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HUMAN RESOURCES

MANAGEMENT

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


TABLE OF CONTENTS
SYLLABUS ......................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 3
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS ........................................................................................................... 6
RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION .......................................................................................... 7
INTERVIEWS .................................................................................................................................... 8
TRAINING .......................................................................................................................................... 9
TRAINING METHODS\TRAINING TECHNIQUES ........................................................... 11
STEPS IN HR PLANNING ......................................................................................................... 12
SKILLS INVENTORY................................................................................................................... 14
CAREER DEVELOPMENT ......................................................................................................... 14
HUMAN RESOURCES AUDIT.................................................................................................. 16
JOB EVALUATION ....................................................................................................................... 16
JOB ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................. 17
NON-ANALYTIC JOB\EVALUATION.................................................................................... 19
PERFORMANCE EVALUATION/APPRAISAL/MANAGEMENT .................................. 22
ESSENTIALS OF A JOB DESCRIPTION............................................................................. 24
OTHER METHODS OF PEFORMANCE EVALUATION ................................................. 24
COMMON ERRORS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS ............................................... 25
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY.......................................................................... 26
WORK RELATED DISEASES ................................................................................................... 27
STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME WORK RELATED DISEASES ................................... 27
TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING .................................................................................. 28
ACCIDENT ....................................................................................................................................... 28
FUNCTIONS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES PERSONNEL IN ACCIDENT
PREVENTION ................................................................................................................................. 29
NSSA (NATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY AUTHORITY)................................................. 29
PENSION SCHEME ...................................................................................................................... 30
PAST EXAM QUESTIONS ......................................................................................................... 32

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SYLLABUS
AIM
To provide the students with adequate knowledge of and appreciation of personnel
management funds.
CONTENT
Comprises of 7 chapters
1:0 EVOLUTION OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT
1:1 Theories & practises relating to personnel management.
1:2 Discuss the development of legislation in relation to personnel management.
1:3 Trace the evolution of the organisation of labour (organised labour)
2:0 MANPOWER PLANNING (H.R.P)
2:1 Define and identify purposes of Manpower Planning
2:2 Discuss the factors that affect labour supply & demand in an organisation.
2:3 Identify the range, sources & uses of data, both internally & externally.
3:0 RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION
3:1 Explain the process & purpose of job analysis.
3:2 Explain the key requirements of job description &person specification.
3:3 Outline the purpose & essential features of job application form.
3:4 Outline the use of different media or methods with reference to effectiveness in
recruitment.
3:5 Explain the process of analysing responses to recruitment.
3:6 Explain the key purpose of selection interviews & use of selection tests.
3:7 Outline the planning & preparation needed for selection interviews in respect of
interviews, interviewee& interview environment.
3:8 Explain the nature & purpose of different types of question techniques which may
be employed & identify common interviewing errors or faults.
4:0 PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
4:1 Analyse the purposes of past performance review & future potential review
including importance of objective setting for different grades of employees.
4:2 Outline the procedure for conducting an appraisal
4:3 Describe the types & uses of documentation associated with performance
appraisal systems.
4:4 Identify the key issues concerning appraisal & remuneration.
4:5 Discuss the use of merit as a means of rewarding good performance.
5:0 JOB GRADING & REMUNERATION
5:1 Define & state the purpose of job evaluation.
5:2 Explain the key features of analytical & known analytical of job evaluation
systems.
5:3 Outline the equal value issues which relate to job evaluation.

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5:4 Evaluate the influence of technological change rate circling, demand & supply
issues & grading differentials on job evaluation.
5:5 Outline the appeals process.
5:6 Outline the following remuneration process relating to pay performance: Payment by result.
 Measured day works.
 Consolidated & unconsolidated payments.
 Bonus payments
 Profit sharing
5:7 Discuss the issues relating to internal & external remunerationcomparability.
5:8 Explain the role of collective bargaining in determining remuneration.
5:9 Outline the development of personnel remuneration contracts.
5:10 Statutory requirements for payment of wages & salaries.
5:11 Statutory requirements on deductions.
6:0 EMPLOYMENT BENEFITS
6:1 The legal aspects for the provision of provident funds.
6:2 Reasons for the provisions of insurance cover in employment e.g. disablement &
getting service.
6:3 Explain how housing loans; study loans & other assistance could be related to job
satisfaction.
7:0 HEALTH & SAFETY
7:1 Describe the role of statutory or government agencies charged with promoting
safety standards at work.
7:2 Explain the main obligations of the employer & the employee under health &
safety legislation & the legal sanctions which may be imposed.
7:3 Outline the powers of the inspectorate regulations.
7:4 Outline the main provisions of earning statutory of government advice relating to
7:5 Evaluate the role of management in developing Health & Safety policies &
awareness.
7:6 Describe the significant development facility relating to Health & Safety.
RECOMMENDED TEXTS BOOKS
1. Beach D.S 1985; Personnel; The management of people at work; Macmillan
Publication, New York.
2. Beach; Cocklier D.S;.Personnel Management Macmillan; Newyork
3. Flippo EB; Personnel Management; Mc Growhill Publications.
4. Hacket Penny; Successing Personnel Management; John Murray Publications
5. Labour Act chapter 28:01; 1996 with Ammendments.

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INTRODUCTION
 Human resources management is to ensure the utilisation of employees of a company
in obtaining the goals & objectives of the company and looking after workers welfare.
 Every organisation exists for a purpose either profit making or non-profit making.
 To achieve the goals pf the organisation it is necessary to put human energy to
productive use.
Human Resources management entails the following:a) Deciding how the people are needed and what skills they require.
b) Obtaining suitable people.
c) Arranging people into groups or departments.
d) Policy making, training, labour relations, discipline and grievances.
e) Performance appraisals.
f) Remuneration
g) Safety
h) Health & Welfare
Evolution of Human Resources Management/ Historical development of Personnel
Management
1. Scientific Management ( F.W Taylor)
 F.W Taylor formulated this theory of scientific management in early 1900 in which
rationalplanning & efficient administration were paramount.
 Improvement of worker method & techniques was seen as the best way of increasing
output.
 Workers had to adjust to management not management to workers.
 The leaders function was to enforce performance criteria to meet the organisations
goals.
 The economic self- interest of workers could be satisfied through various insensitive
work plans. Management was divorced from human affairs.
2. Traditional School or Classical School
 It originated in the 1920s.
 It saw management as a specialised function which was distinguished from the
operating or technical work that a manager did.
 It was based on a set of well-defined concepts & principles.
 Hierarchical organisation structure with a well-defined chain of command.
 Span of control.
 Unit of command.
 The subordination of the individual to institutional authority.
 Identification of line & staff functions.
 Specialisation & coordination of functions.
 Delegation of responsibility & authority.
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Formal policies, procedures, rules & written records.

