

1
4

= 4 4
1
8

1
4

1
8

1 4y 1 4y
+
dy
y
y
1 4y 1
+ 4dy
y
y

1
1 4y
4
dy
y
y

1 1
= ln 4
4 8
= ln 2 4

1
4

1
8

1
4

1
8

1 4y
dy
y

1 4y
dy (shown)
y

8. Complex numbers
-ability to relate to the core formulas of complex numbers, ie z+z*=2Re(z), zz*=|z| 2 ,
arg(z 1 z 2 )=arg(z 1 )+arg(z 2 ), (a+b)*=a*+b* etc ; these are highly relevant
especially in the context of abstract complex number questions.
-possess a firm grasp of the various complex number representations, namely
cartesian, polar and exponential(or Eulers) forms.
-appreciate the geometrical implications of multiplying (or dividing) one complex
i

number by another ( eg multiplying a complex number by 2 e 4 has the effect of


scaling the original complex number's magnitude by a factor of 2 and increasing its

argument by 4 in the Argand diagram). Note that questions which test


such concepts typically involve regular shapes such as squares or triangles
where one or more vertices are to be solved for.
-ability to solve for roots of unity and presenting the roots of a polynomial
equation in terms of paired quadratic factors ( Note this is extended to
solving n th degree polynomials, eg z 6=64 ).
-appreciate the concept of loci in the complex number context and able to sketch
the loci of circles, perpendicular bisectors and half lines, and
subsequently solving for various points of intersection, maximum and minimum
distances between fixed and variable points based on geometrical and
trigonometrical observations.
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
*a. . Given that w = 2 2 3i , express w n in the polar form, where n is an integer.
Find w n + ( w n ) * in terms of n. Hence deduce the value of w n + ( w n ) * in terms of
n, if n is not a multiple of 3.
7 + 4i
in the form x+iy where x and y are real.
3 2i
Sketch in an Argand diagram the locus of point P representing the complex number
z such that |z+a|=|a|. Hence find the greatest value of |z+1|.
*c. Given that z is a complex number, show that | iz-1+i |= | z+1+i| .
b. Express a =

Sketch the following loci in a single Argand diagram, labeling each locus clearly.
(i) |z+1+i|=|1-i|
(ii) arg (iz-1+i)=

3
4

Find the complex number that represents the point of intersection of the two loci.
*d. By using a graphical method, or otherwise, find the complex numbers z such that
|z-2|= 11 and |z-3|=4.
z = cos + i sin = e i , show that z n + z n = 2 cos n and
1 4
z n z n = 2i sin n . By considering the expansion of ( z + ) , show that
z
4
8 cos = cos 4 + 4 cos 2 + 3. Find a similar expression for sin 4 by
1 4
considering ( z ) .
z

*e. . By letting

*f. (i) Show that, for all complex numbers z and all real numbers ,
( z e i )( z e i ) = z 2 2(cos ) z + 1 .
(ii) Find the seven complex numbers which satisfy the equation z 7 1 = 0.
(iii) Hence, show that, for all complex numbers z,
2
4
6
z 7 1 = ( z 1)[ z 2 2 cos( ) z + 1][ z 2 2 cos( ) z + 1][ z 2 2 cos( ) z + 1] .
7
7
7
FULL SOLUTIONS FOR QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
2
2
) + i sin(
)]
3
3
2n
2n
w n = 4 n [cos(
) + i sin(
)] (shown)
3
3
2n
2n
2n
2n
) + i sin(
)] + 4 n [cos(
) i sin(
)]
w n + ( w n ) * = 4 n [cos(
3
3
3
3
2n
n
)
= 2(4 ) cos(
3

a. w = 2 2 3i = 4[cos(

n 3k w n + ( w n ) * = 2(4 n )( 0.5) = 4 n (shown)

2 n

[ cos 3 =0.5 ].

c.

arg (iz-1+i)=

3
4

-2

3
4

-1

Re
-i

|z+1+i|=|1-i|
(i) |z+1+i|=|1-i| |z+1+i|= 2 (circle with centre -1-i and radius of
1
(ii) iz-1+i= (i)(z- + 1) =(i) (z+i+1)
i
arg(iz-1+i)=arg[(i)(z+i+1)]=arg(i)+arg(z+i+1)=

2 units)

+arg(z+i+1)
2

+arg(z+i+1)=
,
4
2
4
5 3
ie arg(z+i+1)=
=
( line pivoted at -1-i and inclined at an angle of
4
4
3
to the horizontal)
4
From the argand diagram, point of intersection is z= -2. (shown)
Hence, arg(iz-1+i)=

d. .

