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CONNECTIVES

1. AND-TYPE CONNECTIVES- are similar in


meaning with the conjunction and
Connectives of listing:
FIRSTLY, FINALLY, ABOVE ALL, LAST BUT NOT
LEAST
ALSO,
FURTHERMORE,
MOREOVER,
IN
ADDITION,LIKEWISE, SIMILARLY, IN THE SAME
WAY

Connectives of transition:
WITH REFERENCE TO, WITH REGARD TO, WITH
RESPECT TO, REGARDING, AS FOR.

Connectives of summation:
TO CONCLUDE, TO SUM
THEREFORE, IN SUMMATION

UP,

IN

BRIEF,

Connectives of apposition:
THAT IS TO SAY, VIZ ( =NAMELY), IN OTHER
WORDS, RATHER.

Connectives of result:
SO,
THEREFORE,
AS
CONSEQUENTLY, THUS, HENCE

RESULT,

Connectives of reference:
THEN, IN OTHER WORDS, THAT IMPLIES, ELSE,
IN THAT CASE.

2. OR TYPE CONNECTIVES-are similar in


meaning with the conjunction or
Connectives of reformulation:
BETTER, RATHER, IN OTHER WORDS, TO PUT
IT MORE SIMPLY

Connectives of replacement
ALTERNATIVELY, RATHER, BETTER WORSE, ON
THE OTHER HAND.

3. BUT TYPE CONNECTIVES-are similar in


meaning with the conjunction but

Connectives of contrast:
INSTEAD, ON THE CONTRARY, BY (WAY) OF
CONTRAST, IN COMPARISON, ON THE ONE HAND,
ON THE OTHER HAND, CONVERSELY.

Connectives of concession:

BESIDES, HOWEVER, NEVERTHELESS, STILL,


ALTHOUGH , THOUGH, YET, IN ANY CASE, AT ANY
RATE, FOR ALL THAT, IN SPITE OF/ DESPITE OF,
ALL THE SAME, EVEN IF, EVEN THOUGH

EXEMPLIFICATION
FOR EXAMPLE
SUCH AS
FOR INSTANCE
X IS A CASE IN POINT
AN EXAMPLE IS/MAY BE/BEING

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST


SIMILARITIES: BOTH X AND Y HAVE/ ARE
X AND Y ARE SIMILAR/ ALIKE IN THAT
THEY BOTH
X IS SIMILAR TO Y IN THAT
X IS SIMILAR TO Y IN
X AND Y BOTH.. THE SAME KIND
OF.
X LIKE Y..
X IS. SO/ TOO IS Y.
DISSIMILARITIES: A AND B ARE DISSIMILAR IN THAT A
HAS MUCH SMALLER.THAN B
A IS DIFFERENT FROM B IN THAT..
A IS. WHEREAS / WHILE B IS.
WITH REGARD TO..A IS..THAN B.
ON THE ONE HAND A IS/ HAS. ON
THE OTHER HAND B IS/ HAS.
THE MAIN DIFFERENCE/ ONE OF
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN A AND B IS THAT..

ARGUMENT

INTRODUCING A POINT OF VIEW: PROS


o THE FIRST THING TO BE CONSIDERED IS THAT.
o IT IS A FACT THAT.
o I BELIEVE WITH X THAT.
o YHE POINT TO BE MADE CLEAR IS THAT.
INTRODUCING CONS
o I DISAGREE WITH X WHO MAINTAINS THAT
o BUT-TYPE CONNECTIVES
STYLISTIC INVERSION
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCES
ON NO ACCOUNT