 These concepts form the basis of much of todays management practice which is usually
considered to comprise the following activities: Planning
 Organising
 Leading
 Controlling
3. Behavioural Approach
 It originated in the Hawthorne studies carried out by Elton Mayo.
 The studies demonstrated the positive effects of management interest & goodwill
towards workers as a group.
 Mayos work paved way for Douglas McGregors theory Theory X; Theory Y.
 Theory X assumes that most people in the works situation prefer to be directed, do
not like responsibility & are motivated by money, security & the threat of
punishment.
 Managers who accept Theory X tend to emphasize control & close supervision.
 Theory Y assumes that people can be self-directed and creative at work if they are
properly motivated.
 Abraham Maslow developed a hierarchy of human needs theory ranging from basic
needs to self- actualisation.
 The motivation hygiene Theory of Fredrick Herzberg provides insights into the goals
&incentives that tend to satisfy human needs.
 Herzberg came up with hygiene factors and motivation
 The extent to which employees needs are satisfied in the work situation, depends
largely on styles of management and leadership which vary according to individuals
beliefs and attitudes towards subordinates.
4. The Modern Approach to Leadership
 Leadership ability was considered depended upon the simultaneous attention to the
needs of both the job or task and the needs of those who must complete the task.
 More recently attention has been given to a 3rd dimension i.e the situation or the
environment in which the leader is operating determines the effectiveness of the style
hechooses.
 An effective manager must discover what his people want from the jobs.
The four major roles or functions of H.R Managers
1. Policy initiation and formulation.
 The personnel officer is mostly involved in policy initiation and formulation.
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 It is his responsibility to propose and draft new policies or policy revision to
cover recurring problems or to prevent some anticipated problems.
 Once he has drafted the policies he refers them to top management and it is upon the
top management authority that the policy is actually issued.
 In processing a new revised policy the personnel officer must analyse problems that
have occurred in the past, survey other companies to determine how they have
handled similar problems.
 He should discuss with colleagues and subordinates and give due consideration to the
prevailing philosophy of the organisation.
 He does all the necessary research and staff work but in most cases the new policy is
authorised by top management.
2. Advice
 The largest portion of the activities of those engaged in personnel management
involves counselling and giving advice to line managers.
 The foreman may not advice in handling a grievance over the decision of overtime,
give advice on procedures to be followed on pay increase when suspending an
employee etc.
 Management must seek to so direct and coordinate the efforts of the people so that
thegoals of the organisation are achieved while at the same time providing satisfaction
for the needs of the members of the organisation.
 Apart from oral advice the personnel department prepares and circulates reports and
procedural guidelines for the interpretation and implementation of personnel policies.
3. Service
 The service responsibility of the personnel department is apparent when one examines
such functions as employment; training and provision of staff benefits.
 Training programmes are planned, organised and often staffed through the personnel
officer.
 The personnel department must see that adequate instructional materials and facilities
are available.
 Once pension and insurance programmes have been set up all claims must be
processed through the personnel department.
 The maintenance of the adequate employee records functions.
4. Control
 The personnel department carries out important control functions.
 It monitors the performance of line departments and other staff departments to ensure
that they conform to established personnel policies, procedures and practises.
 The control function is comparable to quality control and auditing.
 Examples of control function are, a company policy requires that all employees
performance be appraised once a year. If supervisors fail to send performance

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appraisal reports to personnel office when required then a follow up is done by the
personnel department.
Duties of personnel office are:








Employment i.e selection, recruitment and induction.


Health and Safety.
Transfer, promotion and layoff.
Compensation and administration.
Discipline and discharge.
Labour relations.
Benefits and services.
Human resources planning.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Organisational development
It is a general approach of improving the effectiveness of an organisation that utilises a
variety of applied behavioural science methodologies.
Among organisational development are to:a) Increase level of trust and supportiveness among people in the organisation.
b) Enhance interpersonal skills
c) Make communication more open and direct
d) Directly contrast problems
e) Take the knowledge of all who can contribute to problem solutions wherever they
maybe in the organisations.
Examples of organisation development activities are:Confrontation meetings
Team building
Survey
Feedback
Conflict resolution
Human resources planning
 Is a process by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of qualified people
available at the times performing jobs that are useful to the organisation and which
provide satisfaction for the individuals involved.
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 Goals and plans of the organisation
 Current human resources situations including skills inventory, human resources
focust, including comparison of projected future demand for employees with
projected supply.
 Designing programmes to implement the plans e.grecruitment, selection, performance
appraisal, training, promotion.
Organisation Planning
 Requires the development of a concept of a company as a structure.
 The organisation planning staff must prepare organisation charts and position guides.
 The personnel office gathers data, does research, prepares, plans and gives advice to
top management in the area of organisation planning.

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION


Recruitment is the finding of applicants for jobs which the organisation wants to fill.
Selection means choosing those job applicants who are best suited for the vacant post.
Sources of Recruitment
a) Internal Sources
 It is recruiting staff from within the organisation.
 Employees know that they have a chance of promotion in an organisation.
 However it promotes stagnation in the organisations by ignoring possible new
ideas from the organisation.
Ways of recruiting internally are: Transferring an employee from a similar job somewhere else in a company.
 Promoting an employee from a lower level job and upgrading him.
 Increasing the educational or skill level of the employee.
 Publicise job vacancies within the organisation on notice board.

Justification for internal recruitment


 Some jobs requires specialised knowledge that can be obtained only within the
organisation e.g. company secrets
 It is argued that a company is in a better position to access skills of an
employee who has been performing satisfactorily over a period of time than
those of a person who is brought in from outside.
 It is less costly to transfer or promote an employee than to attract an outsider
from his employer.
 It has a motivating role.
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 Internal recruitment assumes that people within the organisation have the
aptitude, interest and potential of moving ahead which may not be true.
b) External Sources
 It is recruitment by means of advertising in the press over the real deal,
consulting employees, universities, colleges, work in applicants.
 New ideas are brought from outside.
 There is a high chance of getting better candidates however, it is expensive
and does not motivate workers.

Steps in Recruitment process


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Human Resources Planning


Job Vacancy
Job Analysis
Job Description
Job Specification
Draw up & putting the job advert
Receiving applications.

Steps in the Selection process


1. Preliminary screening of applicants:-that is eliminating obvious misfits to reduce time
& cost of actual selection.
2. Review of application forms: - that is application form gathers information about the
education, experience & personality of the applicants.
3. Employment testing:- that is are used to measure the qualification of job applicants
for example intelligent tests, aptitude test
4. Reference checks:- that is to find out how the applicant performed on the previous
job.
5. Employment interviews:- that is to learn more about job applicants background,
interests & values.
6. Physical examination
-Is used to screen applicants whose physical qualifications are inadequate to meet
requirements of the job.