Im

7i
11 units
2
4 units
- 7i

Re

From the Argand diagram, point of intersection is

7i . (shown)

e. z n = e in = cos n + i sin n
z n = e in = cos n i sin n
z n + z n = 2 cos n z n z n = 2i sin n
1
1
1
1
1
( z + ) 4 = z 4 + 4 z 2 + 6 + 4( 2 ) + 4 = ( z 4 + 4 ) + 6 + 4( z 2 + 2 )
z
z
z
z
z
( 2 cos ) 4 = 2 cos 4 + 6 + 8 cos 2
16 cos 4 = 2 cos 4 + 6 + 8 cos 2
8 cos 4 = cos 4 + 3 + 4 cos 2 (shown)
(z

1 4
1
1
1
1
) = z 4 4 z 2 + 6 4( 2 ) + 4 = ( z 4 + 4 ) + 6 4( z 2 + 2 )
z
z
z
z
z

( 2i sin ) 4 = 2 cos 4 8 cos 2 + 6


16 sin 4 = 2 cos 4 8 cos 2 + 6
sin 4 =

1
(cos 4 4 cos 2 + 3) (shown)
8

)(

f. (i) z e i z e i = z 2 z e i + e i + 1
= z 2 2 z cos + 1 (shown)
(ii) z 7 1 = 0 z 7 = 1 = e i 2 k

z= e

2 k

( i )

k = 0 7

( i ) 2
7

(iii) z 1 = ( z 1) z e

( i)
z e 7

( i ) 6
z e 7

( i)
z e 7

( i ) 4
z e 7

( i)
z e 7

2
4
6
2

+ 1 z 2 2 z cos
+ 1 z 2 2 z cos
+ 1 (shown)
= ( z 1) z 2 z cos
7
7
7

9. Vectors
-ability to understand the core vector concepts namely: ratio theorem,
projection vectors (including foot of perpendicular from point to plane/line,
shortest distance from point to plane/line), cartesian, parametric and scalar
product representation of planes and lines, acute angles between lines, a plane and
a line as well as between 2 planes, intersection of 2 lines and intersection of 2 or
3 planes( note that one popular feature of questions is to disguise the solving of
intesection of planes under the pretext of asking the student to intepret set of
conditions for a system of linear equations), skew lines.
-appreciate the notion of scalar and vector(cross) products, and
their application in solving abstract vector questions (Note that the cross
product is also commonly employed in finding area of parallelograms as
and triangles)
-ability to reconcile the various concepts coherently when solving questions
and competently understand the unique configuration of the question context
to enhance efficiency.
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
^

a. ABC is a triangle in which A C B = 90 . The position vectors of A and B relative


to the origin are 2i-5j+6k and 3i-10j+6k respectively and the Cartesian equations
y 5 z
of BC are x 3 = = 3 . Show that a possible vector equation of BC is
4 2 2
r=3i-10j+6k+ (i-4j+2k). where is a scalar. Find
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

the coordinates of C,
The area of the triangle ABC,
The distance from C to AB.

x
+ 1 = y = ( z 6) meets the plane with
2
Cartesian equation -2x+3y+z=6 at the point P. The point Q with position vector
4i+3j-3k lies on the line L.

*b. A line L whose Cartesian equation is

(i) Write down a vector equation of the line L and the vector equation of the plane
in scalar product form.
(ii) Find the position vector of P.
1
). Hence, or
21
otherwise, find the length of the projection of PQ onto the plane .

1
(iii) Show that the acute angle between line L and plane is sin (

*c. Find, in the form r n = d , the equation of the plane containing three points
whose position vectors are i+j+k, i+2j+2k and 2i+2j+4k.
Find, in the form r=p+tq, the equation of the image of the line r=-i+j+k+ (i-5k)
reflected in this plane.
*d. Relative to an origin O, the position vectors of points A and B are a and b
respectively, and c is the position vector of the point C on AB which divides AB
in the ratio 3: 1. Given that angle AOB is acute, show that the length d of the
projection of OC on OB is given by
3
a b
d= | b | +
.
4
4|b|
*e. Given that the system of linear equations
x y 3 z=
3 x y4 z=9
x y =3

, R

has infinite solutions, obtain the numerical values of and .


FULL SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
2
2


x+ 2
z 6
equation of line L is r = 0 + 1
= y=
b. (i)
2
1
6
1

and equation of plane is r 3 = 6 (shown)


1

2 + 2

(ii) When L intersects at P,


6

3 = 6
1

2

Solving gives = 2 . Hence, position vector of P= 2 . (shown)
4

(iii)

3
1

2

1 =
1

Hence, sin =

c.

