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Authorities recommend foods as a source of calcium in preference to calcium supplements.

Selected Answer: True


The body will signal thirst before dehydration occurs to prevent problems with fluid loss.
Selected Answer: False
Which of the following makes up about 60 percent of the body's weight?
Selected Answer: b.
water
Water assists in:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
The first sign of dehydration is:
Selected Answer: b.
thirst.
Water excretion is regulated by the:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
The recommended source of fluid for healthy U.S. adults is:
Selected Answer: a.
plain drinking water, because it is safe and noncaloric.
Which of the following is the most abundant mineral in the body?
Selected Answer: a.
calcium
The best source of phosphorus is:
Selected Answer: d.
animal protein.

Over half of the body's magnesium is stored in the:


Selected Answer: d.
bones.
The more processed a food:
Selected Answer: b.
the more sodium it contains.
Which of the following foods provides the highest amount of zinc?
Selected Answer: a.
shellfish
Chromium works closely with:
Selected Answer: d.
insulin.
Jennifer says she drinks bottled water because it is safer than tap water. You tell her that
bottled water:
Selected Answer: d.
may be treated tap water.
It is critical for body cells to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance by:
Selected
Answer:

a.
attracting water into the cell through increased electrolyte
concentrations.

Copper is an essential nutrient because of its role in:


Selected Answer: c.
forming hemoglobin and collagen.
Calcium absorption declines in the elderly because:
Selected Answer: e.
b and c

The DRI Committee recommends at least 130 grams of carbohydrate a day.


Selected Answer: True
The set-point theory states that the body's regulatory controls will maintain body weight
over time and resist efforts to lose weight by dieting.
Selected Answer: True
All of the following are risks from being underweight except:
Selected Answer: c.
Higher risk of developing heart disease.
A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates:
Selected Answer: d.
Overweight.
A rule of thumb that has been used in the past but does not apply equally to everyone is
that one pound of body fat is equal to _____ calories.
Selected Answer: b.
3500
Hunger makes itself known roughly _____ hours after eating.
Selected Answer: a.
4-6
The psychological desire to eat is referred to as:
Selected Answer: c.
appetite.
_____ tissue is particularly abundant in enzymes that engage in thermogenesis but don't
accomplish any other work.
Selected Answer: a.
Brown adipose
What is a food desert?
Selected
Answer:

d.

an area where only convenience stores and fast-food restaurants sell


food
Fad diets are successful in the short term because they:
Selected Answer: c.
induce a calorie deficit.
Your weight is currently stable. You have chosen to give up your daily 215-calorie mocha
latte coffee. About how much weight can you expect to lose over 5 years if nothing else
changes?
Selected Answer: c.
21 pounds
The thermic effect of foods eaten can contribute to total energy expended in a day because:
Selected
Answer:

d.
metabolism is stepped up for several hours after a meal in the metabolic
response to food.

A woman weighs 210 pounds and is 65 inches tall. Calculate her BMI.
Selected Answer: c.
35
Which individual's activity had the highest calorie cost?
Selected
Answer:

a.
Sara, who weighs 145 lb and did step aerobics (0.062 cal/lb/min) for 35
minutes

Which of the following foods has the greatest energy density?


Selected Answer: b.
vanilla ice cream that weighs 39 grams and is 155 calories
James is trying to gain weight. Which of the following would you suggest to help James
with his goal?
Selected Answer: a.
Choose milkshakes instead of milk.

You suspect that your new college roommate may have an eating disorder because,
although she seems to have a normal body size, you have heard her frequently vomiting
after a meal, and her tooth enamel is becoming corroded. She also will frequently eat 3
boxes of crackers at one time to relieve stress and will then feel guilty afterwards. These
are most likely symptoms of:
Selected Answer: a.
bulimia nervosa.
The body is able to store unlimited amounts of glycogen in muscles.
Selected Answer: False
Which of the following is not a component of fitness?
Selected Answer: a.
balance
Which of the following enhances flexibility?
Selected Answer: b.
stretching
Characteristics of cardiorespiratory endurance include:
Selected Answer: e.
a and b
As physical activity continues beyond the first few minutes, which of the following flows into
the bloodstream to signal the liver to liberate its stored energy nutrients?
Selected Answer: a.
glucagon
Glycogen storage is:
Selected Answer: a.
limited to less than 2000 calories.
Sports anemia:
Selected Answer: e.
a and c
The first symptom of dehydration (besides thirst) is:

Selected Answer: a.
fatigue.
A benefit of resistance training is that:
Selected Answer: b.
high resistance and few repetitions build strength without bulk.
A benefit of cardiorespiratory endurance training is that:
Selected Answer: b.
the heart muscle grows larger and stronger.
A high school football player is eating enough protein foods in his diet to provide him with
2.5 grams per kg of his body weight. What type of benefit will he get from his high protein
intake?
Selected
Answer:

c.
This exceeds the recommendation for his sport so he should consider trading
carbohydrate for some of the protein.