INTERVIEWS
 It involves asking employees even their supervisors to speak about the nature of their
job using prepared guidelines.
 There is immediate response and flexibility.
 However employees might give biased information.
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 The answers may be just for convenience or deliberately represented.
 Exaggeration might be high.

Purposes of an interview
 To access character & personality
 To fill in gaps in applications
 To access the ability to perform the duties of the job
 To give detailed information about the job to applicants.

Interviewing arrangements
 Arrange furniture in order to give a friendly atmosphere
 Examine the job & details of the application.
 Arrange appointment at intervals.
 Plan the interview that is give more details of the job
 Seek information omitted from the application.
 Ask questions to test applicants ability to do the job
 Ask questions to review character & personality.
 Leave time for applicants to ask questions.
 Types of questions should be open ended or closed questions.
Common Interviewing errors are: Brief unsystematic interviewing that is conclusions based on hunches rather than
facts. Candidates assigned preconceived classifications without examining all relevant
evidence.
 Failure to establish rapport at the beginning & throughout the interview.
 Interviewer talks too much.
 Subjectivity that is answers to interviewers favourite questions allowed to assume
disproportionate waiting in the assessment.
 Asking leading questions
 Feeling sorry for candidates when he hesitate & proceed to ask less probing questions.
 Mechanically all candidates the same questions and failing to follow up responses
made by candidates
 Prejudice that is belief that only his format will succeed on the job.
 Stereotyping that is categorising candidates as either good or bad on the basis of a few
factors which may not have a bearing on successful performance on the job.
 Hallo effect that is asking open ended questions the other problem central tendency

TRAINING
 It is the systematic development of the knowledge, skills & attitudes required by an
individual to perform adequately a given task.
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 Reasons for training employees are boost employee morale assist in themost efficient
performance of the job.
 Ensure continuity of a candidate for a higher post.
 Assist the general efficiency of the business.
 Ensure that standards are used by trainees.

Identifying training needs

High staff turnover


When employees need much supervision
When production is substandard
Changing of technology or illiteracy in organisations
High accidents because of lack of knowledge
Absenteeism

3 aims of training are:


a) To shorten the learning time so that new employees become as efficient as quick and
economical as possible.
b) To improve the performance of current employees
c) To assist employees to develop their potential so that the needs of the organisation can
be met from within.
Sequence of training

Identify training needs


Prepare training plans

Programmes

facilities

methods

trainers

Implement training plans


Measure and analyse results

Validate

evaluate

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Steps in training (systematic approach to training)
1) Identification of knowledge and skills required.
Undertake job analysis to list knowledge, skills and attitudes required for effective
performance of each task.
2) Identification of present levels of knowledge and skills i.e. conduct training surveys or
performance appraisals.
3) Identification of training needs i.e. compare original job description or standards with
information obtained \retained on current levels of knowledge or skills possessed by
each job holder.
4) Prepare training plan or programme i.e. design syllabus.
Decide training methods, length, duration of training, training locations, trainers etc.
5) Implement the training programme
6) Evaluation of training and feedback i.e. assessment during training, formative
evaluation, assessment after training.

TRAINING METHODS\TRAINING TECHNIQUES


Off the job training methods
1. Lecture
Is the most commonly used method.
Success of the lecture is measured by the ability of the trainer to maintain the
interests of the students and the means of the presentation.
2. Case studies
Are real life situations or events which have occurred.
These facts are given to the student and they are required to apply their knowledge
and principle and finding potential solution to those problems.
3. Role playing
Students acts out a situation by assuming designated roles and this technique is
usually used in conjunction with other methods.
4. Group exercises
Are specific exercises which the group is given to complete.
It allows group discussions and participation and together the individual members
of the group must agree on one answer to the exercise.
On the job training methods

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1. Demonstration
The trainer shows the student how to do a specific task and the trainee is given the
opportunity to perform the same task under the supervision of trainer.
2. Job rotation
Move the individual form one position to another so that the trainee gains
experience, skills and knowledge of other jobs within the organisation.
3. Coaching or tutorials
The method uses a one to one situation, where the trainer spends time with one
specific trainee coaching him in the type of skills.
Benefits of training are:
Improves performance on job
Learning time is reduced
Improves attitudes
Labour turnover and absenteeism is reduced
Training employees requires less supervision
Improves recruitment and selection processes
Increases knowledge and skills of employees
Evaluation of training
It is an attempt to obtain feedback on the effects of a training programme.
To access the value of training in the light of that information.
Evaluation compares objectives of training against final results.
The learning of each trainee must be measured so that measurable results are
obtained.
The trainee must be assessed before and after the training so that any change in
behaviour can be attributed to the actual training.
The measurement of learning should be on objective basis.
A control group for comparison purpose should be used.
Human Resources Planning
Is a systematic analysis of the organisation existing human resources and
development of plans to obtain the organisations future personnel needs.
It ensures that the right quantity of people is available when the organisation needs
them.

STEPS IN HR PLANNING
1. Identification of organisational goals
It requires the forecasting of economic trends, population changes and raw
materials availability.
Decisions have to be made regarding the future customer base, the geographic
area to be served of the type and quantity of goals to be produced.
2. Quantitative forecasting
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Is the assessment of the number of people needed in the various position needed in
the future under anticipated conditions e.g. growth, stagnation, decline.

Steps in quantitative forecasting are:


a) Carry out a census of a current HR based on age, skill levels which may review a
deficiency or an excess in certain areas
b) From the figures reached in the census of current resources subtract:
Anticipated losses through death, retirements, resignation, transfers, and
promotions.
Positions not being replaced and jobs being eliminated as a result of technological
changes reduced commitment in certain areas or reorganisation of duties.
c) Add the number of new positions assessed on the basis of plans for development and
expansion.
The resultant figures obtained for projections of 2 years, 5 years or 10 years
provide a basis for a planning of future recruitment and selection exercises.
3. Quantitative forecasting
Is an attempt to decide what kind of people the organisation will need to meet
its future staffing requirements?
It means determining the knowledge, skills, aptitudes and characteristics of the
people required to perform successfully in the organisation of the future.
When the qualities associated with the competence performance today may no
longer be relevant.
Technological improvements and changing methods of work of work are 2
factors which need to be taken into account.
4. Labour market analysis
Examination of the various sources of personnel is necessary to determine where the
organisation will obtain staff in the future.
The labour market consists of all those who are working and those who are
unemployed and actively seeking employment.
The demand side of labour can be determined from economic forecasts and the hiring
plans of individuals organisation.
New developments and expansions in both public and private sectors need to be taken
into account.
New organisations can place additional demands on the labour supply although they
may also attract work seekers to the area.
Purposes of manpower planning are:
To determine the level of recruitment
To find ways of preventing redundancies.
To monitor the ratio of manpower to other course with the aim of assisting regarding
the best use of financial resources.
It provides a basis for training and developing programmes geared to meet the needs
of the business and related to company succession plans.
It helps to know accommodation which is required in the future e.g. recreational
facilities, working space or canteen.
How would you as a Human Resources Manager assess supply of manpower?
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Undertaking staff audit