14 6 cos(
2
84

1 1

n = [ 2 1 ]
2 1

1
21

)=
2

14 6 sin
1

= sin 1 (

2 1

[ 2 2 ] =
4 2

21

(shown)

3
1

2 1


Therefore, equation of plane is r 3 = 1
1 1

r 3 = 6 (shown)
1

3
1

3 = 6
1

0 0
5

line to be reflected is not parallel to the plane and cuts the plane at an angle.
0

Choosing point A by assigning = 1 OA = 1


4

C
0 2

Equation of line AB is r = 1 + t 3
4 1

2t 2

1
When this line intersects the plane, 1 + 3t 3 = 6 t =
2
4+ t 1

0
2

OB = 1 + 3
4 2 1

0
2

and AB = OB OA = [ 1 + 3 ]
4 2 1

0
2

1 = 3
4 2 1

AC = 2AB = 3
1

0 2 2

OC = OA + AC = 1 + 3 = 4
4 1 3

2 1 1

DC = OC OD = 4 1 = 3 parallel to
3 1 4

3
4

Hence, equation of mirror image of line reflected in plane is


1
1

r = 1 + 3 (shown)
1
4

d.

B
C
O

OC =

OA + 3OB 1
3
= a+ b
4
4
4
C

B
d


1
a b 3b b 1
a 3b
a 3b
d = OC b = +
+
b= +
b
=
|b|
b
4
4
4 4
4 4

a b 3 | b |2
a b
+
+
=
4|b| 4|b|
4|b|
3|b|
+
=
4

3 | b |2
[ a b 0 since angle AOB is acute]
4|b|
a b
(shown)
4|b|

e. The question can be interpreted in the context of 3 planes having a common line
of intersection.
Considering the 2 planes with equations 3x y 4 z=9 and x y =9 , their
common line of intersection can be found as follows :
3x y 4z=9 ----------------(1)
x y =3 ----------------------(2)
From (2), we have y =3 x ; substituting this into (1) gives

3 x
3 x3 x4 z=9 2 x4 z=6 z =
2 2

x
0
1
x
3x
3
1
=
x
Hence, line of intersection L is given by r = y =
3 x
3
1

z
2 2
2
2


0
3 2
2
3
1
2

(Note that x is merely a dummy parameter)


In addition, line L MUST also lie on the plane with equation
x y 3 z= , ie

2
1
1
2 =0 = ( L is perpendicular to the normal of the third plane
2
1
3

containing unknowns and . )

and

0
1
9
1 9
3
= =3 =3 =3 (shown)
3
2
2
2
3
2

10. Inequalities/ System of linear equations


- ability to solve inequalities either through mathematical means or graphical
methods ( as required by the question); be thorough and careful when
manipulating/transferring terms across the inequality signage ( eg dividing/
multiplying both sides by a negative term results in a directional change of
the inequality, while appending the natural logarithm to both sides does
not yield any change whatsoever)
- ability to recognise the significance of proving an expression to be strictly
positive (usually through completing the square) in helping to expedite the
inequality solving process.
-ability to properly dismantle the modulus encapsulating certain functions (
eg for x12x3, squaring both sides serve to eliminate the modulus
brackets, ie x122 x3 2 . )
-ability to modify original solution set to deduce the solution set for
extended versions/variations of the basic inequality previously examined in
in the question.
-ability to decipher and derive a set of linear equations (typically 3) based on
the context of the question-the storyline varies greatly and students must be
astute enough to realise the motivation of the question. ( Popular structures
include a polynomial curve threading through a set of given points, where
the student is required to obtain the equation of the polynomial itself, and
business schemes which investigate the concept of profit margins
related to the sale of different products).
PREDICTED QUESTION STRUCTURES :
1
x
<
, giving your answers in exact form.
x 3 x+ 1
1
1
<
Hence, solve the inequality x
.
e 3 1+ ex

*a. Solve the inequality

b. Using the method of completing the square, show that 4x 24x3 is always positive.
32x243
4 .
Hence, without the use of a graphic calculator, solve the inequality 2
x 7x60
*c. A , B and C denote angles which constitute a triangle. It is further known that:
1
sin AB = and sin BC =cos B C . Find the values of A , B and
2
C in degrees.
FULL SOLUTIONS TO QUESTIONS MARKED WITH ASTERIX:
a.

1
x
<
x 3 x+ 1

1
x

< 0
x 3 x+ 1
x + 1 x( x 3)
< 0
( x 3)( x + 1)
+ve
x + 4x + 1
< 0
( x 3)( x + 1)

-ve

+ve

-ve

+ve

-1

2+

x 2 4x 1
> 0
( x 3)( x + 1)

( x 2) 2 5
( x 3)( x + 1)

> 0

x < 1, 2

5 < x < 3,

x > 2+

5 (shown)

1
1
<
e 3 1+ ex
x

1
1
<
e 3 1+ 1
e x
x

1
e x
<
e x 3 e x + 1

0 < e x < 3 x > ln 3

and e x > 2 +

5 x < ln(2 +

5 ) (shown)

c. A BC =180 -----------------(1)
1
1 1
Since sin AB = 2 , then A B=sin 2 =30 ---------------(2)

sin BC =cos B C tan B C =1 BC =tan1 1=45 -----------------(3)

Combining the 3 equations to form the augmented matrix gives


1 1
1 180
1 1 0
30
0 1 1 45
Solving the matrix system by the graphic calculator gives
A=95 , B =65 and C =20 (shown)