Calculate the recommended daily protein intake for a female marathon runner weighing 126
pounds.
Selected Answer: c.
69-80 g
Calculate the protein needed by a male runner weighing 152 lb who is training for an
upcoming competition. He participates in sprints and hurdling races.
Selected Answer: c.
83-117 g/day
An advantage for athletes of using sport drinks for fluid replacement is that:
Selected Answer: d.
they have a pleasant taste, which encourages consumption.
The term ergogenic:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
Muscle growth is stimulated by:

Selected Answer: b.
physically demanding activity.

Degenerative conditions are also referred to as chronic diseases.


Selected Answer: True
A deficiency or toxicity of even a single nutrient can weaken the body's defenses
considerably.
Selected Answer: True
Thirty minutes of brisk walking on at least 5 days a week can improve the odds against heart
disease.
Selected Answer: True
Excess calories from carbohydrates, protein, and fat all raise cancer rates.
Selected Answer: True
All men and women experience the same types of symptoms when they are having a heart
attack.
Selected Answer: False
Which of the following must be given careful attention when feeding the person with AIDS?
Selected Answer: b.
food safety
Effects of malnutrition on the body's defense system include:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
Which of the following is not one of the risk factors for CVD?
Selected Answer: a.
high blood HDL
Which of the following raises HDL concentration?
Selected Answer: e.
a and c
To lower LDL cholesterol levels you would tell someone to:

Selected Answer: e.
a and c
An atherogenic diet is characterized as one that is:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
All of the following dietary factors are protective against CVD except:
Selected Answer: d.
a low-carbohydrate diet.
Laboratory studies suggest that diets high in _____ seem to promote cancer.
Selected Answer: a.
calories
Examples of cruciferous vegetables include:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
The best action to take to decrease your risk of cancer is to:
Selected
Answer:

a.
eat a wide variety of vegetables and fruits in generous quantities every
day.

A main difference between a person contracting an infectious disease and a chronic disease
is:
Selected
Answer:

b.
some infectious diseases can be cured with medications but chronic
diseases cannot.

A college student who is on a high-protein weight-loss diet that restricts fruits and vegetables
has just become ill from a viral infection in her intestines. What might have made her more
susceptible than her roommate who is eating regular meals in the cafeteria?
Selected
Answer:

d.
vitamin C deficiency from no fruits and vegetables, which has affected
white blood cell protection

A 58-year-old woman with hypertension and elevated LDL blood levels is complaining that
she suddenly is feeling very tired, dizzy, and weak. What would you advise her to do?
Selected
Answer:

b.
go with you to the emergency room because she may be having a heart
attack

What is the role of plaque formation in the arteries during heart disease development?
Selected Answer: b.
It can narrow passages in arteries and reduce blood flow to the heart.
A 45-year-old man who is overweight and has several family members with heart disease is
concerned about developing it. Which risk factor does he have the ability to improve or
change?
Selected Answer: b.
weight
Jack's physician has placed him on a diet recommended to control his blood cholesterol. In
order to follow this plan Jack would:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
Which of the following would be a good suggestion for making small changes in your diet for
better health?
Selected
Answer:

c.
Instead of a snack of potato chips and sour cream dip eat carrot sticks and
hummus.

Which of the following is a true statement about blood pressure?


Selected
Answer:

a.
When the pressure is at the right level, cells receive nutrients and oxygen
and release their wastes.

Jeff is a 54-year-old male who is 5' 6" tall, weighs 165 pounds, and has hypertension. The
single most effective dietary measure Jeff can take is to:
Selected Answer: b.
reduce his weight.

Your uncle is considering taking an herbal medicine to control his hypertension after seeing
an add for a product on the Internet. What would you tell him?
Selected
Answer:

a.
Check to see if the herbs in the product have interactions with any drugs
you are taking.

The role of inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis includes:


Selected
Answer:

d.
white blood cells being sent to the site by the immune system to try to
repair the damage.

The technique that allows identification of inherited disease tendencies by comparing patterns
of gene expression is known as:
Selected Answer: d.
DNA microarray technology.
The epigenome on the DNA strand:
Selected Answer: b.
regulates the expression of genes by turning them on or off.
Heart disease in women is characterized by:
Selected Answer: b.
development at a later age than in men.
Which of the following holds the key to maintaining the best possible immune system
support?
Selected Answer: a.
adequate nutrition

Current evidence indicates that moderate intakes of nonnutritive sweeteners pose no health
risks.
Selected Answer: True
Water-soluble vitamins and minerals are affected by canning.
Selected Answer: False
The difference between foodborne infection and foodborne intoxication is that:
Selected Answer: a.
foodborne intoxication results from chemicals produced by microbes.
Which of the following should not be used to thaw frozen meats?
Selected Answer: e.
b and c
After cooking, foods should be held at _____ degrees F or higher until served.
Selected Answer: d.
140
The word organic on the label is no guarantee that a food is:
Selected Answer: d.
completely pesticide-free.
Which of the following is not intentionally used in or on foods?
Selected Answer: b.
contaminants
Which of the following statements is true concerning the GRAS list?
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
Which of the following synthetic sweeteners should not be consumed by individuals with
phenylketonuria?
Selected Answer: b.
aspartame