Examine turnover of staff
Competition for employees from other organisation
Level of absenteeism

SKILLS INVENTORY

It consists of an up to date information regarding qualifications for selected categories


of staff like managerial, technical and professional.
When the human resources focus is prepared one can compare the number, types,
skills specified by the focus with the present baseline or current position given by the
skills inventory to ascertain what skills must be developed from present personnel
through training, upgrading and special development efforts.
To find and identify talent within the organisation for specific job openings.
Skills inventory is also valuable for the preparation of roasters of qualified technical
and managerial personnel to be submitted on project proposals for government
contract.
Information included in the skills inventory is:
1. Personal data
Includes name, date of birth, gender, marital status
2. Education
Includes courses obtained e.g. diploma, degree, college attended and college
dates.
3. Employment history
Previous employers, job titles, current position and salary
4. Performance and potential
Performance appraisal reports, assessment centres evaluation
5. Career goals
Personal preference for special training, assignments, job and locations.

CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Career Development

Career Planning

Career Management

Is the planning of ones career and the implementation of career planning by means of
education, training, job research and acquisition of work experiences?
Reasons for having a career development are:
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Equal employment opportunity


In order to provide equal \better opportunity for minority and women to move up
in their organisations from entry level jobs, the equal employment opportunity
commission has been requiring organisation to identify career pass and eliminate
barriers to upgrading for minorities and women.
Quality of working life
Younger employees expressed desires to obtain greater control over their own
careers. They do not simply accept the roles and assignments given to them at the
convenience of management. They are after greater job satisfaction and more
career options.
Competition for high talent personnel
Personnel who are highly educated often give preference in selecting a company
for which to work for those that are supportive of their career aspirations and have
career development programmes.
Avoid obsolescence
Changes in technology, demography, economy and changes on consumer demand
can render obsolete the skills that employees in various occupations have acquired
often through years of training.
Career development programmes can assist individuals in anticipating changes
and can help them gain new skills for there is a real demand.

Retention of personnel
Through career development programme, management may reduce turnover of employees
caused by frustration of individual career ambitions.
Improved utilisation of personnel
On most cases people may keep in jobs which they have outgrown or which are dead
end assignments.
Performance is better when people are placed in jobs they like and which fit their
ambitions.
Career planning
Is a personnel process of planning ones work life?
This includes evaluating ones abilities and interests examining career opportunities,
setting career goals and planning appropriate development opportunities.
Career management
Is a subset of career development?
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It focuses more upon plans and activities done by the organisation.


The management of the organisation matches individual employee career plans with
organisational needs and implement programmes to accomplish theses joined
objectives.

HUMAN RESOURCES AUDIT

Is an examination of what happens to manpower from the present moment to specific


period in future e.g. 5 years or 10 years from now?
Helps to show changes in the manpower profile of an organisation through
promotions, demotions, transfers, death, resignation, retirement.
Assists in showing dynamic nature of manpower and provides a basis of coming up
with manpower plans to deal with anticipated manpower shortages.

Equal employment opportunity


Deals with special employment problems e.g. non whites, women, older workers and
handicapped people i.e. discrimination in terms of recruitment, selection, testing,
accommodation for the handicapped, promotion, sexual harassment.

JOB EVALUATION
Def: is a process of establishing the relative importance and value of jobs within an
organisation in order to establish the jobs position in the hierarchy and its relative monetary
value.
Its a systematic analysis of various jobs in an organisation in order to determine the
hierarchy and work.
Purposes
Is done to have a fair compensation in the organisation relating to job within the
organisation.
To assess the ranging of jobs in the organisation
To achieve both internal and external equity in pay.
The ultimate output of a job Eva exercise is a ranking order of jobs and a pay sale.

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Effects of a poor job evaluation process


There is low moral
Low productivity
High labour turnover
Job analysis

Job description

Job specification

Job rating

Monetary allocation

JOB ANALYSIS
Is the study of the job content to determine the human requirements?
Purposes of job analysis
Is to come up with a proper rationalised job description and persons specification.
Is to determine the best way of performing a job to avoid bottlenecks inefficiency and
wastage.
To avoid accidents.
Job analysis approach
1. Observation
2. Interviews
3. Questionnaires
4. Written narratives
The observation is the mostly used for factory line jobs.
The interviews method is commonly used.
7 steps in job analysis
1. The job analyst has to introduce him\herself
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2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Demonstrate sincerity and interest in the work or the job of that person.
The analyst should not tell the employee how and to do the job
Try to talk to the supervisor in their technical language.
Do not confuse the work with the worker.
Does a complete job study before not like a motion study analyst?
Verify the information obtained.

Sequential process in J\evaluation


Identify need

Communicate
intention to
conduct J\E to all
levels

Examine possible
alternative job
system

Choose
appropriate
system

Set up plans for


implantation

Make a
presentation to
management

Make a
presentation to
employees

Obtain approval
for J\evaluation

Prepare a manual
of how you do it

Conduct a
workshop within
organisation

Writing job
descripyion

Conduct Job
evaluation

Review Job
Evaluation
results

Communicate to
all stakeholders

Train participants

Appeals process
Everyone should know about job evaluation exercise and the results obtained.
Appeals if only should be lodged to the evaluation committee by the employee
consent, through the supervisor.
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NB appeals should contain essential factual essence about the complaint.


If there is an agreement with the job evaluation committee the employee or employee
consent can seek an external arbitrator.

Internal and external comparability to pay


Equity is a significant concept in discussing remuneration.
Equity in remuneration refers to the levels of earnings for people in an occupation
which society acknowledges and individuals accept.
Perceived unjustifiable distortions in payment systems lead to grievances, labour
turnover, lowering of moral and industrial strifes.
If the unfairness is associated with close working colleagues the impact is liable to be
all the greater.
External labour market
Employees conduct salaries service on pay and conditions of service pertaining to similar
employers.
Red circling
Frozen of salary after being overpaid until a certain time.
Involves a situation in which a job after job\evaluation exercise to be found over
slotted or over graded.
The job\evaluation committee will rationalise job into appropriate level. But the
holder of the job will still retain the salary and benefits that he used to get.
If a new employee is taken that a new employee will be graded according to
j\evaluation system.