SELDOM DID.
NEITHER DID
LITTLE DID SHE/HE+ VERB.
NEVER DID
NO SOONER.. THAT
HARDLY WHEN
NOT ONLY BUT ALSO.
DRAWING CONCLUSIONS:
SUMMARISING IN SHORT
- IN BRIEF
- IN A WORD
- TO SUM UP
CONCLUDING IN CONCLUSION
- ON THE WHOLE
- ALTOGETHER
- IN ALL
IT IS GENERALLY/ WIDELY ACCPTED/ ARGUED/
HELD/BELIEVED THAT.
THEREFORE/THUS/ON THIS BASIS/ GIVEN THIS IT
CAN/
MAY
BE
CONCLUDED/DEDUCED/INFERRED
THAT.
FROM
TABLE
1
/THE
TABLE/FIGURES/DATA/RESULTS/INFORMATION
IT
CAN/MAY
BE
DEDUCED/SEEN/
CONCLUDED/SHOWN/ESTIMATED/
CALCULATED/
INFERED THAT
IN CONCLUSION/ FINALLY WE CAN/ MAY SAY/BE SAID
THAT

CAUSE AND EFFECT


THE CAUSE/ EFFECT/ CONSEQUENCE/ RESULT/ REASON
FOR/WHY (+CLAUSE) OF.IS
CAUSE
THEREFORE/SO
/
AS
A
RESULT/
AS
A
CONSEQUENCE/ACCORDINGLY/THUS/HENCE/
FOR
THIS
REASON EFFECT
BECAUSE OF THIS
BECAUSE/AS /SINCE/NOW THAT.
CAUSE
CAUSATIVE
VERB
EFFECT
= TO CAUSE/RESULT IN /LEAD TO/ PRODUCE/
BRING ABOUT
EFFECT BECAUSE OF/AS A RESULT OF/ ON ACCOUNT OF/
OWING TO/ DUE TO
IF CLAUSE
THEN MAIN CLAUSE

Essay writing:
introduction

TO BEGIN WITH

development
WITH REFERENCE TO
IN THE SAME WAY
IN OTHER WORDS
THAT IMPLIES
TO PUT IT MORE SIMPLY
ON THE OTHER HAND
IN COMPARISON
BESIDES

conclusion

TO CONCLUDE
TO SUM UP

THE FORMAL STYLE


Contracted verbal forms are to be avoided
Familiar language should be replaced by formal
vocabulary
FORMAL
IN FORMAL
SIMPLE VERBS

PHRASAL VERBS

CONDUCT
DISCOVER
INVESTIGATE

CARRY OUT
FIND OUT
LOOK INTO

Impersonality is recommended. It may be achieved


by using:
Introductory it
There is type of predicates
Impersonal one
The passive voice
Tentativeness and caution are recommended. It
should be achieved like this:
Basic meaning

verbs

adverb

s
1. not
definitely to appear to, to apparently,
true
seem to
seemingly
2. not
definitely to tend to, to be ( very) probably
certain
likely to, may well
3. possible
might, may, could, maybe,
can
perhaps,

possibly

CLASIFICATION
TO
TO
TO
TO
TO

CLASSIFY
GROUP
DIVIDE
ORGANIZE
FALL INTO= TO CLASSIFY YOURSELF INTO

VOCABULARY

CRITERION/CRITERIA
BASIS/ BASES
FEATURES
CHARACTERISTICS
TO CATEGORISE
TO ARRANGE
TO PUT INTO
TO PLACE IN
TO DISTINGUISH
TO DIFFERENTIATE
TO SUB-CLASSIFY
TO SUB-CATEGORISE
TO SUB-GROUP
TO SUB-DIVIDE
CATEGORIES, SUB-CATEGORIES
SORTS
SPECIES
BREEDS
ORDERS
DIVISIONS
FAMILIES
MEMBERS
CLASSES, SUB-CLASSES
GROUPS, SUB-GROUPS
TYPES , SUB-ORDER
KINDS, SUB-DIVISIONS
X CONSISTS OF/ COMPRISESACCORDING TO.
WHETHER OR NOT.THERE IS X.
WHETHER THERE IS X OR NOT.
X MAY BE CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO/ON THE
DEPENDING (UP)ON
THE CLASSIFICATION IS BASED (UP)ON
. MAY BE DIVIDED.
..MAY BE FURTHER SUB-DIVIDED.

BASIS

OF/