A processing technique that preserves food by boiling it and sealing it in an impervious


container is called:
Selected Answer: c.
canning.
The extruding process is based on:
Selected Answer: e.
b and c
Frozen foods' nutrient content is similar to that of:
Selected Answer: c.
fresh foods.
Results of commercial drying of foods include:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
The proper way to wash hands when handling foods is to:
Selected Answer: d.
wash hands with soap and warm water for 15 seconds.
To minimize the loss of water-soluble vitamins from vegetables you would:
Selected Answer: e.
a and c
A low-birthweight baby is nearly 40 times more likely to die in the first year of life than is a
normal-weight baby.
Selected Answer: True
A low-birthweight baby is defined as one who weighs less than 5 1/2 pounds.
Selected Answer: True
Which of the following is the single most potent indicator of an infant's future health status?
Selected Answer: c.
infant's birthweight

Malnutrition in the mother early in pregnancy affects the baby's:


Selected Answer: d.
a and b
During the second trimester of pregnancy, a daily increase of _____ calories above the
allowance for nonpregnant women is recommended.
Selected Answer: b.
340
The pregnant woman's greater need for folate is due to:
Selected Answer: e.
a and c
A pregnancy weight gain of _____ pounds is recommended for women who are at their
appropriate weights.
Selected Answer: b.
25-35
A woman who craves nonnutritious substances during pregnancy:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
The nausea of morning sickness:
Selected Answer: e.
a and c
Constipation during pregnancy should be relieved by:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
To prevent heartburn during pregnancy you would recommend:
Selected Answer: e.
b and c
A nursing mother produces about _____ ounces of milk a day.

Selected Answer: d.
25
Exclusively breastfed babies need supplements of _____, but formula-fed babies do not.
Selected Answer: b.
vitamin D
Which of the following is characteristic of colostrum?
Selected Answer: e.
a and b
A woman has gained 30 pounds in her first two months of pregnancy and has been diagnosed
with gestational diabetes. What should she know about her health risks from this condition?
Selected Answer: d.
This condition usually goes away after the baby is born.
Billy is a 6-month-old infant. Which of the following foods should Billy consume?
Selected Answer: a.
pureed vegetables
Many children prefer sweet fruits and mild-flavored vegetables served raw or undercooked.
Selected Answer: True
The consequences of foodborne illnesses in older adults can be more severe than in younger
adults.
Selected Answer: True
People taking two or more drugs at the same time are more vulnerable to nutrient-drug
interactions.
Selected Answer: True
A child's appetite fluctuates after the age of:
Selected Answer: a.
one year.
The life-threatening food allergy reaction of anaphylactic shock is most often caused by:

Selected Answer: b.
peanuts, milk, and shellfish.
School lunches are designed to provide at least _____ of the recommended intake for certain
nutrients.
Selected Answer: b.
one-third
Older adults should:
Selected Answer: d.
a and b
Absorption of _____ appears to increase with aging.
Selected Answer: d.
vitamin A
Older adults should drink at least _____ cups of fluid a day to provide needed water.
Selected Answer: a.
9-13
At mealtimes the best way to be sure children are receiving adequate nutrition from the foods
they eat is to:
Selected
Answer:

b.
allow them to select from nutritious foods you have prepared for the
family.

Is lead poisoning still a problem for young children?


Selected
Answer:

c.
yes, because there are still children with deficiencies of the vitamins and
minerals that reduce absorption

Lois is a 65-year-old female who participates in an exercise class at least three times a week.
In addition, she drinks six glasses of water each day and consumes a lot of fresh fruits and
vegetables and whole-grain breads and cereals. Lois has high blood pressure, takes
medication for her hypertension, and experiences constipation frequently. Which of the
following is the most likely cause of her constipation?
Selected Answer: a.

medications
As older people reduce their physical activity, their lean tissue diminishes, resulting in
sarcopenia, an age-related loss of muscle tissue.
Selected Answer: True
Adolescents who frequently eat meals with their families eat more fruits, vegetables, grains,
and calcium-rich foods and drink fewer soft drinks than those who seldom eat with their
families.
Selected Answer: True
Ways to prevent a child from choking include:
Selected Answer: e.
b and c
The effect of physical activity for the elderly is to:
Selected Answer: c.
reduce development of the "dwindles."
What is the most important nutrition concern for the person with Alzheimer's disease?
Selected Answer: a.
prevention of weight loss
Joe is a 15-year-old active male. However, his parents are concerned that Joe is not growing
properly. To assess his growth, Joe's parents should:
Selected Answer: b.
compare his height and weight with previous measures taken at intervals.
Which of the following can interfere with the absorption of certain antibiotics?
Selected Answer: e.
a and c