NON-ANALYTIC JOB\EVALUATION
Ranking\job comparison
Jobs are compared with 1 another and job impact on the whole organisation is
considered.
The system compares total jobs and at times certain factors e.g. responsibility, job
complexity or knowledge.
It is used in small organisation.
Advantages
Evaluation process is fast
Easy to implement
Low cost to organisation
Produces hierarchy without analysing job content\specific aspects of job separately.

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Disadvantages
Judgements are often influenced by current wage rates\personal criteria.
Ranking process does not show how different jobs are visa-vee content and
complexity.
Grade description
E.G. PATERSON SYSTEM
Grade A
Routine decisions
Grade B
Programmed
decisions
Grade C
Calculated decisions
Grade D
Technical

Grade E
Grade F

Interpretative
Policy decision

Used commonly in parastatals in governments.


This method divides job hierarchy into a number of grade definitions by developing
written developments for each grade and allocating every job into a particular grade.
Definitions of grade will be based on difficult in the level of duties, responses and
skills for that job.
Some guidance in dividing grades can be found by using rational promotional steps.
NB this system considers decision making.

Advantages
They are fixed written descriptions of every job
The jobs can be grouped together for administrative simplicity.
Its simple to implement
Its simple to maintain
Disadvantages
System looks at whole jobs
Then can be inflexible and not sensitive to changes in nature job
They cannot cope with complex jobs
Analytical systems Job evaluation
Point system
Factor comparison
POINT SYSTEM
Most commonly used method
Based on separately defined factors
Job characteristics determine the different in job weights
Common factors in job are used and are called compensable factors e.g. decision
making, contacts with people and responsibility.

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80-100
60-79
50-69
40-49
30-49

1
2
3
4
5

Advantages
Avoids oversimplification
Provides defined yardsticks therefore seen as objective
Appears objective though it is not
Provides rational for developing a salary structure
Points are converted to grades
Disadvantages
Expensive to develop and implement
It looks scientific before is still subjective
It assumes it is possible to quantify different jobs and match them
Factor comparison
Similar to point system but emphasis is a factor
It has more of those compensable factors
Each factor is given monetary factors
Each job is assessed on specified factors and monetary allocation to each of those
factors is made
Bench mark jobs are established first within
Each department and are rated first
Advantages
It is flexible
It used well defined factors which dont overlap on each other.

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Disadvantages
-

Use of current monetary value builds errors in the system so it should be updated
regularly.
Content of job may be changing overtime so periodically J/Descript must be visited.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION/APPRAISAL/MANAGEMENT
-

Is the assessment of an employees performance on a daily or regular basis by the


supervisor/line manager?
Is a means of getting better results from the organization, teams and individuals by
understanding and managing performance within an agreed framework of :
Plan
Goals
Objectives and
Standards therefore it means performance evaluation is a joined approach by
the appraiser and appraisee.
Ideally performance evaluation should be based on management and management
approach.

PERFORMANCE APPRAISALTERMINOLOGY
-

Appraiser one who rates/checks the performance


Appraisee is the rate
Evaluator evaluetee
Supervisor supervisee
Manager managed

ROLES OF PERSONNEL MANAGERS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL


1) Advisory role
2) Conform/check performance appraisal cycle
3) Responsible for coordinating appraisal process i.e. provision of stationery and
facilities e.g. forms
4) Responsible for compiling departmental reports
5) Assisting with coming up with job descriptions and key result areas
6) Record keeping
MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
APPROACH/MBO
-

Step 1 : Identify common goals


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-

Step 2 :
Step 3 :
Step 4 :
Step 5 :

Define subordinates Key Result Area


Specify expected results, objectives and standards
Use results as operating guidelines
Use results as basis for compensation, training and developments

PURPOSE PF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL


-

Identify the performance gap and it is the difference between the expected
performance and the actual performance.
To identify the skills gap and it is the difference between the expected skill and actual
skill.
Identify potential
For payment purposes e.g. performing well gets bonus and incentives
Set standards

BENEFITS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL


-

To improve productivity both in quantity and quality.


To improve the performance of individuals, in team and organizations
Enhance supervisory and employee relationships
It provides feedback to members on their performance, leading to increased
motivation.
It enhance growth and development through training
Its a basis for fair compensation
It provides an objective and quantitative measure of performance

PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT CYCLE


1. Performance planning

2. Performance monitoring

3.

Performance evaluation

1. Performance planning
- Overall vision and mission of organization
- Also do job evaluations and come up with Key Result Area
- Set standards and do an action plan relating to method of performance evaluation.
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2. Performance monitoring
- Implication
- Counselling and coaching
- Feedback on how they are performing
3. Performance evaluation
- Compare the standards versus actual performance
- Do interring rating
- Do some discussions on rating between employee and employer
- Evaluate
- Agree on evaluations

ESSENTIALS OF A JOB DESCRIPTION


NB The job description is the most important for performance evaluation
It must have:
1.

Job Title :
It should indicate the function in which the job is carried out.
2. Reporting Structure:
Reporting to and responsible for:
3. Summary or purpose of the job:
4. Main Duties:
Specify the tasks to be performed

OTHER METHODS OF PEFORMANCE EVALUATION


2. Banking
- Comparing the performance of one employee with the others to arrive at a rating
- Its ideal for jobs at the same level and ideal for small organizations
3. Person to person
- It uses factors such as leadership, dependability, initiative or resourcefulness.
- Commonly used in the organization
4.

Grading

- Certain grading categories are established in advance of appraises or are slotted in


accordingly.
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- There are three categories used:
a) Outstanding performance
b) Satisfactory performance
c) Unsatisfactory performance
5. GRAPHIC SCALES
Performance
factor

Quantity of work
Dependability
Attitudes
Quality of work

Does not
meet job
requirements
Consistently
unsatisfactory


Partially
meet job
requirements
Occasionally
unsatisfactory

Meet job
Exceeds job
Far exceeds
requirements requirements job
requirements
Consistently
Sometimes
Consistently
unsatisfactory superior
exceeds


6. Checklists
Superior
Questions
1. Does he usually volunteer good advice
2. Does he show a market interest in the job
3.Is constant treatment given to her subordinates
4.Does supervisor display good working knowledge
5.Do subordinates show respect
6.Does supervisor complain about his own supervisors
7.Does supervisor show favoritism to some employees

Yes





No





Informal performance Appraisal


-

MP vs constituency
Pastor vs congregation
Child vs parents
President vs electorate

COMMON ERRORS IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS


1. Halo effect - positive effect
Horns effect - negative effect

snap judgments

2. Error of central tendency


- Rater clusters most of his subordinates in the middle rating category

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3. Regency of event error


An employee may have performed very well towards the end of evaluation period,
then the rater will use that as representative of the entire valuation period.
4. Subjectivity
- Biases i.e. sex, race, nationality e.t.c
5. Lack of adequate assessment information
Not enough information for assessment.
6. Lack of assessment methods
7. Improper weighting of factors
8. Harshness or leniency error

OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY


Definitions
1.
2.
-

SAFETY
Is the absence of occupational hazards that can cause injury/death to the employee.
HEALTH
Is the stage of being bodily and mental vigorous and free from disease.

3. ACCIDENT
- Anything that happens unintentionally or by chance
- An undesirable event resulting in death, injury and damage to people or property
leading to an adverse effect in productivity.
4. ACCIDENT PREVENTION POLICY
- It is a proactive stance taken by government or management to address occupational
hazards or accidents in the work places.
5. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH
The state of well being of an individual in his or her working situation.
6. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PRIGRAMMES
- These are concerned with identification and control of health hazards arising from
individual employments
7. ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH
- The work environment must meet the factories and works inspectorate works and he
factors to be considered are:
1. Noise levels of noise should not exceed (90 decibels)
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2. Hygienic conditions - dirty floors, slippery floors cause injuries and diseases
3. Radiation ultra violet rays cause skin diseases as heat waves are emitted from
the sun.
4. Safety of employees- the employer should provide adequate safety measures
8. SOCIAL HEALTH
- Apart from the physical health of the individual the workers social life has to be
catered for.
- A worker who is battling with problems at home will not perform well at work
9. HUMAN NEEDS
- The organization should provide adequate compensation for work done and also
enough entertainment during the space of time.
10. PHYSICAL HEALTH
- Is the physical wellbeing of an individual i.e. free from diseases and illness
- The individual must have a homestastitis means maintihence of mental of
metabolical balance, maintenance
11. MENTAL HEALTH
- A state in which one is well adjusted, there is accurate perception of reality and can
reasonably cope with stress frustration in life.

WORK RELATED DISEASES


These are diseases caused by factors present in the work situation e.g. respiratory diseases
e.g. Tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneumocosis, lung disease.

Hypertension is a result of stress and lack of exercises


Back pain When work is very physically demanding
Fatigue caused by too long working hours
Visual problems use of computers, excessive light, reading too much.

STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME WORK RELATED DISEASES


1. Analyze work history, work environment i.e. ergonomics the study of work
situation in relationship to the worker.
2. Analyze the individual genera; health history
3. Provide adequate health education e.g. recreation facilities
4. Give medical facilities e.g. a clinic
5. Monitor and maintain conclusive environmental e.g. hats etc
6. Administer constant medical examination visually main exposure to hazards
environment
Constraints
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1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Management concern or attitude towards health


General health and employees
Size of staff
Availability of finance and resources
Protective clothing

TYPES OF PROTECTIVE CLOTHING


1. Goggles this is a device used to screen the eye or face from adverse effect of the
wor environment. These are used in welding operations, spraying of chemicals and
operating other machines such as grading, stone processing, saw milling, riding motor
bikes.
2. Helmets hat gear used in construction in mining, also in cricket, people operating
machines.
3. Gloves protection of hands and arms used in laboratory clinical scientific,
cleaning toilets, boxing, salitation personnel, in hospitals and hair salons.
4. Dust mask for protection of lung diseases for construction, spraying chemicals,
mining saw mills and theatre.
5. Safety shoes perfect foot, used in construction, steel making and mining.
6. Overal used in construction, farming.
7. Ear plugs n protection against noise in noise industrial or environment, grinding
mills, sawmills
8. Gumboots building construction, farming, hospitals or several task of sanitary
WORK.

ACCIDENT
ACCIDENT PREVENTION POLICY
It is a proactive stunts taken by management to address occupational hazards and to avoid
occurrence of the accidents.
Accidents prevention program (by committee)
A program a systematic flow of activities to ensure health and safety.
FUNCTIONS
1. Identify the hazardous areas

ACTION BY
- Employee,
managers
&
supervisors
and
- Line managers, HR Manager

2. Establish
specific
objective
performance standards
3. Delegate responsibilities

4. Evaluate performance results


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First line managers, operators,


employer
Line managers, HR Managers

HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


-

5. Take remedial action

Everyone

What/which factor contribute to accidents at work


PERSONAL FACTORS
1. Lack of skill or knowledge
2. Fatigue
3. Poor health
4. Psychological
(emotions/spirit)

JOB FACTORS
1. Environmental/noise level, ventilation,
light
2. Lack of effective supervision
3. Condition of machinery, plant and
equipment
factors
4. Good house keeping
5. Fire hazards

FUNCTIONS OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES PERSONNEL IN


ACCIDENT PREVENTION
1. Recruitment and selection - Need to recruit a right skilled health people
2. Induction - Acquaint new employee and environment
3 Performance evaluation - Teach people the right way of performing task and the right
habits
4 Training and development
5 Record keeping pertain to health, accidents, programs
6 Processing injury on duty
7 Run safety contest e.g. promotion
8 Counseling to prevent accidents

NSSA (NATIONAL SOCIAL SECURITY AUTHORITY)


Functions and Responsibilities

It is a parastatal organization
It was formed in 1994 and it is the successor to the Workmans Compensation
The principal/ Main Act that promulgated this parastatal in existence was drafted
in 1994
NSSA operates 2 schemes

1. Pension Scheme
Came into existence through statutory instrument 393 0f 1993
2. Workers Compensation Insurance Fund
Statutory Instrument 68 of 1990

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PENSION SCHEME
-

Caters for all employees in all castors except domestics


NB Civil servants came on board in June 2002

Membership is though payment of contributions to NSSA

Contributions
-

The employer and employee both pay contributions to the scheme


The employer is required to deduct from the employee and remit to NSSA
3% of the gross salary is deducted

BENEFITS
Pension
1.1 Eligibility condition
-

The employee should have contributed for 10 years or 120 months to become eligible
to the pension
The employee should have reached the age of retirement but the age requirements
differs i.e.
Normal = 60 years
Early = 65 years
Late = 65 years
Retirement on medical grounds is usually reduced to 55 years
Your contributions must be backed up by a membership Number

Retirement Grant

Is one lump sum payment.

1.2 Eligibility Conditions

The employer must have contributed for 12 months and the employer must
have reached 55 years

Invalidity Benefit

It is also a lump sum payment and is added once; this is a benefit that is paid
on medical grounds
1.3 The member must contribute for 12 months and when one is medically
satisfied as fit he can
get the grant.
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Funeral Benefit

It is a lump sum payment which is paid to cater for funeral expenses upon the death of
an employee who is a member
1.4 Eligibility
The contributor should have paid @ least for 12 months and the amount is not rigid.
The beneficiary must produce a burial order/ death certificate and the claimers
identity card and if the person was married, a marriage certificate.

Survivors Benefits (is a pension) Is paid for the spouse or children under 18 years.
Eligible Condition Contributed for 10 years and if contribution for 10 years survivors get a
grant.
2. Workers Compensation Insurance Fund
Caters for employees who are injured on duty (IOD)
-

Employer/Supervisor must complete this form (Workers Insurance Fund 14) and
submit it to NSSA within 14 days
The employer contributes 100%
The contributions are based on industry risk (based on accident statistics within the
industry)
These rates are reviews and assessed annually based on the accidents
A doctors report is required for compensation purposes i.e. Payments are made
according to medical report
Members or employees who do not fully recover to be able to go back to work will be
sent to central rehabilitation centre in Bulawayo to receive extra medication
Where extra
Assisted with startup capital
NSSA maintains an open door policy i.e. any employee or employer is free to come
complain consult.

ZOHSC (Zimbabwe Occupational Health and Safety Council)


It is a department attached to NSSA and an operational arm of NSSA.
Main functions
Exists in order to enforce compliance with occupational Health and Safety
Intention
Minimize on incidents of accidents
How it operates
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1. Means of promotions on health and safety in the workplaces
2. Factory inspections they do inspections of new industry so that it complies with the
required standards.
- Inspections on existing industries on boilers, convey belts, premises
- Inspect tools, equipment and plant
3. Carry out random inspections and check on compliance
4. ZOHSC(Zimbabwe Occupational Health and Safety Council) carries out seminars and
are targeted for managers and employers representatives.
5. Carries out job analysis.
-

It is run by a council
It is headed by a president and 12 councillors

PAST EXAM QUESTIONS


Question 2
Explain how the following help in the motivation of workers:
a) Job design
b) Job enrichment
c) Job enlargement
Explain any 4 principles in which Hertzberg said Job enrichment efforts should be based.
i.

JOB Design

Work environment, ventilation light; furniture; air conditioning.


Identity any 2 aspects
Explain any 2 aspects
ii) Job Enrichment

More autonomy- less vision; more accountability; responsible for results)


Vertical job loading; more responsibilities, more authority (making decision)

iii) Job Enlargement (Horizontal job loading)

Cut back on idle time


Sharpens skills
Contribution to outputs and profits

b) Hertzberg (satisfies)

More responsible
Job content- operands
Compliments- recognition
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Authority (more)
More accountability
Advancement/ promotion

3a Explain any 7 sources of stress. (14)


b) Suggest 6 measures that can be taken to prevent or reduce excessive in workers.

Identify explain or discuss


identify and explain

Outline and explain the procedure for conducting a performance Appraisal exercise. 20
Answer1
Identify 6 steps
Discussion
Introduction
Definitions
Step 1
Objective, mission, goals

Corporate, system plans


Department and team plans
Superior/ subordinate discussion

Step 2
Performance agreement

Set standards based on job descriptions


Agree on expected outputs
Agree on time lines

Step 3
Performance plans

Detailed work plans


Link them the organizational corporate objectives
Mobilize necessary resources

Step 4
Action plan

Review availability of resources


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Identity bottlenecks/ challenges


Adhere for innovation, resourceful, flexibility.

Step 5
Monitoring feedback and review

coaching role of supervisor


synchronizing objectives with reality
open, objective discussion between supervisor and subordinate

Step 6

i.
ii.
iii.

Create conclusive interview (a plat form)


Focus on performance issues and not on peripheral issues
Agree on rating
Organizational
Economic situation
Collective bargaining (Arbitrator)

2. Describe sequentially that can be followed by an organization within employing a new


person in Zimbabwe.
3. Discuss any 5 major functions of a HR Manager

Policy initiation
Advice
Service
Control
Career development and training

4. Define induction training (2) Refer to question 3 previous Question


b) Identify and explain any 6 purposes of employment induction. (18)

5.

a) training needs
b) Job evaluation
c)

Performance appraisal

d) Forced leave
6. Explain 5 reasons why organizations carried out HR planning. (20)
i.
ii.

Initiate and formulate policy


To ensure availability of resources
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7. Highlight on any 5 factors that affect demand of labour in the labour market
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.

Supply of labour
Government politicizes (if the NEC and increase of salaries demand of labour
decreases)
Economic situation ( if its stable demand of labour will below
Technological innovation
Political situation

Increases productivity and efficiency


Job enlargement e.g. think work is like breathing and sleeping.
Negative
Leads to uncertainty
Job enlargement (laziness)
Unemployment

6. The hospitality Industry suffers a lot from labour turnover. Suggest the ways that
you as a manger would use to control it. (20)
I.
II.
III.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Motivation
Induction training
Leadership suitable
Encourage informal groups
Career development
Delegation
Introducing fringe benefits
Promotion enrichment

7. Suggest possible indications of the need for training in a hotel setup. (20)
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

High accident occurrence


Failure to meet objective and goals (target)
When production is substandard
Indiscipline
Change of technology and illiterate in operation
Forecasting
High labour turnover
Time taken to complete a task

June 2011
Explain any 5 factors that determine salary levels in Zimbabwean Organisations. (20)

Government policy
NEC regulations

b) What factors would you consider when designing a pay policy? (10)
i. The value of job
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ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.
viii.
ix.
x.

Nature of the job


Financial stability of the organization
Mode of employment i.e. casual, contractor, permanent
Goals of the organization
Competitors
The rates Labor demand is high pay policy (increased salary) and labour supply
Performance of employees
Government policies
Economic stipulation ( stability / instability)

5. Explain the benefit of having a grievance procedure in an organization. (10)


i. Conflict management
ii. Leads to high productivity
iii. Reduces resistance to change
iv.
Motivation of employees
v.
Communication
vi.
Planning ahead
vii.
Reduces labour turnover
a) Explain the effects of the following in an organization
Positive effects
Dismissal
Advocates for discipline
Ensures productivity
Negative effects
Demotivation
Creates enmity
Breaks down productivity groups
Redundancy
Reduces costs to the organization in the long run
9. Explain recruitment
Is the process of finding/ discovering potential job candidates for actual or anticipated
organization vacancies? Internal or external recruitment.

Advantages of internal recruitment


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

Increase moral
Motivates employees
Confidential companys secret are kept
It is quicker and less costly
Those chosen internally have the knowhow of the orgarnisation
It is more reliable
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vii.

Acts as training device to developing middle and top level managers

Disadvantages of internal recruitment

Promotes stale ideas


Decrease morale
Supervisors may at give recommendation fearing to lose his\her subordinate
Creates nepotism and favouritism

Repercussions of poor induction


i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
vii.

Takes time for the employee to settle


Unnecessary accidents
Indiscipline
Poor communication channel
Exploitation by older employees/ supervisors
Absenteeism and high turnover X ( inefficiency/ efficiency)
Insecurity

4 Analyses the pay structure recommended by N.E.C within the catering industry
5a) Job evaluation. (5)
Relative importance of a job in organisation analysing its value; position, monetary
value and hierarchy.
b) Discuss the uses of a job evaluation in Personnel Management. (15)
Pay structure
Fair compensation in the organization ranking of job in organisations
Achieve both internal and external equity in pay

6. Outline and explain the benefits of manpower planning

Recruitment and selection


Job evaluation
Career planning
Monitor and ratio of manpower to other courses
Basis for training and development product
To find ways of preventing redundancy
Accommodating needed in future e.g. Working spaces.

7. How would you, as a Human Resources Manager assess supply of many powers?

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Undertaking staff audit


Competition for employees from other organizations
Examine turnover of staffs
Level of absenteeism

8. The point method of job evaluation is one of the commonly used systems. Outline the
advantages and disadvantages of this method. (16)

Improved use of personnel

Discuss the major functions of Zimbabwe Occupational Health and Safety Council
(ZOHSC)

Carries out promotions an Safety and Health in the work station


Factory inspections
Do inspections on new industries that they have proper safety and health measures
Carry out inspection on work places and check on compliance
Carries out seminars, workshops targeted for managers and employers reps in
relation to safety
Carries out job analyses in relation to safety.

4a) Explain why employees join trade unions. (10)

Negotiate on employee behalf. (Higher wages and benefit


Improve on work conditions in their work stations.
Improve on employer and employee relationship.
Greater job security
Influence work rules
Compulsory membership

b) Managements of most organizations dislike the formation of trade Unions. (10)

They influence to retaliate against their employers


They influence the in wage increase hence high cost to organization.

With reference to the HRP write short notes on:


1. Quantitative forecasting

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Is the assessment of the number of employees an organization needs in future. It


includes carrying out a census.

Quantitative forecasting

Skills, knowledge, qualifications, the organizations needs in future.

Skills inventory

Special document contain up to date information of qualifications of employees at


work. E.g. personal information, qualifications, personal attributes etc

Auditing

Assessment of manpower from the present to specific period in future. E.g.


promotions; lay off; demotion.

2. Career development

Planning of ones career and implementation of career plans through training,


education, job research.

Career planning

An individual plans ones life. Revaluating abilities and interests examine career
opportunities and set career goals. Plan appropriate developmental activities.

List 4 reasons for establish a career development plan

Employment opportunities
Quality of working life
Competition for high talent personnel
Avoid absence
Retention of employees (reducing labour turnover)

5) Interview errors

Central tendency
Asking leading question
Harshness or lenience
Subjective, race, sex, religion
Candidate assigned
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Interviewer talks too much

QUESTIONS
Explain 10 steps involved in systematic training (20)

Performance evaluation
Identify the training needs
Training techniques
Implementing the training methods; programme
Evaluation of training and feedback i.e. assessment during training
Take convective action
Validate

2. The Management aspect of the HR Manager is identical to every other managers job.
Examine 5 other functions performed by such a management. (20)
Refer on Question 5ab) Njitimans Model Answers.
3. Analyze the purpose of induction and training assesses the reputations of poor or
inadequate induction. (20)
Definition: Induction
Purpose of induction

Unnecessary time consuming in the long run


Reduces idleness
Accident prevention measure
Familiarization with the working environment (company policies and procedures)
Norms and values
Non-financial components luxury office, lunch
Fringe benefits

Discuss any 5 incentive skills used in Zimbabwe by company

Financial- salary
Fringe benefits
Non- financial components luxury office, lunch
Benefit demanded by statutory laws (NSS)
Pay at work

Outline the components of any Integrated Healthy Scheme


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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

Discuss 4 major areas of responsibility of Human Resources Manager

Policy initiation and formulation


Advice - regarding to personal problems
Control - ensures ruled regulations, employee regulation, code of conduct
Service - recruitment and selection, career planning

2. What is a training need?


3. Systematic approach to training

Identify of knowledge and skills required


Identify training needs
Prepare training plans

4) 5 benefits of training

Reduces accidents
Increase production, efficiency
Improved recruitment and selection process
Boost employee moral

Write short notes on the following:


a)
b)
c)
d)

Job description
Job analysis
Job enlargement
Job evaluation job rotation

Outline the steps in the Manpower Planning Cycle


State the benefits of Manpower planning to:
a) Your orgarnisation
b) Individual
Explain the skills required of a good interviewer.
Giving examples. Outline any 3 of the basic faults committed by interviewers.
Give any outline of Herzbergs two factor theory and explain how you would use it in
any organizations. (20)

State and briefly explain the contents of a performance


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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


Appraisal form.

Appraiser/supervisors name
Date / period of approval
Name of the company
Performance period
Rating/evaluation Questions
Section for the agreed targets
Commence of both appraiser and appraise.

Write notes on the following


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Job enlargement
Job enrichment
Job analysis
Merit rating
Benefits

2005
Interview is one of the most important steps in the selection process:
Detain how any organization should prepare to hold any interview. (20)

Draft a job advert for the position of your choice, in cooperating all essential
subheadings and details. (20)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)

For example 1. Name of company


2. Job title
3. Location
4. Qualification
Skills
Attitudes
Job summary etc
Contact, deadline date.

Explain the purpose of job interview


State and explain the role of employer and employees act in accident prevention at
workplaces. (20)

Describe the conditions under which the employee may be refused for compensation for
NSSA

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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


If you havent contributed.
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Injured on duty
Injured whilst not putting on safety clothes
Injury report; recorded
Medical report for proof

b) Explain any Man Power technique that you know.


Discuss any 4 major functions undertaken by HRM and explain any 3 challenges faced by
HR Managers
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Challenge of government policy


Change in level of productivity
Pressure from trade unions
Inability of workers to perform
Resistance to change

Practical 1
Discuss critically how different people and different groups have contributed to the evolution
of the personnel function.
Theory 1
Identify and explain 4 roles of HRM management
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

New organization in place additional


Medical
Benefits
Appraisal
Induction

Practical 2
Recommend an employee benefit programme for the company of your choice. (40)
NB Most or some of the benefits should be derived from your study of the company/
organization.
Give at least 7 such benefits
 Structure of an organization, proof will give marks
THEORY2
Suggest and explain fully at least 10 ways through which you can avoid/ reduce the
prevalence of accidents in the work place. (40)

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